Water, Vitamins, Minerals And Dietary Needs For Goats A Simple Guide (Goat Knowledge Book 11)
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Weaver presents an interesting and detailed history of goats full descriptions of in Backyard Farming: Raising Goats is the ideal resource for the new farmer just starting out, providing a comprehensive guide for preparing and caring for the addition of goats to your backyard farm! Learning the importance of fresh clean water to goats is vital. This helpful and simple guide explains the benefits and also what vitamins and minerals goats need.
This is another useful guide in the Whether you want to raise a dairy barn full of milkers one hundred meat goats for market a herd of Angoras for mohair fiber or a few Pygmies as pets this book is for you. In this revised second This is the complete beginner's guide to raising goats at home. Whether you want to raise goats for their milk and fiber or keep them as pets or companion animals, this book covers all the essential Format: Standard Wall Size Closed: The following content was provided by the publisher.
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Explains the how-to and ben Goats are easy to care for and a low-investment choice for anyone wishing to live out rural dreams or add to an existing stable. The Joy of K In our study, the highest content of ALA in cheese from goats fed with V. The health-promoting index was calculated in order to have an immediate view of the bioactive compounds present in the cheese [ 41 ].
The HPI observed in other cheeses is still higher compared to those found in milk from animals fed with dry fodder see Section 2. Comparison of health-promoting index HPI of Caciotta cheese made from milk of goats fed ad libitum with a single forage species modified from Refs. Measuring the total antioxidant capacity of milk and cheese helps to understand the relationships between the bioactive compounds present in milk and their ability to protect the substrate. Antioxidant activity can be enhanced by providing food as a source of antioxidant components [ 16 ].
The high value of total phenolic concentration with added nutritional and sensory values, without changing properties of the cheeses itself, was observed in cheeses made from goats fed with non-distilled thyme leaves, one of the aromatic plants widespread in the Mediterranean area [ 50 ]. The influence of high-polyphenol diet on cheese total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity has been reported by Ref.
They found higher level of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in cheese produced with milk from grazing goats, with a rich content of secondary metabolites, in comparison with cheese from goats kept in full indoor confinement and fed with Lucerne hay and concentrate. Grazing management represents a better option than indoor feeding to produce a healthy profile of bioactive compounds, providing an increase of total polyphenol, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoid concentrations.
Among forages, legumes are a rich source of polyphenols; large variability occurs among species; some ancient crops like common vetch V. Another important class of antioxidant compounds in legumes is represented by carotenoids and tocopherols; as many other compounds, their concentration is influenced by leaf proportion.
In forages, however, the complex mechanisms of interaction between pro- and antioxidant compounds must be taken into account [ 55 ]. In early summer, goats graze mainly on forbs, some of which are used as medical plants by human. In order to highlight a relationship between non-volatile phenolic compounds in plant species and the same class of metabolites in milk or cheese, Ref. A control group was fed ad libitum with natural hay and concentrate.
Milk sample 1 L was lyophilised and then extracted, fractionated and purified as described for plant sample. Compound identification was also confirmed, when possible, by HPLC analyses with reference to the retention times of standards Sigma-Aldrich Co. Metabolites found in plant of Borago officinalis and Crataegus oxyacantha. Plant extract with methanol a and chloroform b modified from Ref. Plant metabolites found in milk from goats fed with Borago officinalis and Crataegus oxyacantha. Milk extract with methanol a and chloroform b modified from Ref.
The authors found a relationship between the antioxidant intake from borage and hawthorn and the levels of antioxidant metabolites in milk, flavonoids and terpenoids contained in these herbs that were found in milk. Quercetin and rutin were excreted in part without modification, while other compounds were structurally modified.
No metabolite has been found in the control group milk. The different solvents, methanol or chloroform, used in the complex method of extraction for the plant material and milk have generated great differences in the recovered metabolites. For the purpose of a useful comparison of results from different experiments, the standardization of extraction methods appears to be desirable. This study demonstrates that the presence of phenolic compounds in milk depends on the animal feed. The wild species or aromatic plants in the pasture are less present in quantity than forage species.
As forages represent a high proportion of ruminant diet, in order to observe the link between phenolic content of forage species and phenolic content of milk, whey and cheese, Ref.
After 10 days of adaptation and 3 days of experiment and sample collection, phenolic compounds were extracted from herbage, milk, whey and cheeses by methods appropriate to the substrate and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC-DAD. Ten Siriana goats were fed indoor with A. In these 3 days, herbage the part of plant effectively ingested was daily collected, freeze-dried and ball milled.
Cheese was homogenised and centrifuged, and the supernatant was used for phenolic extraction as described for milk. The UV spectra were compared to those of standard compounds and classified into simple phenol, benzoic acid derivatives, cinnamic acid derivative and flavones groups. The A. Phenolic compounds in Avena sativa forage and milk, whey and cheese from goats fed with fresh Avena sativa in pureness. In cheese, although the largest amount of phenolic compounds was still by benzoic acid derivatives, there was a greater number of simple phenols and one of the indole derivatives found in milk.
These preliminary results have allowed us to get an overview of the transfer of the plant metabolites directly or processed or degraded in the digestive tract, to the product. However, quantitative studies would be desirable to measure the partition of phenolic compounds in serum and cheese.
In goat feeding, forage plants such as grasses and legumes have an essential role, since they represent a high proportion of diet. Forages commonly used in Mediterranean area can be a natural source of bioactive compounds that can be transferred to animal products. In order to evaluate and compare the potential contribution of some grass and legume species, to increase the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in milk, Refs.
The single forage was cut daily and given ad libitum indoor. After an adaptation period, forage samples and milk samples of each group were collected and analysed for polyphenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity.
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Folin-Ciocalteu method as described by Ref. Contents were expressed as gallic acid equivalents GAE. Milk conjugate polyphenol content was obtained by difference between milk total and free polyphenol contents. Among forages, T. Comparison of total polyphenol intake a from goats fed ad libitum with a single species, in pureness, given fresh and milk total polyphenol content b from goats fed with the same forage species modified from Ref. Comparison of total antioxidant capacity TAC in milk from goats fed ad libitum with a single species in pureness, given fresh modified from Ref.
As polyphenolic beneficial compounds occur largely in forages, it could be assumed their possible relationships and their transfer from diet, through some biotransformations or, as such, to milk according to De Feo et al. Among plant species that are used in ruminant feed in the Mediterranean area, Sulla Sulla coronarium L. This legume forage has widespread availability in Mediterranean areas, where it is greatly appreciated for the positive effects of its nutrient and CT contents on milk yield and composition, as demonstrated in both sheep and goats [ 58 , 59 ].
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Methods for milk total polyphenols and milk TAC assays are given in Section 2. Milk total polyphenol content seems closely related to its antioxidant activity. This fresh forage exerts antioxidant capacity due to its secondary compounds, which provide additional value in terms of oxidative status, and Sulla fresh forage seems to be a promising strategy for improving product quality.
Daily intake of polyphenol compounds, milk content and total antioxidant capacity according to feeding regimen [ 60 ]. In this case study, Ref. Milk and cheese samples from ten feeding systems as grazing, grazing plus different types of supplement and indoor and zero grazing were studied to identify a tracing parameter correlated to the feeding system.
This tracing parameter was calculated as molar ratio between antioxidant compounds and a selected oxidation target. This index allows an evaluation of milk and cheese resistance to oxidative reactions, the main determinants of food quality and functionality for human nutrition. These results show that cholesterol was highly protected against oxidative reactions when herbage was the only feed or was dominant in the goat diet. The DAP index equal to 7.
The reliability of DAP to measure the antioxidant protection of cholesterol appeared more effective when the feeding system was based on grazing than when cut herbage or zero grazing was utilised indoors by animals. Besides the feeding system, the breed plays a fundamental role in affecting the nutritional profile of goat milk and cheese.
The breed may be considered the result of the adaptation of a species to a given environment, basically in order to go over the climate and feeding and water resource limits that might affect the reproduction and kidding.
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The goats are present in high mountains as far as in the internal lands and coastal regions; they are reared in technological farms but also in extensive, grazing systems in the Mediterranean area, an environment characterised by high variability, that was able to select very different breeds [ 62 ]. The so-called native breed has become able to optimise the resources in terms of water and feedstuff [ 63 ].
The differences are both in micro and macronutrients, and they are affected by the environment directly or indirectly. In the first case, we can say that different breed means different feeding behaviour and thus milk yield and quality, since it is well known that feeding largely affects the milk composition [ 64 ]. Moreover, the genetic polymorphism may affect the milk features. Within the same breed, in the same environment and diet, it is expectable to have very similar performances. Contrarily, especially for goat, significant differences have been found for quality but also quantity parameters.
Several goat breeds have been characterised for this variability: the Vallesana, Roccaverano, Jonica, Garganica and Maltese breeds [ 68 ] and Alpine breed [ 69 ]. The findings have let to explain the differences in milk composition between the two genotype groups by the greater nitrogen and energy utilisation of HG vs. LG goats [ 70 ].
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Moreover, the interaction genotype x feeding system was studied e. The breed effect on milk oligosaccharide OS composition, and in particular sialyloligosaccharide SOS content, is scarcely studied. Evenly, the effect of interaction of breed x feeding is scarcely studied. Some speculations can be made whether optimizing production, rheological properties, and bioactive profile and content may be feasible with feeding management modulated in terms of energy and protein supply depending upon genotype.
The following three case studies are presented, in order to partially cover this gap on Mediterranean goats. The SOSs were isolated from individual colostrum and milk samples obtained in five periods at kidding, 24 h, 7 days, 30 days and 90 days after delivery. The supernatant was removed and centrifuged again. The second supernatant was filtered with a 0. Elution was monitored by pulsed amperometric detection Dionex ED40 and the gradient controlled by a Varian ProStar pump system. Data were collected and analysed by Star Chromatography Workstation 6.
The results showed a significant effect of breed and sampling time on SOS content. The content of the three SOSs was higher than values found by Ref. The results may be considered under a genetic point of view. In a previous study, Ref. So, Claps et al. The Mediterranean Red goat was characterised for the content of three SOSs considering the polymorphism at locus CSN1S1 and its interaction with feeding regimen [ 77 ]. Effect of genotype a and diet b on three sialyloligosaccharides in Mediterranean Red goat milk adapted from Ref.
This result might be related to the reduction of the expression of genes involved in the milk synthesis after a prolonged fasting [ 78 ]. Similarly, in human milk a decrease of OS was found in milk from undernourished women [ 11 ]. These results demonstrated that there is a different efficiency in diet utilisation and response in synthesis of metabolites such as oligosaccharides, depending on the genotype. Consequently, in systems that use selected animals, the diet may be formulated taking into account the genotype, in order to achieve certain qualitative profile of goat milk and increase the efficiency in feeding management.
The management options considered hereby are mainly conceived for Mediterranean extensive and semi-intensive goat production systems but can easily lend themselves to other ruminant and non-ruminant production systems. This analysis can help farmers to improve milk nutraceutical composition in a sustainable and low-cost way by partially replacing expensive commercial concentrate with farm-grown forages and natural pasture grazing. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Sadashiv S.