Imprensa Negra no Brasil do Século XIX (Consciência em Debate) (Portuguese Edition)
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One of the measures raised was the creation of the 'House for Slaves. To finance it "it was just, since of the much that agriculture produced, a small part could be taken to maintain the House for Slaves. As can be inferred, there was much different political rhetoric and various racial propositions related to 13 May, including some voices weaving a critical balance of the situation of blacks in Brazilian society.
From this viewpoint, the ephemeris had to be seen a space for the production and circulation of ideas: the discussion of projects, fermentation of utopias and demands for rights. In a no less important manner, the anniversary of Abolition sheltered a ludic connotation, translated into the daily life of many Afro-Paulistas through festivities. Without any greater theoretical prevarication, it is worth saying that the festivities were collective actions connected with a leitmotiv , which could be a real or imaginary entity, an event, an aspiration or a treat: a commemoration or a celebration.
The festivities were characterized by the production of identities between the participants, to the extent that these shared affections and emotions in relation to the symbol being commemorated and produced a collective memory. In a detailed report, the chronicler Jacob Penteado discussed a live and surprising account of one of these festivities in the neighborhood of Belenzinho.
Blacks, many of whom were former slaves, lived on Rua Conselheiro Cotegipe in huts at the bottom of a vast plot of land. Under the "infernal rhythm of percussion instruments, in which the deafening beat of the drums was the worst, the night began. Scale that weighs hours cannot weigh metal! They killed all men, Poor women! The drumming heated up. Shortly afterwards various pairs jumped to the center of the ring, while the others clapped their hands in rhythm.
The movements were "dizzying, riotous, with grotesque contortions, without rhythm nor grace, in a primitive choreography, where the black women with big asses wildly moved the chairs, lewd and lascivious, between slaps and pinches on the parts that most stood out. Within the circle tiredness began to inflict punishments, but some still resisted, in an unsupportable exchange of smells.
Generally the freed slaves and their descendants anxiously awaited the date, since they also saw it as a synonym of parties, leisure and diversion. It was during the 13 May parties that the Afro-Paulistas expressed the allergy the overflowing joy they felt on the day of 'liberation. Abolition brought an end to the institution on which Brazilian civilization had been based for more than years.
It was a product of a notable mass movement and social and political pressure, consubstantiating "a victory of the people and - we can add - a victory of free and enslaved blacks" Andrews, , p. While there may not be consensus that it was a, or the only, 'social revolution' - as argued by Florestan Fernandes -, certainly the event represented a mark, a real watershed, in terms of the democratic advance.
For the first time in Brazilian history, a mass movement had triumphed over oligarchic interests. For the first time in the history of the nation, all Brazilians were considered equal before the law, in their condition of liberty. This is not something small. As anyone who had felt at first hand the horrors of captivity would say. Mariano dos Santos, for example, had no doubt about the difference between being a slave and a free person:.
As I have explained, you want to go to a party, you go; you want to go for a walk, you go; you want to go to a place, you go; if you go during the day, it is ok; you can sleep when you want, you sleep; you want to get up early, you get up; if you want to get up later, you do; and you can go, if you want to go for a walk, you can do what you want. If it is during the day, it is ok; the time to eat; if you want to spend the whole day eating, there is no one to tell you not to eat, or that you cannot enjoy yourself, or not to go to a certain place.
So it is as I say, as I speak: that both myself and this new people now, after liberation, we are in glory. Maestri Filho, , p. The former slaves knew what it was to have their movements constrained by a senhor , whether he was generous or not. This was an aspect that could not be neglected. The blacks commemorated 13 May as liberation, in other words as a moment of the acquisition of an elementary right of citizenship: the right to move, to walk, to celebrate, in summary the right to come and go.
There was much at play in these commemorations. Restricting the analysis of 13 May to only one form of alienation hinders the observation of how blacks appropriated the date, with its nuances, ambivalences and multiplicities of conceptions. For some Afro-Paulistas, the event had a nationalist meaning. With the abolition of slavery the patria was no longer divided, as "we were used to seeing it. The nation was now composed of everyone - former senhores , former freemen, former slaves and former freed slaves - and from them on we needed to be united in the construction of a new Brazil" Silva, , p.
You who have progressed so much, despite the past facts, of thirty-six years ago, answer you dear children, what we ask with all our hearts! Far from pure or essentialist, the black diaspora identity was characterized by its hybrid, multifaceted and relational character. As well as blacks, they were Brazilians. And they would not give this up. To the contrary, they spread their patriotism with pride, avid that the 'imagined community' would recognize their value and incorporate them as the most authentic son.
Since the "race which was the trunk of our nationality" was the black "to whom we owe the grandeur of our beloved patria. Nevertheless, 13 May was a moment of celebrating the icons whose actions were concerned with the defense of the liberation of slaves in Brazil. Schwarcz argues that Abolition was the "most popular act of the empire," and allowed the 'political royalty' to be associated with 'mystical royalty,' - the lady of 'justice' and 'security' Schwarcz, , p.
For whatever reason, the way blacks, with their cultural roots inherited from Africa, experienced Abolition and interpreted the role of Princess Isabel contributed to the production and circulation of a monarchist image of the end of captivity. The presumptive heir to the Brazilian throne was not a saint nor a devil, as activists have recently been suggesting.
This Manichean vision of history is problematic, since, in addition to not being able to explain a complex and ambiguous personality, it tends to be anachronistic, as it obliterates black traditions and the cultural policy of the context. With critical positions and striped of illusions, they used the 13 May commemorations to raise awareness among their 'brothers of color,' as well as to dialogue with civil society and the state.
Finally, the cultural and recreational meaning of the event has to be highlighted. This article sought to summarize the black experience from the perspective of the agents of this history, without resorting to sectarian approaches. A fallacious conspiracy was talked about in which the elites plotted to throw blacks to their own luck or bad luck!
Definitively the agents of this history had an idea that the abolition of slavery did not involve the resolution of all the difficulties they faced in society though it was a sui generis victory. For this it had to be commemorated every year, so that such a 'nefarious' institution would not forgotten.
Mariano dos Santos' statement - "now we are in glory" is thus very eloquent.
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Wanting 13 May to go unmarked - this was the expression used in O Clarim d'Alvorada 80 - because it was a 'social fallacy' is throwing the baby out with the bathwater. The agents of this history were polysemic, imprinting multiple and distinct meanings on the commemorations of the anniversary of Abolition.
In a tactical and versatile manner, they used the date to produce and re-signify narratives of 'race' and 'nation,' revere their heroes, make public opinion aware of its 'flagellations' from the past and the present , inscribe and re- inscribe fluid Afro-Diasporic identities, give resonance to their rhetoric of equality, and at the same time proactively insert themselves in the arena of disputes for national projects.
While emancipation did not guarantee citizenship for those emerging from captivity, it orientated the actions of many blacks, giving meaning to their daily lives, their myths, rites and ideals. From this perspective, emancipation was learned as an ideal to reach and 13 May was an unequalled date for the renovation of this ideal, with all its symbolic load of faith and hope in the Brazilian nation.
Costumes em comum : estudos sobre a cultura popular tradicional. Significado do protesto negro. A Semana , 14 maio Obra completa. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Aguilar, III, p. A conquista. Sobre versos, bandeiras e flores. Panfletos abolicionistas : o 13 de maio em versos. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, Rio de Janeiro, Domingo, 13 de maio de Rio de Janeiro: Record, Bauru SP : Edusc, Depoimentos de escravos brasileiros. Porto Alegre, Campinas SP : Ed. Unicamp, Salvador, Os sub urbanos e a outra face da cidade.
Thesis Masters in History - Unicamp. Campinas SP , Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar, Thus the picturesque epithet of calling certain types 13 May. Depoimento prestado entre 23 maio e 25 jun. Carnaval em branco e negro : carnaval popular paulistano CXXI, n. A imprensa negra paulista Os jornais dos filhos e netos de escravos Uneven encounters : making race and nation in Brazil and The United States. In the statements of Mariano dos Santos and Maria Chatinha, these two former slaves never used any other terms except 'liberation' or 'liberty' to refer to the end of captivity.
Mariano refer numerous times to 'liberation. At a time when the former were trying to join more important teams, formed exclusively by the latter, the match had a nationalist and patriotic feeling - of communion, brotherhood and reconciliation of Brazilians, above the color line. Pegue carona".
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