Merkmale und Lebensweise des Ordens der Franziskaner (German Edition)
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Aus Weihe- und Ablassurkunden ist demnach oft zu entnehmen, ob sich eine Kirche oder Kapelle zum Zeitpunkt der Weihe noch in Bau befand oder bereits baulich vollendet war und nur mehr ausgestattet werden musste. Diese Daten wurden in der Literatur allgemein als Zeitpunkte der Vollendung angesehen. Friedrich Rennhofer legte die Geschichte des Wiener Augustinerklosters vor dar, die hier daher nur skizzenhaft wiedergegeben wird. April verkauften "Wir prueder herman zu den zeiten prior und der convent gemain sand Augustins orden ze Wienn" einen Weinberg, 14 und in der Abschrift einer Urkunde vom 7.
Die im Denn schon am Vergleicht man diese Entwicklung mit anderen Augustiner-Konventen im deutschsprachigen Raum, so sind erstaunliche Parallelen feststellbar, die von Susanne Fritsch aufgearbeitet worden sind. Offenbar reichte der Grund jedoch bei weitem nicht zur Errichtung der gesamten Kirche: erfolgte der Erwerb einer benachbarten Badstube Abb.
Jahrhundert also dicht verbaut. Dass der Prior Hermann, wie Franz Rennhofer behauptete, schon am Januar , dessen Gelder "zu dem chor und zu dem werich" herangezogen werden sollten, 39 womit von Beginn an ein umfassendes und einheitliches Baukonzept mit Langhaus und Chor belegt ist. Beide "Thesen" entstammen einer apokryphen Meistertafel der Wiener Steinmetzinnung, die in einer Abschrift des Die Stelle, " Ist das Augustiner Closter so wohl auch ao. Jahrhundert frei erfunden, 42 erst die Angaben zum Ob damit ein Querhaus angedeutet werden sollte, ist mit dieser optisch kaum nachvollziehbaren Erweiterung eher unwahrscheinlich.
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Da die Kirche im Bundesdenkmalamt, Wien, Inv. N Rechtes Seitenschiff: 1. Blattwerk; 3. Blattwerk mit Maske; 5. Blattwerk; 6. Lamm Gottes. Mittelschiff: 1. Blattwerk mit Schneckenform; 2. Augustinus; 6. Christus mit Hostie und Buch. I would like to put this to the test by examining some epistemic evidence. The best way to proceed is to take a little tour through our exhibition. Immediately after entering we find ourselves in an elegant foyer with pointed arches and 3 4 5 6 7.
Benjamin Ganim Yet this is a mere prelude to the monumental entrance hall designed by the Munich architect Ernst Fiechter fig. Even though individual motifs were clearly inspired by monuments from Ardabil or Isfahan, 8 the design is not a verbatim citation of a specific historical example.
The ornamentation even bears allusions to contemporary secessionist aesthetics. So what effect does it have on the exhibited objects? For the local prehistory of this discovery and the role of crown prince Rupprecht, see Troelenberg Starting from this point, the visitor would be offered a route that followed vaguely chronological and regional patterns fig.
However these categories were very broadly outlined, with a significant blurring of their borders and commingling of objects. Halfway through the exhibition, we will see another example of architectural citation lacking precise historicism. The interior design of the so-called mosque fig. When the carpets were finally laid out on the floor, there could be no other result than to evoke the atmosphere of a mosque. Again, clear spatial and temporal indications are absent. The carpets on display originated from nearly every period and. Larger parts of the exhibition, which altogether encompassed 80 rooms, followed this formula in an even more moderate fashion.
Take as examples rooms 62 and 65 figs. The few pictures we have were taken before the installation of the exhibits was completed, but we can already see the show10 Munich , pp. Only one of them would later be included in the large illustrated three-volume-folio. On the whole, a universal style was created as a background for the exhibits.
This presentation permitted a rather flexible handling of the exhibits; successive editions of the small catalogue accompanying the exhibition reveal major rearrangements of whole groups of objects while the show was open. At first glance this evidence seems to fit quite well with our a priori claims. As we continue, even more questions arise. If we take a look at Room 72 fig. The space however is filled with arms, armour and war trophies from Persia and Turkey fig. The exhibits are arranged as if in a war museum.
The parallels are obvious: cannons jacked up on massive wooden stands, mannequins in armour, a collection of standards, the hanging of monumental flags. It is not merely a question of the artistic quality of individual items, but rather an explicit emphasis on war.
A further example suffices to illustrate this point: Room 12, where the famous Sternenmantel star cloak from Bamberg was exhibited alongside examples of Persian textiles from the Danzig vestment treasury. It can hardly be pure coincidence that these pieces—originally Islamic fabrics turned into liturgical vestments, and thus bearing a long and explicitly Christian provenance— were exhibited in a room with such heavy woodwork, and remained half-hidden in their cases as if in sacristy lockers fig. While the connotation may be less explicit than the painting of the battle of Lepanto, this room and its exhibits also alluded to a particular aspect of the historical encounters between Western and Islamic cultures.
There is indeed history within. Does this mean the exhibition could only partly fulfil its claims and that every obvious historical association is a testament to its incoherence? Or is there a way to reconcile these two readings of a single exhibition? Perhaps the historical subtext within the exhibition was recourse to avoid this precarious association while permitting a connection to methods of contemporary art history [Kunstgeschichte], a discipline still essentially based on positivist historical thinking despite the then-emerging zeitgeist and its unhistorical claims.
At the same time the connection to Western cultural history was established at a very conscious level. Though this limited the very autonomy of Islamic art, it was perhaps regarded as a means of revaluation. From this point of view, there are two legitimate ways to define the object: as pure exhibit or as an instrument.
As an instrument, the object would serve as a representation of a particular historical situation and a method of heightening appreciation for Islamic art. The historical dimension is nevertheless an undeniable feature of any object.
I think Sarre and his collaborators were well aware of this. Very few mainstream art historians reacted at all, while Orientalist responses were rather vehement. Though Karabacek generally expressed a strong affinity for decidedly art historical questions, he was quite hard on Sarre and the exhibition. His study on Riza Abbasi served as a vehicle for his criticism. Karabacek believed classical philology should serve as the fundamental methodology, calling for an exhaustive study of written sources and inscriptions that goes beyond the purview of art historians. More than rudimentary language skills, he appealed for an extended philological Sarre, on the contrary, began with the individual object, the pure exhibit.
Hugo Grothe took a slightly different approach but his critique was no less pronounced. But while Karabacek found the answer to this problem in philological work, Grothe criticized the utter neglect of ethnographic details in the show. The concept of the pure piece of art, the exhibit without history, it seems, was difficult to convey. His text reveals just how effectively van Berchem navigated the delicate balancing act between art history and philology.
He did not bother with issues of exclusive methodologies; these objects were unquestionably independent pieces of art and at the same time testimonies of history. But for art history they are indispensable, first as documents for the local and chronological identification of the works on which they are applied; and then Sarre and Martin In addition, a fourth volume with even more pictures from the photo campaign was released—it contained only an index and short picture captions, but no further text nor an imprint.
Its circulation was probably quite low, as the pictures were laboriously put into slip mounts one by one—so this fourth volume was most likely an unofficial addendum to the publication. Bibliographie M v. Berchem no. Some of the exhibits became vital objects both in the study of cultural history and as inspiration for artistic trends. The section drew its images from the photo campaign organized during the exhibition by Sarre, who chose the most important objects—in all several hundred—and the manner in which they would be photographed. These pictures were sold in the exhibition24 and were provided for reviews and articles in The diffusion of images from the exhibit was therefore immediate and particularly effective.
Max van Berchem in: Sarre and Martin , vol. The catalogue featured a selection of photographic plates, an unprecedented set of high-quality reproductions of Islamic art. While the catalogue remained quite clearly associated with the exhibition, Sarre also imagined it as an autonomous, comprehensive compendium. It would follow some of the formal principles tested in his Erzeugnisse islamischer Kunst but place greater emphasis on the provenance and aesthetic value of individual objects. The catalogue addressed some of the problems with the exhibition through modification or even omission.
Categories of a marginal or documentary nature in —jewellery, European depictions 27 28 29 30 Sarre, introductory note, in: Sarre and Martin , vol. Sarre Sarre , vol. I, pp. II, p. Migeon and Saladin The remaining categories—miniatures and arts of the book, carpets, ceramics, metalwork, glass and rock-crystal, textiles, arms and armour, wood and ivory—were pared down to the most interesting exhibits, creating a condensed, representative core of the exhibition.
It is clear that more than merely satisfying the demands for greater historical, ethnographic or documentary contextualisation, they wished to confirm their fidelity to Kunstwissenschaft by associating themselves with its latest methodological trends. As a consequence, the catalogue concentrated on a selection of first-class works and in a manner more formal than the exhibition. The visual presentation of these works and their relationship to the text deserves a closer look.
The large format of the publication 40 x 50 cm permitted a particularly prominent setting of the plates separate from the introductory texts. In the case of carpets and arts of the book, objects often appear one per page; in the sections on threedimensional exhibits, two, three or sometimes even more pieces were combined on one page for the purposes of comparative study. Every picture is accompanied by a short descriptive catalogue entry on the opposite page, so the reader—or rather beholder—has all the basic information at a glance fig.
A broad white margin separates the text to allow an undisturbed contemplation of the pure object. The pictures would work just as well without this information as the reader would be more focussed on appreciating the aesthetic qualities of the individual piece.
The reception of the pieces was of course strongly conditioned by the technical qualities of photographic reproduction. No other medium would have been able to cope with such a large number of objects within the given timeframe; the comprehensive and representative conservation of the exhibition would hardly have been possible in any other fashion. Only by means of photography could the cata-. For vessels with interior and exterior decoration—caskets with several features or chandeliers with circular inscriptions—it was simply impossible to establish a single angle of view.
Some of the plates reflect a general appreciation of this problem; for example, the photographs of the Arenberg Basin, shot and published from three different perspectives, do justice to the ornamental and iconographic complexity of the work. On the whole the publication is dominated by images in black and white, standard for art history textbooks at the time.
Undoubtedly, some of the carpets, manuscripts and textiles in the Munich catalogue would have profited from colour reproduction, but the black and white aesthetic did have its advantages. They dealt with the principles of Islamic ornament, and their motivation was didactic in nature and primarily addressed to the applied arts. Objects often appeared merely as carriers or case studies of decorative solutions. The black and white format was an effective method of distancing the catalogue from such an approach, highlighting the plastic qualities of the object as a whole while playing down the decorative aspects.
Malraux Sarre and Martin , plates Even high-quality colour reproductions were possible, but required the use of several plates and thus resulted in high production costs. Neutral backgrounds were another basic feature of the visual language. Typically, the objects were laid against a white background, in some cases gray, and when the object demanded it, as with glass or crystal pieces, black.
Retouching was clearly utilized to blur out visually disruptive elements. The comparison is striking when viewing some of the pictures not chosen for the three official volumes. While the wooden scaffolds supporting carpets or textiles fig. Ultimately, the tight framing of an isolated single object became the leitmotif of the catalogue. This visual language had distanced itself greatly from all decorative or picturesque concepts.
The genuinely monumental effect fig. But these observances cannot only remain limited to formal aspects. Here lies the radical 36 The traditional cult value of the artwork is finally displaced by its current exhibition value. The object descriptions and introductory texts appear as complementary features, offering formal and historical information, mediating between the individual object and a general narrative of Islamic art. These texts were necessary to define the approach, to reach beyond the scope of a simple sourcebook. But the isolated image, which would work just as well without a text, was needed to establish the objects as pure artworks.
Both aspects together define the status of the study of Islamic art that was achieved with the Munich exhibition. Generally, objects of minor art now started to appear on an equal footing with the architecture that had traditionally dominated the image of Islamic art in 19th-century textbooks. In the s, the new technical possibilities of offset printing meant an incredible acceleration of generously illustrated, high-circulation art historical book series. The achievements of the catalogue proved to be a convenient and invaluable legacy for his task.
Consequently, Diez adopted the object descriptions as well. These descriptions, he argued, were written by specialized scholars contemplating the original objects and thus still valid, but their publication in the volumes had hardly made them accessible to the general public. He 38 39 40 During the following decades, the picture canon established in Munich would circulate to a growing number of publications. New findings, revelations and collections would appear and contribute to a diffusion of a general canon of Islamic art, and ultimately new reproduction techniques would make the templates of the photo campaign obsolete.
Interestingly, these concepts, still in their infancy at the time of the exhibition, found unexpected allies in contemporary artists and thinkers. When Kandinsky and Matisse visited the exhibition they immediately turned to the formal and aesthetic qualities of carpets or Persian miniatures, without bothering much about questions of history, chronology or ethnographic background.
Labrusse The image of Islamic art presented in Munich obviously fit this contemporary need. The writings of Wilhelm Worringer corresponded very closely to this effect on a theoretical level, far beyond mere artistic questions. While this problem certainly deserves greater scrutiny from a postcolonial point of view, it lies outside the scope of the present investigation of contemporary intellectual perspectives. Kroll , pp. Riegl himself was convinced that contemporary art and retrospective art theory were dependent upon each another. It goes without saying that the modern history of the reception of Islamic art in the West catalysed by the exhibition was and is not without problems in terms of defining alterity, of selective points of view or of methodological questions, both within and beyond the borders of scholarly work.
Caraffa, Berlin and Munich , pp. Italienische Forschungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz, 9.
John M. Grothe et al. Lang Siegfried K. Lindsay and Vergo Kenneth C. Das illustrierte Kunstbuch von bis , eds. Direktorium der Ausstellung, 2nd ed. Ein Beitrag zur Stilpsychologie, ed. Helga Grebing, Munich , pp. Jahrhundert, eds. Friedrich Sarre: Erzeugnisse Islamischer Kunst, 2 vols. Ein unbekanntes Bild aus der Werkstatt Tintorettos. Philosophie und bildende Kunst im Kaiserreich, eds.
Pierre Schneider: Matisse, Munich Ein Beitrag zur Stilpsychologie, 3rd expanded edition with an index, Munich Beat Wyss: Der Wille zur Kunst. Michael F. National Traditions and Institutional Practices, ed. Zimmermann, New Haven and London , pp. At the time of Munich he was 28 years old fig. He inherited his language talent from his father, a high-school teacher, but after law studies ultimately turned to art history.
I now tried to acquaint myself as much as possible with the Islamic monuments of North Africa and Spain. Meeting Biermann paved his way to German publishers. He was thus well on the path to a career in Islamic art. Islamische Schreibkunst. Special attention and acclaim came from Berlin artists and craftsmen.
However, the real start of my exploration of the decorative arts of Islam was made at the Great Munich Exhibition of I could handle and investigate all the arriving objects and learned how to exhibit them and to take the most necessary steps for their preservation. The daily contact with famous collectors, celebrated scholars, and astute dealers, sharpened my eyes for the appreciation of these objects. The installation of the fabrics and the collaboration in the cataloguing work were the best apprenticeship I could have found.
With gratitude I remember those from whom I learned in these months […]. A superbly illustrated catalogue of the Munich Exhibition of appeared in It provided a great deal of new stimulation. Not only in Europe, but also in America, the interest in products of the Near East rose perceptibly. After lengthy discussions in Munich it was decided to try something big and to stage a large international exhibition of Islamic art with the best objects from both Germany and abroad. Access to and citations from the letters to Max van Berchem are thanks to the kindness of the Fondation Max van Berchem in Geneva and the kind help of A.
The correspondence between Sarre and Bode reveals that Bode was an authority figure to Sarre, while with van Berchem one notes a friendship developing over the years. The subjects also differ, as with Bode museum matters as well questions of acquisition are in the fore, while with van Berchem the question of the inscriptions as well as the publications on which both participated are main points of interest.
However, the correspondence also touches on other issues. I am also very thankful to Jonathan Fox for his congenial translations and editing. Munich orientalists were not involved in the exhibition. He was thus well acquainted with Islamic art and had assembled his collection both during these journeys and on the European art market. He exhibited parts of his collection for the first time in 8.
Sarre-van Berchem Gratzl a. Nearly manuscripts and bindings were exhibited. As a consequence, the State Library did not send a single loan to the Munich exhibition with the exception of the famous Mossul bronze plate of Atabek Lulu, Munich , Nr. Sarre and Martin , vol. He thus had close contacts with museum scholars, collectors and art dealers in Islamic art in Paris.
In , Sarre lent major parts of his collection to the newly founded Islamic Department in the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum in Berlin fig. The colourfulness and ornamental grandeur of Mohammedan art can moreover provide modern art new directions. Sarre , pp. The Swedish collector, dealer and scholar F.
Martin was well known in Europe as an art historian due to his publications. He had just published his monumental book on carpets, A History of Oriental Carpets before , in Vienna in Sarre and Martin managed to cooperate on the Munich project despite the Konya carpet incident that strained their relations.
Martin was a difficult person, according to Sarre who described the content of one letter by Martin in as outrageous, and found financial questions, such as the honorarium of the Meisterwerke, difficult to settle with him. See letters from F. After returning from a conference of art historians in Munich in September , Sarre wrote a letter to Max van Berchem , stating that, although it conflicted with his schedule and represented a personal sacrifice, he had agreed to participate in an exhibition venture in Munich.
The undertaking was of utmost scholarly importance for his work and he did not want to let Martin do the job on his own, which he feared would be the case if he did not take part. He hoped Munich would eventually become more important than the Paris exhibition, to which he loaned objects and for which Max van Berchem read the Arabic inscriptions. One such proposal they agreed upon was concerning a group of metalwork objects from St. Petersburg and Moscow that appeared in a publication by J.
Smirnoff;18 believed to be of Sasanian origin, these objects could illustrate one of the roots of Islamic art, a theme of particular interest to Sarre. In late September Sarre and Martin agreed that Sarre should be in charge of loans from Germany, Austria and Switzerland, hoped to meet with success, especially in securing church treasures.
He unsuccessfully tried to get loans from Saint Maurice and Chur, but ultimately Switzerland was not represented. Neither Sarre nor Martin appears to have been in Constantinople, and no loans from Persia were planned. In general, Letter Sarre to van Berchem, 5 October Paris b. See also Makariou , pp. Carpets were expected to play a minor role, though with the loan of important pieces they eventually gained a more prominent place in the exhibit.
Just as with the reading of the Munich Atabek Lulu basin, Max van Berchem was ultimately persuaded by Sarre, an art historian with no Orientalist background, in early October During his lifetime Sarre cooperated with Max van Berchem, Eugen Mittwoch and Ernst Herzfeld on all questions concerning inscriptions and historical events, and always gratefully acknowledged their help.
A team of scholars was chosen to start with the preparations in Munich in April when the first loans were expected to arrive. The Munich exhibition became one of the largest exhibitions ever held on a single theme. At an early stage in the Munich organizing committee agreed upon the long exhibition title.
The provenance is clear, the classification sure and the nomenclature precise. The term was also discussed in the catalogue Munich 1st edition , pp. If not stated otherwise, Munich refers to the 3rd ed. I have told them that I can only help them with the exhibition insofar as I can indicate where to get loans and help with the actual exhibition. They have to care for the loan arrangements themselves and they also have to have their own team for the exhibition. I cannot take care of that as I have other things to do.
Drawings and illustration plates from both volumes were exhibited in Munich. Prince Rupprecht personally travelled to his relative Emperor Franz-Joseph in Vienna to ask for the hunting carpet. A simple letter from him opened the door to otherwise inac22 A first announcement in German of the exhibition was published in the art journal Der Cicerone 1, no.
This would have been the only possibility to present his book in an audience to the emperor letter Sarre to Bode, 23 April Additionally, in the winter of and the spring of he travelled in both Germany and Austria. Only because the exhibition was under the patronage of Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, and of the personal involvement of Prince Rupprecht was it possible to receive such a large number of loans on such short notice November until April Munich was not a national affair, but rather one of the Kingdom of Bavaria and the city of Munich with the support of Imperial Germany.
Due to the efforts of the Bavarian court officials,25 the German diplomats in the capitals of those countries from which loans were requested, the numerous high dignitaries in government or administration as well as the numerous church offices, the objects arrived from many places beginning on April 1st. Martin actually arrived shortly before the opening in May, but was too nervous and ill to participate. Without the Osthaus Collection there would have been next to nothing in these rooms. Munich also displayed works illustrating the influence of Islamic art on Europe, a topic of particular interest for Sarre and Martin.
All detail work could only be done after the loans had actually arrived. This becomes quite evident from a letter written by J. Smirnoff from St. Petersburg on April in German fig. Due to the fact that the loans of the Imperial Hermitage, which Mr. Martin has selected, will only arrive in the last days before the opening of the exhibition in Munich, I have the honour to send you a list of the objects destined for exhibition with their measurements, so that one is able to reserve the necessary space within the various departments in advance. Within the next days I will send you the photographs of the objects.
Yours sincerely, J. In the attachment to this letter Smirnoff describes nine objects, but eleven were actually in the exhibition.
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And that would already be a success, because the disappointment would at the same time be the beginning of a reversal of misconceptions and the gradual understanding of the true wonders of this particular world. Sarre; Munich 3rd ed. For him Islamic art ended in the 17th century when European influence began, and he was also against the cheap bazaar ware of the later periods.
During his travels he acquired objects, manuscripts and calligraphies of the 19th-century Qajar Dynasty as well as late Ottoman works, as he found these interesting as objects of art. Burckhardt in Basel. Sarre seems to have been informed that they had come to Europe only after the fall of Napoleon I and had thus remained with the Burckhardt transport company. To these belonged numerous originals but also plaster casts sent by Herz Bey from Cairo. Numerous objects entered the Museum. Thus the casts of the south minaret of the Hakim Mosque arrived broken and could not be exhibited.
Wonderful things arrive. Yesterday superb objects from Constantinople arrived with the small Edhem as courier from the Imperial treasury, the library of the Yildiz-Palace, the Imperial Museum and the Imperial War Museum. In order to guarantee its successful completion, from the beginning objects were grouped according to materials and different scholars put in charge of different groups.
They were registered under No. On these Istanbul museums see Shaw , pp. He had already been assistant director. One was bothered that the provenance and dates of the owners were not respected but that the objects were often dated later. It is regrettable that one tried to protest against a procedure which was the result of scientific objectivity in a field were there are still so few sound facts.
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As Martin has definitely withdrawn, my job and responsibilities have increased and I have difficulty tackling all duties and wishes. It is extremely difficult trying to handle the task in a scholarly fashion, which is in opposition to the manner of the people from Munich working on this exhibition and the artists.
I cannot tell you all the difficulties with which I have to cope with here and will be glad if the exhibition at least to some extent meets expectations. I would rather see the exhibition not take place, but one must not give up now. Yesterday the objects from the Bargello, the beautiful ivory plaques and some bronzes arrived, which were loaned due to your efforts. Extremely fine objects arrived from Russia, from the Hermitage in St.
Petersburg, the Sasanian silver plates and the unique bronzes of Count Bobrinski. I still have to work from dawn to dusk and am busy with displaying the objects and guiding visitors. And on top of it a decent catalogue has to be done, for which I did not yet have time. In a letter of 24 July fig. I had an awful lot to do here. Since the catalogue [the Amtliche Katalog] has appeared it is much better.
Sarre has been away for four weeks and I have the full burden of the working committee. Letter Sarre to Bode, 17 August The Spaniards have never done anything themselves and there must be sites from the early Umayyad period which would give good results. Michael order of merit 3rd class, s. Berliner Lokalanzeiger The exhibition opened to the public on May 15th and the first edition simultaneously appeared with introductory essays and a general list of what would be exhibited. Certain proposals such as a large room exclusively for the loans of F. Martin56 were later dropped.
Everything seems to be superficial and wrong. The third edition has the essays in the first part followed by the catalogue entries for the different materials. The second edition appeared in late May,58 the third edition in the first half of July. The fourth edition has only minor additions in comparison to the third edition, but gives the final count of 3, numbers, which meant even more exhibited objects.
Bruckmann in June to print a large folio, three-volume catalogue of the exhibition with approximately of the most important objects and as many plates. Apart from 30 special copies, the print run was to be copies. Not only the exhibition itself but also these volumes were without precedent. As letters to van Berchem show, Sarre was again responsible both for the contents as. Munich 1st edition , p. Martin Collection. Miniatures, manuscripts, bindings, works of ivory, bronzes, mainly from the 13th to 16th centuries Persia.
Sarre knew well the general director of F. Bruckmann, F. Schwartz, and after the end of the Munich exhibition negotiations for the publication of the Riza Abbasi album Sarre immediately began. The publication was finally published during the war in —despite the print date of —in a print run of copies, which were sold out by the beginning of Bruckmann had objects photographed for the publication and additional photographs of objects taken to be sold during the exhibition and in art shops.
It was eventually decided to release a limited number of copies of an unofficial, supplementary fourth volume containing original photographs pasted on cardboard with the object descriptions cut out from the Amtliche Katalog. Bruckmann therefore proposed in to print an abridged edition in a small, single-volume format with plates and a print run of 5, copies at a price of 30 Marks. New and shorter texts would have been necessary. Martin wanted to write a short introductory chapter about how the exhibition in came about.
In the end the edition was never realized; Sarre preferred to include plates which meant two volumes and Martin ultimately did not want to participate because he found the undertaking inappropriate and did not believe such a book would be marketable in the English-speaking world. Due to the deteriorating financial situation the publisher finally ceased all work in April Letter Sarre to van Berchem, 18 May Letter Sarre to van Berchem, 30 March The letters of Sarre do not mention this supplementary volume. Bruckmann A.
Sarre between 7 August and 6 April in the Nachlass F. The Exhibition and the Public Sarre gave a lecture in Berlin on Munich in which he touched on the question of the presentation. A certain austere attitude of the rooms, the absence of colouristic effects and phantastic group arrangements, the effort to let the works of art stand alone due to their quality, all this may have come along somewhat unprecedentedly. The serious visitor as well as the one who wanted to acquaint himself on scholarly grounds with the little-known field was rather more satisfied, especially after the appearance of the scholarly Amtliche Katalog.
A visitor who followed the suggested itinerary through the 80 rooms would have started with Safavid Persian silk carpets from the royal Bavarian residence, of which later on more but less-well-preserved examples would follow, walk to Persia in the 12th to 18th centuries and see post-Sasanian art. As a result a visitor could only come out physically exhausted and confused concerning the complex history of Islamic dynasties as well as Islamic art and its different styles.
Fortunately, as we know from museum practise, visi-. The exhibition was extraordinary due to the large amount of then unknown unique objects of Islamic art assembled in one place that demonstrated the great scope and diversity of this art. Provenances and datings were not yet well understood in all branches, but this was secondary compared to the quality and availability of the works for research. Apart from the financial risk, it was uncertain whether one would receive enough loans of important masterpieces and whether one would be able to find the architectural framework for their aesthetic values.
Against all expectations both eventually were successful and the Munich event will be remembered as unrivalled due to both its organisational and artistic administration. And yet it was unsuccessful with the public. In broad circles one seems to have missed the cheerful bazaar feel due to the functional display in whitewashed rooms and architectonically rigid, designed cases.
Bell , traveller and archaeologist]. Still the exhibition had a positive result for the city. The artefacts of Mohammadan art and the music festivals were a wonderful source of delight and new revelation for artists, scholars, writers, researchers and those categories of people for whom Munich is their Mecca: art collectors, art lovers and connoisseurs. Among these important people who are of influence for many others, the devotion for our city and its esteem has definitely grown [ A copy of the Amtliche Katalog in a private collection has the signature of Edwin Redslob , who later became the federal arts commissioner [Reichskunstwart] of the Weimar Republic.
The Exhibition and the Art Market An important and sought-after result of the participation of collectors and prestigious art dealers was, in and in the years following, the trade in the exhibited objects. Stickers remaining on objects exhibited by art dealers indicate that they were specially marked for the exhibition. When Sarre sent a list of his loan proposals for Munich to Bode he mentioned the potential exchange of objects. Though Sarre initially wanted to send 14 Syrian enamelled glass beakers from the Berlin Islamic Department to sell in Munich, the plan was never realized.
Petersburg, was added to the collection. Martin, it was exhibited in Room Both the glass bottle and the bronze plate had been unknown prior to the Munich exhibition. Redslob , p. Perhaps one can sell this small group after the close of the exhibition. I would rather not give these pieces away now; only the best pieces would be picked from the lot and one would not be able to sell the rest.
Museum of Islamic Art, Berlin I. The mosque-lamp from the same collection, which was also exhibited in Munich Munich , cat. Exhibited in Munich Munich , cat. For certain Munich exhibitions, such as the Far Eastern exhibition, it was standard practice for the public to be able to acquire art in addition to more modestly priced works. Kevorkian is showing very beautiful Persian ceramics in the dealers department, which would be of interest to you. I hope that I will be able to buy something and that he will show himself favourable towards me, that is towards the museum, out of consideration for the exhibition.
Mayer we know that Kevorkian also displayed miniature paintings in this part of the exhibition. They demonstrated the production of Oriental art works and sold them to the public. The supervision of this manufacturing shop was shared by the wholesaler Edenhofer and Max Bernheimer with the support of Kommerzienrat Jos. The catalogue Kevorkian was not yet available in Munich. The more important material was published in Sarre b, pp. The acquisitions were possible due to funds given by sponsors. Kelekian alone is said to have sent his entire collection of pieces to Munich M.
Jenkins-Madina , p. Apart from his exhibits in the exhibition, the Amtliche Katalog see Munich , first edition lists Room. The Exhibition and its German Critics The exhibition was not a popular success with the masses, for which there appear to be rather diverse reasons. Perhaps the most critical was the fact that the general public, full of preconceived notions about the Islamic world conditioned by the world and trade exhibitions, was not expecting an art exhibition.
A catalogue of the Kelekian pottery was published in in Paris Kelekian For Kelekian, see Simonis and Viltard , pp. Oriental art is for many a mixture of waterpipe smoking, sensuous perfumes, belly dancing, jangling jewellery of gold-coins, half disguising veils, thick dra-. The introductions are anonymous but were written by Sarre and the other scholars, see letter Sarre to van Berchem, 11 May Thus the situation in which Islamic art found itself was not unlike that of exhibitions of modern artists.
This opinion implied that the exhibition had nothing new to show. In addition, the exhibited miniatures made a comparison extremely difficult as they were shown within a number of rooms without any recognizable. Bilski , p. When we mentioned that these were not state acquisitions but gifts and loans, the newspaper had the last word with the question whether there were no ways of refusing such unpleasant and artistically inferior things.
Sarre had already written about the general neglect of Islamic art in Germany in his review of the Paris exhibition Sarre , p. A specialist wrote that Munich presented carpets in neither greater quantity nor quality than in Vienna He therefore printed a review of a lecture delivered by the scholar of Arabic Josef Hell at the Munich Oriental Society. He thought the exhibition did not explain the relationship of the art objects to architecture; in his opinion, Islamic art objects demonstrated the culture of each region rather than the general area.
Mayer found the exhibition in the Royal Bavarian Library a good addition to the main exhibition. Sarre was depressed because of this review but did not write van Berchem with the details. He was of the opinion that this was written in revenge because these people were not allowed to participate Sarre to van Berchem, 28 November These ideas all appear to aspire to the exhibiting of objects within a greater historical and cultural context.
In the same text Grothe wrote that the Far East and Munich exhibitions demonstrated that the quantity of masterpieces owned by Bavarian institutions warranted an Oriental Museum [Orientmuseum]. Diez published an essay using the rather troubling terminology of the racist discussions of the time comparing Semitic-Oriental to Arian-European art. He published a short catalogue on the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum Berlin and for Munich he was in charge of the entries on stone, ivory and wood. He did not participate in the volumes as he returned to Vienna in spring to the institute of Strzygowski and subsequently travelled, from onwards, in Persia, India, Egypt and Anatolia, and published the first history of Islamic art in a single volume in German within a multi-volume art history Diez , pp.
Emil Gratzl of the Royal Bavarian Library was in charge of the exhibition library but otherwise uninvolved in the exhibition. He had preconceived notions about Islamic art that did not change as result of the new and previously unknown source material assembled for the Munich exhibition.
He wrote a review that included some of the otherwise unpublished Sultanabad ceramics from the art dealer Kevorkian. For some branches of our modern applied art this could mean a turning point from much trodden paths and a reflection towards new and higher goals. Gratzl b, p. Rudolf Meyer-Riefstahl was a remarkable scholar; see Kropmanns He lectured in Paris at the Sorbonne from to but of major importance was his role as intermediary and organizer of exhibitions of modern French art during these years. He turned towards Islamic art due to his involvement with the Munich exhibition.
See his anonymous obituary, but probably written by M. Aga-Oglu, Anonymous Simonis and Viltard , p. Thus the appreciation of this art does not exceed a simple admiration as a result of the splendour of the material or the technical perfection. The objects are seen as exotic artefacts but are in reality from a civilization quite close to our own.
Those who have an idea of this field of art will not doubt for a moment the eminent importance of such a temporary exhibition of outstanding and mostly unknown artefacts. They belong to an impressive stylistic development which throughout the Middle Ages and into the modern age has run parallel to our own culture and has time and again influenced Christian Europe.
And yet until today their character has remained foreign to us. It surpasses all former attempts both in lucidity and completeness. This is due to the extensive and surprising Munich exhibition of There is of course no other way to acquire this expertise than by years of intensive study of the problems raised here, and, even more important, of the objects themselves. The large body of photographs acquired from the publisher Bruckmann to illustrate reviews and monographs during and after the Munich exhibition was heavily employed.
Thus many publications, Sarre , Preface, p. The burgundy red colour of the cover is a reminiscence of the Munich catalogue cover design with a golden crescent on a burgundy-red coloured background. All activities came to an end due to the First World War. It should be remembered that it were the publisher Bruno Cassirer and the series editor William Cohn who made possible the publication of both Islamische Miniaturmalerei and the Maurische Kunst in Die Kunst des Ostens, which gave a modern view of the art of the Eastern Hemisphere, including pharaonic Egypt, Ancient Persia, the Christian East, India as well as the Far East.
Islamic art thus found a natural place within these surveys. He thought these studies important for the understanding of Islamic art and many of them were translated, as for a considerable time they filled lacunae in the field both in Europe and the United States as well as in the Near East. Though as a result of new research, new questions raised and new Brisch , p.
Sarre had been active in the Seljuq and Persian regions and published seminal works on Seljuq, Ottoman and Persian architecture as well as on different groups of art objects such as his collection of metalwork or on the ceramics of Samarra.
It is characteristic of Sarre and his interest in the latter stages of the ancient Near East that he published the first book in German on the art of Persia before the advent of Islam, the Die Kunst des Alten Persien on Achaemenid, Parthian and Sasanian art. It was in this volume that he included some of the objects he had first seen in Munich. Twenty years passed before he himself would design an exhibition.
The goal of the Munich exhibition was to give the object space, allowing visitors to concentrate and see the details from all sides; Islamic art reveals its qualities only if one can see the details from up close. This was due to the fact that the Islamic Department came into being less than a year before the opening of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum on October 18, , and was thus allocated some rooms on the ground floor after the completion of the overall museum installation.
Due to the very nature of the collection, the display was impressive but neither chronologically nor historically arranged and thus could only be appreciated. No changes were made in the installation of the galleries in Berlin after the Munich exhibition. See also Osborn , pp. As is only now known due to new research by Hagedorn, both Klee and Kandinsky visited the collection see Hagedorn in this volume.
Heiden , pp. While there were no essential changes in the display in the Berlin museum influenced by the exhibition in Munich, slight changes were continually undertaken due to new acquisitions or excavations. In he mentioned to van Berchem that though the collection had in the interim grown more important he still did not see it as a museum. As with Munich, he favoured white and ivory-toned walls. Sarre to van Berchem, 20 April Sarre had discussed the plans with the architect Ludwig Hoffmann. Roxburgh , pp. The walls were painted yellowish-white; the cases had cloth of the same colour.
Light of great intensity was everywhere whereby each individual object gained importance. Eighteen successive rooms in the Pergamon Museum were designed according to the special needs of the collection. A special feature of the Berlin collection was a systematic collection of Islamic art with dated objects that included numerous larger architectural elements transmitting to the public an idea of the monumentality of Islamic art. Carpets were displayed in rooms lit by glass ceilings, but due to space limitations, only a few carpets could be exhibited on the floor fig.
The historical-scientific arrangement presents a unique and beautiful museum of Islamic and pre-Islamic art. In some ways it was exemplary for the largest collections of the world. With its strict division into permanent galleries and study collections, the foundation of a systematic potsherd collection and a study room with a first class library, picture library and slide collection, the new-born Islamic Department became an international focal point for scientific research in Islamic art.
All could be bought at a very reasonable price. Believed to be very efficient by most critics and, contrary to Munich , it met with general agreement. Islamic art is mainly a two-dimensional, figureless arabesque-like intimate art, an ornamental art in all materials. One wishes to have the objects next to each other; one also wishes to have the decorative preciousness of this art presented with more sensuality. Now the objects are presented didactically rather than as works of art. All this definitely has character, but its effect is somewhat sober [ To exhibit works of Islamic art in such a way that produces a maximum effect without exaggeration is extremely difficult.
Without the help of artists with good taste this can hardly be done. But with such help one would be able to bring something to life which could be called the fairytale of Islam. Really strange? Nay, continually we come across things which show us how up to the present day we are influenced by the art of Islam in a hundred skills, in textile art, in ceramics, in ivory carving, in special art forms such as those of candlesticks and glass. Some of the art critics had already written on the presentation in the KaiserFriedrich-Museum. A large museum has emerged from a small collection, which may be surpassed in richness by other collections in the world but hardly in completeness.
The general public, the academic world and the art friends have thereby gained something completely new because the department, which now presents itself so magnificently, was previously shown crowded together and without the possibility to develop further in inadequate rooms on the lower floor of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum. In Dahlem the carpets were displayed vertically and provided structure to the single exhibition space fig.
As a new element they mixed materials in the cases, at times including both textiles as well as paper. The Dahlem exhibition inspired numerous visitors and never seemed to age. Due to the reunification of Germany it was closed This display was at times against conservation rules. Zick-Nissen gave necessary information on each object. The New York installation of Ettinghausen closed in for the development of a new concept.
Munich will always remain incomparable due to its assembly of so many unique artworks from the Islamic world at a point when systematic study of Islamic art was just beginning. As a member of the Islamic Department in Berlin since he had the opportunity to produce his own vision of Islamic art both in print as well as in exhibitions and it was for his lifelong achievements that he received the Freer Medal in Washington in Anonymous C. Aufnahmen und Erwerbungen in Kleinasien und Persien von Dr.
Berlin Katalog der Sonderausstellung Orientalische Buchkunst. Staatliche Museen in Berlin, Berlin Bilski Emily D. Hanna Erdmann,. May H. Beattie and Hildegard Herzog, London , pp. Hanna Erdmann, trans. Jahrhunderts, Leipzig Hof- und Staatsbibliothek , ed. Emil Gratzl, exhibition catalogue, K. Miniaturen und Kalligraphien aus der Zeit der Moghul-Kaiser, ed. Regina Hickmann, Leipzig and Weimar Zur Geschichte der Institution des Kunstmuseums.
Die Berliner Museumslandschaft , eds. The Kelekian Collection of Persian and analogous potteries, , Paris Kunst und Kunsthandwerk, 13, , nos. Anton Springer, vol. Ettinghausen , Berlin , 2nd ed. Berlin Bilderhefte der Islamischen Abteilung, 1. Ettinghausen , Berlin Bilderhefte der Islamischen Abteilung, 5. Katherine Watson, London August L. Kurt Erdmann, 9. Staatliche Museen Berlin, Berlin , pp. Claudius C. Direktorium der Ausstellung, 4 editions, Munich Gaston Migeon, Paris Pavillon de Marsan.
Catalogue descriptif, eds. Gaston Migeon, Max van Berchem et al. Roxburgh David J. Sarre Friedrich Sarre: Erzeugnisse islamischer Kunst, vol. Bibliothek zu. Schmidt Paul F. Shaw Wendy M. Smirnoff J. Smirnoff: Argenterie orientale in Russian , St. Petersburg Sie passen nicht auf eine Ausstellung. Insgesamt umfasste die Ausstellung 3. Teppiche, Nrn. Stoffe und Nrn. Martin hatte systematisch Buchkunst, Bilder und Kalligraphien aus verschiedenen Perioden und Regionen zusammengetragen, die er in einem Prachtwerk, vielleicht mit Verkaufsabsichten, vorstellte. Sarre als genauer Beobachter des Kunstmarktes konnte in seinem Leben mehr wertvolle Handschriften in der beschriebenen Weise anschauen als ein heutiger Kunsthistoriker.
Sarre , S. Berchem , S.
Source code of the class german-dico part of termsuite-core version
XIX f. Flury ; Flury ; Flury ; Flury ; vgl. Cruikshank Dodd und Khairallah Andererseits ist nicht nachweisbar, dass seit diese Motive, und auch nicht. Herzog Jahrhunderts aufgebracht. Diwan-i Sultan Selim I. Berlin , S. Albrecht Sichowsky ; Berlin Der Schrift- und Buchgestalter F. Schneidler z.