Verbale und nonverbale Aspekte der Kommunikation bei G. H. Mead (German Edition)
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Implications for Germany in Research and Practice. Try Pragmatism Lite. John Lachs: Learning about Possibility. Saunders, William S. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Short, T. Peirce's Theory of Signs. Contents: Antecedents and alternatives -- The development of Peirce's semeiotic -- Phaneroscopy -- A preface to final causation -- Final causation -- Significance -- Objects and interpretants -- A taxonomy of signs -- More taxa -- How symbols grow -- Semeiosis and the mental -- The structure of objectivity.
Sieverding, Judith. Silva Jr. O pragmatismo como fundamento das reformas educacionais no Brasil. Sullivan, Michael. Legal Pragmatism: Community, Rights, and Democracy. Contents: What's right with rights and wrong with communitarianism? Tartaglia, James. Routledge philosophy guidebook to Rorty and the mirror of nature. Tomida, Yasuhiko. Quine, Rorty, Locke: essays and discussions on Naturalism.
Hildesheim, Germany: Olms, Unger, Roberto M. The Self Awakened: Pragmatism Unbound. Contents: Rejected options -- The perennial philosophy and its enemy -- Pragmatism reclaimed -- The core conception: constraint, incompleteness, resistance, reinvention -- Time and experience: antinomies of the impersonal -- The reality of time: the transformation of transformation -- Self-consciousness: humanity imagines -- What then should we do? Wang, Jessica Ching-Sze. Wasmaier, Margit. Handeln und Bedeutung: L.
Wittgenstein, Ch. Peirce und M. Yu, Wujin. Duwei, shi yong zhu yi yu xian dai zhe xue. Beijing: Ren min chu ban she, Zanet, Giancarlo. Le radici del naturalismo: W. Macerata, Italy: Quodlibet, Anderson, Douglas. Blum, Deborah. New York: Penguin Press, Boulting, Noel E. Leiden: Brill, Bromley, Daniel W. Princeton, N. Contents: Prospective volition -- The task at hand -- Understanding Institutions -- The content of Institutions -- Institutional change -- Fixing belief -- Explaining -- Prescribing and predicting -- Volitional pragmatism -- Thinking as a Pragmatist -- Volitional pragmatism and explanation -- Volitional pragmatism and the evolution of Institutions -- Volitional pragmatism and economic regulations -- Sufficient reason.
Carden, Stephen D. Virtue Ethics: Dewey and Macintyre. Contents: Introduction -- Rediscovery of the virtues -- Reconstruction of ethics -- Origins of the virtues -- Human flourishing -- The ethical life -- Conclusion. Casil, Amy Sterling. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Dann, G. Davaney, Sheila Greeve, and Warren G. Frisina, eds. Schmidt -- Bernstein Among the Prophets? Bernstein -- Bernstein Bibliography. De Gaynesford, Maximilian. Hilary Putnam. Edmondson, Henry T. Wilmington, Del.
Freyberg-Inan, Annette, and Radu Cristescu. The ghosts in our classrooms, or, John Dewey meets Ceausescu: the promise and the failures of civic education in Romania. Stuttgart: Ibidem, Gaudet, Eve. Quine on Meaning: The Indeterminacy of Translation. Good, James A. Granger, David A. Haack, Susan, ed. Hansen, David T. Hickman -- Growth and perfectionism? Jordan, Jeff. Kemp, Gary. Quine: A Guide for the Perplexed. Machado, Maria Helena P. McDermid, Douglas. Contents: Pragmatism and epistemology : deconstruction or reconstruction? Mendieta, Eduardo, ed.
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Minteer, Ben A. Contents: Civic pragmatism and American environmental reform -- Nature study, rural progressivism, and the holy earth : the forgotten contribution of Liberty Hyde Bailey -- Lewis Mumford's pragmatic conservationism -- Wilderness and the "wise province" : Benton MacKaye's Appalachian Trail -- Aldo Leopold, land health, and the public interest -- The third way today : natural systems agriculture and new urbanism -- Conclusion : environmental ethics as civic philosophy.
Mladenov, Ivan. London: Routledge, Contents: Preface; Conceptualizing Metaphors Introduction ; 1. The Theoretical Framework of the Forsaken Ideas; 2. Unlimited Semiosis and Heteroglossia C. Peirce and M. Bakhtin ; 4. The Living Mind and the Effete Mind; 5. The Iceberg and The Crystal Mind; 6. The Unpredictable Past; 8. Peirce's Concept of Consciousness ; 9. One-man-tango; How Is Meaning Possible? Mosteller, Timothy M. Nubiola, Jaime, and Fernando Zalamea. Olsson, Erik J. Peden, Creighton, and John N. Gaston, eds. Lewiston, N. Ramroth, William G. Pragmatism and Modern Architecture.
Jefferson, N. Richardson, Robert D. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Schollmeier, Paul. Scott, Frances William. Peirce's System of Science: Life as a Laboratory. Elsah, Ill. A Companion to Pragmatism. Charles Sanders Peirce: Vincent Colapietro -- 2. William James: Ellen Kappy Suckiel -- 3. Schiller and European Pragmatists: John Shook -- 4. John Dewey: Philip W. Jackson -- 5. George H. Mead: Gary Cook -- 6. Jane Addams: Marilyn Fischer -- 7. Alain Locke: Leonard Harris -- 8. Lewis: Murray Murphey -- 9. Quine: Roger Gibson -- Hilary Putnam: Harvey Cormier -- Richard Rorty: Kai Nielsen -- Peirce and Cartesian Rationalism: Douglas Anderson -- Hegel and Realism: Kenneth Westphal -- Dewey, Dualism, and Naturalism: Tom Alexander -- Philosophical Hermeneutics: David Vessey -- Ramberg -- Feminism: Shannon Sullivan -- Pluralism, Relativism, and Historicism: Joseph Margolis -- Experience as Freedom: John McDermott -- Pragmatism as Anti-Authoritarianism: Richard Rorty -- Intelligence and Ethics: Hilary Putnam -- Liberal Democracy: Robert Westbrook -- Pluralism and Deliberative Democracy: Judith Green -- Philosophy as Education: Jim Garrison -- Religious Empiricism and Naturalism: Nancy Frankenberry -- Aesthetics: Richard Shusterman -- Cognitive Science: Mark Johnson -- Inquiry, Deliberation, and Method: Isaac Levi -- The Cambridge School of Pragmatism , 4 vols.
Bristol, UK: Thoemmes Continuum, Snell, R. Milwaukee, Wisc. Viegas, Jennifer. Voparil, Christopher J. Richard Rorty: Politics and Vision. Contents: Introduction: Reading Rorty -- Pragmatism and personal vision -- The mirror and the lever -- The politics of the novel -- The limits of sympathy -- Public pragmatism and private narcissism -- America as the greatest poem -- Conclusion: Rorty and thesis eleven.
Zhang, Wei. Amesbury, Richard. From publisher: Amesbury brings recent developments in Anglo-American philosophy into engagement with dominant currents in contemporary European social theory in order to articulate a pragmatic account of moral criticism. Aycock, Judy C. Thousand Oaks, Cal: Sage Publications, Baert, Patrick.
Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Towards Pragmatism. Cambridge: Polity Press, From publisher: The book provides an in-depth discussion of the contributions by Durkheim, Weber, Popper, critical realism, critical theory and pragmatism to the philosophy of the social sciences. It advances a new approach to this discipline, one that is indebted to American pragmatism. According to this perspective, methodology ties in with cognitive interests. The answer to the question 'how shall we conduct research?
Most contributions to the philosophy of social sciences assume that social research is a descriptive or explanatory endeavour. The pragmatist perspective, advocated in the book, emphasizes that social research can aim at other objectives. Ben-Menahem, Yemina. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Beraldi, Piero. Legge della ragione ed esperienza umana: Peirce, James, Dewey. Bari, Italy: Edizione dal Sud, Breault, Donna Adair, and Rick Breault, eds. Experiencing Dewey: Insights for Today's Classroom.
Indianapolis: Kappa Delta Pi, Capps, John M. James and Dewey on Belief and Experience. Carrette, James, ed. James and the history of psychology. James, psychology and religion. James and mysticism. William Barnard -- pt. James and philosophy. Efron, Arthur. Amsterdam: Rodopi, The characters of Tess are considered as real people with sexual bodies and complex minds. Efron identifies the "experience blockers" that the critical tradition has stumbled upon, and defends Hardy's involvement in telling his story.
Efron offers a new way of evaluating literature inspired by Dewey's pragmatist aesthetics. Reviewed by C. Ehrat, Johannes. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Habermas, Jurgen. Truth and Justification , trans. Barbara Fultner. Kalpokas, Daniel. Buenos Aires: Ediciones del Signo, Knight, Louise W. Citizen: Jane Addams and the Struggle for Democracy. Murphey, Murray G. Lewis: The Last Great Pragmatist. Contents: Biographical note I.
Final years. Oppenheim, Frank M. Notre Dame, Ind. Reviewed by David Rodick. Pecknold, C. Pihlstrom, Sami. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, The Many Faces of Moral Realism. Moral Problems as Personal Problems. The Truth in Skepticism. Metaphilosophical Perspectives on Pragmatist Metaethics. Wonder and Trust. Popkewitz, Thomas S. London: Macmillan, The Americas.
Buenfil Burgos. Studies in Pragmatism. Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag, Rockwell, W. From publisher: Rockwell rejects both dualism and the mind-brain identity theory. He proposes instead that mental phenomena emerge not merely from brain activity but from an interacting nexus of brain, body, and world. The mind can be seen not as an organ within the body, but as a "behavioral field" that fluctuates within this brain-body-world nexus. If we reject the dominant form of the mind-brain identity theory-which Rockwell calls "Cartesian materialism" distinct from Daniel Dennett's concept of the same name -and accept this new alternative, then many philosophical and scientific problems can be solved.
Other philosophers have flirted with these ideas, including Dewey, Heidegger, Putnam, Millikan, and Dennett. But Rockwell goes further than these tentative speculations and offers a detailed alternative to the dominant philosophical view, applying pragmatist insights to contemporary scientific and philosophical problems. Rorty, Richard, with Eduardo Mendieta. Rorty, Richard, and Gianni Vattimo. Saito, Naoko. Contents: In search of light in democracy and education: Deweyan growth in an age of nihilism -- Dewey between Hegel and Darwin -- Emerson's voice: Dewey beyond Hegel and Darwin -- Emersonian moral perfectionism: gaining from the closeness between Dewey and Emerson -- Dewey's Emersonian view of ends -- Growth and the social reconstruction of criteria: gaining from the distance between Dewey and Emerson -- The gleam of light: reconstruction toward holistic growth -- The gleam of light lost: transcending the tragic with Dewey after Emerson -- The rekindling of the gleam of light: toward perfectionist education.
Salas, Jaime de, and Felix Martin, ed. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva, Santoianni, Flavia. L'implicito pedagogico. Rome: La Nuova Italia, Democracy after Liberalism: Pragmatism and Deliberative Politics. Thomas, Edward W. The Judicial Process: Realisms, pragmatism, practical reasoning and principles. From publisher: Much judicial reasoning still exhibits an unquestioning acceptance of positivism and a 'rulish' predisposition.
This book, written by a practicing judge, dismantles these outdated theories and seeks to bridge the gap between legal theory and judicial practice. The author propounds a coherent and comprehensive judicial methodology for modern times. Van den Bossche, Marc. Vieth, Andreas, ed. Richard Rorty: His Philosophy under Discussion. Heusenstamm, Germany: Ontos, Westbrook, Robert B. Democratic Hope: Pragmatism and the Politics of Truth. Ithaca, N. Contents: Peircean politics -- Our kinsman, William James -- Pullman and the professor -- On the private parts of a public philosopher -- Marrying Marxism -- A dream country -- Democratic logic -- Democratic evasions -- Educating citizens.
Allan, George. Benhabib, Seyla, and Nancy Fraser, eds. Contents: Philosophy's scope and limits.
books on pragmatism, 2000-2009
Blumer, Herbert. George Herbert Mead and Human Conduct , ed. Thomas J. Walnut Creek, Cal. Contents: Editor's Introduction. Chapter One: Introduction. Chapter Three: Objects. Chapter Four: The Self. Chapter Five: The Individual Act. Chapter Six: The Social Act. Appendix 1: Herbert Blumer and David L.
Appendix 2: Supplemental Materials. Appendix 3: Herbert Blumer: A Biography. Bridge, Gary. From author: In the modernist city rationality ruled and subsumed difference in a logic of identity. In the postmodern city, reason is abandoned for an endless play of difference. Reason in the City of Difference poses an alternative to these extremes by drawing on classical American philosophical pragmatism and its contemporary developments in feminism and the philosophy of communication to explore the possibilities of a strengthening and deepening of reason in the contemporary city.
Cain, Rudolph Alexander Kofi. Cotter, Matthew J. Sidney Hook Reconsidered. De Groot, Jean, ed. Nature in American Philosophy. Freadman, Anne. From publisher: This radical reevaluation of one of the foundational figures of semiotics presents Peirce as the theorist of the "machinery of talk" rather than of the mind and its contents.
The book is a genealogy of Peirce's writings on signs that seeks to account for the changes displayed across forty years of his work. Freadman introduces the postulate of "genre" in order to argue that the transformation of materials from one genre in and by the objectives of another can account for the modifications in sign theory observable through the course of Peirce's career. The Machinery of Talk engages on a theoretical level with general issues in semiotics, taking Peirce's writings as a case study through which to investigate the adequacy of a theory of signs to account for the way "talk" works.
It finds that "the sign" is inadequate without the accompanying postulate of "genre. French, Peter A. Wettstein, eds. The American Philosophers. Midwest Studies in Philosophy vol. Oxford: Blackwell, Gibson, Roger F. The Cambridge Companion to Quine. Gibson Jr. Grange, Joseph. John Dewey, Confucius, and Global Philosophy. From publisher: Provides a synthesis of two major figures of world philosophy, John Dewey and Confucius, and points the way to a global philosophy based on American and Confucian values.
Grange concentrates on the major themes of experience, felt intelligence, and culture to make the connections between these two giants of Western and Eastern thought. He explains why the Chinese call Dewey 'a second Confucius,' and deepens our understanding of Confucius's concepts of the way dao of human excellence ren. The important dimensions of American and Chinese cultural philosophy are welded into an argument that calls for the liberation of what is finest in both traditions.
Contents: Introduction: Care--an evolving definition -- The landscape of current care discourse -- Merleau-Ponty and embodied epistemology : caring habits and caring knowledge -- Caring imagination : bridging personal and social morality -- Jane Addams and the social habits of care -- What difference does embodied care make?
Reviewed by Mary J. Hester, D. Micah, and Robert B. On James. Belmont, Cal. Johnson, Peter. London: Palgrave Macmillan, Khalil, Elias, ed. Dewey, Pragmatism and Economic Methodology. Koch, Donald F. Lawson, eds. Pragmatism and the Problem of Race. Glaude, Jr. Lawson -- Should we conserve the notion of race? Light, Andrew, and Erin McKenna, eds. Logister, Louis. Creatieve democratie: John Deweys pragmatisme als grondslag voor een democratische samenleving.
Budel, Netherlands: Damon, MacGilvray, Eric A. Reconstructing Public Reason. Rather than ask ourselves which public ends are justified, we must instead decide which public ends we should seek to justify. Reconstructing Public Reason offers a fundamental rethinking of the nature and aims of liberal toleration, and of the political implications of pragmatic philosophy. It also provides fresh interpretations of founding pragmatic thinkers such as John Dewey and William James, and of leading contemporary figures such as John Rawls and Richard Rorty.
Magee, Michael C. Contents: Toward a theory of democratic symbolic action -- The motives of emancipated prose: Emerson and the collaborating reader -- Ralph Waldo's blues, take 2: Ellison's changes -- Tribes of New York: Frank O'Hara, Amiri Baraka, and the poetics of the five spot. Malachowski, Alan, ed. Pragmatism , 3 vols. Thousand Oaks, Cal. Marafioti, Roberto. Buenos Aires: Editorial Biblos, From publisher: Eschewing the resort to universal moral principles favored by traditional Anglo-American analytic philosophy, Joseph Margolis sets out to sketch an alternative approach that accepts the lack of any neutral ground or privileged normative perspective for deciding moral disputes.
McDonald, Hugh P. John Dewey and Environmental Philosophy. Contents: Environmental ethics and intrinsic value -- Dewey's naturalism -- Dewey's instrumentalism -- Dewey's moral holism -- Dewey's ethics as a basis for environmental issues -- Pragmatism and environmental ethics. Misak, Cheryl, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Peirce. Morand, Bernard. Pape, Helmut. Hamburg: Junius, Proudfoot, Wayne, ed. Ethics Without Ontology. Ryder, John, and Emil Visnovsky, eds. Jaroslav Hroch. Igor Hanzel: Hegel's Science of Logic vs. Ryder, John, and Krystyna Wilkoszewska, eds.
John J. McDermott: Transiency and Amelioration: Revisited. Rawls and Habermas. James Campbell: Institutions and Their Reconstruction. Michael Eldridge: Social Reconstruction and Philosophy. Stamford, Conn. Batteiger, R. Writing and reading arguments. A rhetoric and reader. Battistini, A. Studi su G. Pisa: Pacini. Bauer, B. Frankfurt am Main New York: P.
Bauer, P. Reality and rhetoric: studies in the economics of development. Bauman, M. The shape of ideas.
Baumgartner, F. Conflict and rhetoric in French policymaking. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Baumhauer, O. Die sophistische Rhetorik. Theorie sprachl. Stuttgart: Metzler. Baumlin, J. John Donne and the rhetorics of Renaissance discourse. University of Mo. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press. Bautier, R. Bax, M. Oordelen in taal: Semantische en pragmatische aspecten van evaluaties in narratieve communicatie.
Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff. Baxendale, J. Narrating the thirties: A decade in the making, to the present. Bayley, P. French pulpit oratory, A study in themes and styles, with a descriptive catalogue of printed texts. Cambridge Eng. New York: Cambridge University Press. Bazerman, C. Constructing experience. Carbondale Ill. The informed writer. Using sources in the disciplines. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Bazzanella, C. Repetition in dialogue. Beal, R. Ideas in motion: Essays for rhetoric. Beale, W. Real writing. Argumentation, reflection, information. Glenview, Il: Scott, Foresman.
A pragmatic theory of rhetoric. Argumentation, reflection, information with stylistic options : the sentence and the paragraph. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. Bean, J. Engaging ideas. The professor's guide to integrating writing, critical thinking, and active learning in the classroom. Beardsley, M.
Modes of argument. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Beasley, V. You, the people. American national identity in presidential rhetoric. Beck, M. Rhetorische Kommunikation, oder, Agitation und Propaganda. Ingbert: W. Becker, A. The shield of Achilles and the poetics of ekphrasis. Bede , Kendall, C. The art of poetry and rhetoric.
Beebe, S. Public speaking. An audience-centered approach. Englewood, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Beene, L. Argument and analysis. Reading, thinking, writing. Beer, F. Post-Realism: The rhetorical turn in international relations. East Lansing: Michigan State University press. Beer, G. Arguing with the past: Essays in narrative from Woolf to Sidney. Darwin's plots: Evolutionary narrative in Darwin, George Eliot, and nineteenth-century fiction. Beers, T. Rhetoric in the poetry of Robinson Jeffers. Bern: Lang. Beetz, M. Behr, M. Critical moments in the rhetoric of Kenneth Burke. Implications for composition. Winnipeg, Man. Behrens, R. Problematische Rhetorik.
Beisel, I. Bell, K. Developing arguments. Strategies for reaching audiences. Belmont, Calif. Bell, P. Reasoning and argument in psychology. Evaluating, doing and writing research in psychology. A step-by-step guide for students.. London Thousand Oaks, Calif. La Paz, Bolivia: Plural Editores. Benardete, S. The rhetoric of morality and philosophy.
Plato's Gorgias and Phaedrus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Bender, J. The Ends of rhetoric: history, theory, practice. Stanford University Press. Bender, S. Writing personal essays. How to shape your life experiences for the page. Writer's Digest Books. Quito, Ecuador: Editorial El Conejo. Benjamin, A. The Figural and the literal. Problems of language in the history of science and philosophy, Manchester, U. Benjamin, J. Principles, elements, and types of persuasion. Fort Worth, Tex. Bennett, A. Keats, narrative, and audience. The posthumous life of writing.
Cambridge Univ. Bennett, J. Oral history and delinquency: the rhetoric of criminology. Bennett, M. Successful communications and effective speaking. West Nyack, N. Bennington, G. Sententiousness and the novel: Laying down the law in eighteenth-century French fiction. Benoit, W. Accounts, excuses, and apologies. A theory of image restoration strategies. Campaign A functional analysis of presidential campaign discourse. Lanham, Md. Bensel-Meyers, L. Rhetoric for academic reasoning. New York: Harper-Collins. Benson, L. Analysis of political rhetoric.
A bibliography of journal literature. Monticello, Ill. Benson, T. Writing JFK. Presidential rhetoric and the press in the Bay of Pigs crisis. American rhetoric: Context and criticism. Rhetoric and political culture in nineteenth-century America. El susurro de las palabras. Readings in classical rhetoric: Edited by Thomas W.
Benson and Michael H. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Benzie, W. The Dublin orator: Thomas Sheridan's influence on eighteenth-century rhetoric and belles lettres. Leeds, Eng. Paris: Dunod. Berger, A. Narratives in popular culture, media, and everyday life. London, CA: Sage. Berger, S. Classical oratory and the Sephardim of Amsterdam. Hilversum: Verloren. Berke, J. Twenty questions for the writer: A rhetoric with readings. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Twenty questions for the writer. A rhetoric with readings. Berlan, F. Berlin, J. Writing instruction in nineteenth-century American colleges.
Rhetoric and reality: Writing instruction in American colleges, Rhetorics, poetics, and cultures: Refiguring college English studies. Bernard-Donals, M. The practice of theory: Rhetoric, knowledge, and pedagogy in the academy. Cambridge, UK. Rhetoric in an antifoundational world: Language, culture, and pedagogy. New Haven: Yale University Press. Bernreuther, M. Greifswald: Reineke-Verlag. Berrill, D. Perspectives on written argument. Berthoff, A. Richards on rhetoric: I. Richards, selected essays Berthold, S.
Reden lernen. Frankfurt am Main: Cornelsen Scriptor. Bertocchi, A. Argumentation and Latin. Benjamins Pub. Berwald, O. Philipp Melanchthons Sicht der Rhetorik. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. Besch, E. Wiederholung und Variation: Untersuchung ihre stilistischen Funktionen in der deutschen Gegenwartssprache.
Best, J. Threatened children: Rhetoric and concern about child-victims. Best, V. Critical subjectivities. Identity and narrative in the work of Colette and Marguerite Duras. Oxford New York: Peter Lang. Beugnot, B. Les muses classiques. Bezzola, T. Die Rhetorik bei Kant, Fichte und Hegel. Ein Beitrag zur Philosophiegeschichte der Rhetorik. Bialostosky, D. Rhetorical traditions and British romantic literature. Bickenbach, M. Biener, L. The world's a stage.
Argument and persuasion. Englewood Cliffs, N. Bierach, A. Rede-Training mit Superlearning. Moderne Industrie. Biesecker, B. Addressing postmodernity. Kenneth Burke, rhetoric, and a theory of social change. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Biester, J. Lyric wonder: Rhetoric and wit in Renaissance English poetry.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Billig, M. Arguing and thinking: A rhetorical approach to social psychology. Ideology and opinions: Studies in rhetorical psychology. London Newbury Park, Calif. Arguing and thinking. A rhetorical approach to social psychology.
Bilut-Homplewicz, Z. Wyzszej Szkol Pedagogicznej w Rzeszowie. Binder, A. Frankfurt am Main: Scriptor. Birkenbihl, V. Bisaillon, J. Bisogno, P. Teoria della documentazione. Milano: F. Bitzer, L. The philosophy of rhetoric. Campbell, George The philosophy of rhetoric. The Prospect of rhetoric. Report of the national developmental project, sponsored by Speech Communication Association.. Bizzell, P. The Rhetorical tradition. Readings from classical times to the present.
Conspiracy rhetoric in Arab politics the Palestinian case. Oslo: Norsk utenrikspolitsk institutt. Bjork, R. The strategic defense initiative. Symbolic containment of the nuclear threat. Teaching academic writing in European higher education. Dordrecht Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Black, D. Logic and Aristotle's Rhetoric and Poetics in medieval Arabic philosophy. Leiden: Brill. Black, E. Rhetorical questions. Studies of public discourse. Blacker, J. Blackwall, A. An introduction to the classics: with an essay, on the nature and use of those emphatical and beautiful figures which give strength and ornament to writing.
New York: Garland Pub. Blair, H. Lectures on rhetoric and belles lettres. Strahan, T. Essays on rhetoric: Abridged chiefly from Dr. Blair's lectures on that science. London: Printed for J. London: Printed for Vernor and Hood. Philadelphia: Printed by P. Byrne, 72, Chestnut-street. Madrid: Impr. An abridgment of Lectures on rhetorick. Wilmington: Published by Mathew R. Brooklyn: Printed by T. An abridgement of lectures on rhetoric. Carlisle: From the press of A. Loudon, Whitehall. Edinburgh: Bell and Bradfute. An abridgment of Lectures on rhetoric. Baltimore: Pub. Cushing, Benjamin Edes, printer.
New York: G. Abridgement of Lectures on rhetoric. Philadelphia: Hickman and Hazzard. New-York: Printed by J. Harper for E. An abridgment of lectures on rhetoric. Philadelphia: C. London: Printed for T. An abridgment of Blair's Lectures on rhetoric. Blair's Lectures on rhetoric. Philadelphia: J. Lectures on rhetoric. Philadelphia: James Kay, Jun. Madrid: En la oficina de A. Istituzioni di rettorica e belle lettre. Torino: Presso la vedova Reviglio e figli. An abridgement of Lectures on rhetoric. Blais, A. Text in the exhibition medium.
Blakesley, D. The elements of dramatism. New York: Longman. The terministic screen. Rhetorical perspectives on film. Blanch, R. From Pearl to Gawain: Forme to fynisment. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Blanco, M. Blaney, J.
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The Clinton scandals and the politics of image restoration. Blankenship, J. A sense of style. An introduction to style for the public speaker.. Blasing, M. American poetry: the rhetoric of its forms. Block de Behar, L. A rhetoric of silence and other selected writings. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Berlin New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Block-de Behar, L. Bloom, E. Satire's persuasive voice. Bloom, L. Composition in the twenty-first century. Crisis and change. Dialogform und Argument. Studien zu Platons 'Politeia'. Steiner Verlag. Rerum eloquentia. Certainly a significant part of the Portuguese economy had for a long time depended on Britain. Whether Portugal benefited from this trade relationship or not is a matter of controversy Borges de Macedo ; Bethell ; Maxwell ; Pijning ; Pardo However, at least since the Methuen Treaty Britain had been undermining the Portuguese industry with a substantial influx of cheap manufactured goods undercutting all competition.
In January the opening of the Brazilian ports to Britain represented a fatal blow. Two years later, the protective mechanism of customs duties was removed precisely when the Portuguese economy was most in need of it. The prospects for the manufacturing sector grew dimmer as British cotton and wool cloths flooded the Portuguese market. He ended up gaining considerable ascendancy over the representatives of the Prince Regent. In the post-war years he headed the military government, a position which rapidly eroded his earlier prestige as a war hero.
People started protesting against the way public funds were being squandered to pay for the presence of British troops on national territory. Portuguese officers likewise harboured deep-seated resentment towards the British officers, who were now apparently being granted all sorts of privileges and promotions see Glover As a stern defender of Tory absolutism, his views were in line with the ones shared by two other Anglo-Irish potentates, namely Wellington and Castlereagh Newitt His absolutist values, along with his thirst for power, left him isolated in a world riven by deep-rooted hatreds.
Paradoxically, partly thanks to the influence of the British officers, the British tradition of liberalism ended up taking root in a country lacking in ideological coordinates to define its political future. When James Hutchinson first set foot in Lisbon, the country was going through a period of economic depression. His letters mirror the upheavals and the social unrest of the period and therefore help to shed light on historical processes, since they testify to the way in which individuals perceived reality and re acted accordingly.
Popular reactions to the new king, news of the uprising in Pernambuco Brazil , political persecutions, and hangings are well documented elsewhere,  but here we are given a view from the inside. Moreover, rather than just affirming the picture that the extensive historiographical literature on the subject has already established, the letters also disclose new facets. Hutchinson could hardly be said to be the definitive model of the successful businessman.
His efforts, nonetheless, were mostly undermined by factors that lay beyond his reach. General poverty, scarcity of money, shortages of food and other essentials, and rationing, for example, became recurrent, if not obsessive, subjects in his letters, betraying his sense of frustration and underachievement. Moreover, Hutchinson was forced to deal with fierce competition within the Portuguese market and the incompetence of the Customs officials, not to mention liabilities and bad debts, marketing obstacles and, curiously enough, an increasingly demanding clientele, all of which imposed psychological costs he found ever more difficult to cope with.
Each letter contains, as it were, the very essence of history and, through the picturesque and sometimes disconcerting episodes they feature, they help us recreate a reality long buried by time. Precisely because this is a genuine voice that has remained hidden amidst other archival material for almost two centuries, unscathed by later misappropriations or misinterpretations, we are able to salvage pristine fragments of the historical experience and to retrieve for our collective memory some of the particularities and singularities that are usually overlooked in the construction of the historical grand narratives of the nation.
In a letter dated 18 October , for instance, Hutchinson speaks of the funeral ceremonies of Queen Maria I and clearly enjoys recounting the peculiar causes of the accidental fire that burned down the church where those ceremonies were being held. Elsewhere he laments the shortage of foodstuffs and the rise in prices which mercilessly strike the poor letter dated 25 January , but he cannot help relishing the story of a woman arrested for stealing bodies from the cemetery to produce black pudding to be sold to the local shops 9 August Notwithstanding the rapid decline of the Portuguese economy during and after the Peninsular War, British traders rapidly resumed their investments in the country.
Samuel Farrer Jr. It would be up to young James Hutchinson Jr. His inexperience notwithstanding, James was not entirely at a loss. The need to account for every transaction and to keep his brother-in-law posted about how business was being conducted resulted in a correspondence of considerable length, which lasted until his departure from Lisbon at the end of Being an outsider in customs, language and feelings, Hutchinson tried hard to accommodate himself to his new setting.
In his letters, however, the affectionate attachment he exhibits towards his sister and the other members of his family indicates that his stay in Lisbon was, emotionally speaking, hard to bear. He often complained about her silence and the fact that she now seemed to have forsaken him altogether. But then, it was not just the separation from his loved ones that threw him into a state of melancholy.
His life in the Portuguese capital was infused with a sense of estrangement he was unable to overcome. He felt uprooted and disengaged. It becomes all too apparent that his gaze is that of an outsider, of someone struggling to succeed in a strange, disturbing world, whose social and political environment contrasts in many respects with that of his native land.
He soon realised it would not be easy to fit in. Despite the support that other British expatriates residing in Lisbon gave him, he complained to his family about living conditions there. His difficulty in understanding the Portuguese is particularly visible when he is faced with the lack of patriotic fervour of the man in the street, a fervour one should expect from a nation that had been recently freed from the Napoleonic terror:. Since most of the time he was consumed by work, it becomes difficult for the contemporary reader to detect such feelings of estrangement in the midst of commercial jargon and ledger accounts.
He sought to be meticulous in his book-keeping and reports and sensitive to changes in market conditions, especially as far as fashion, trends, tastes and purchasing power went. He struggled to prove himself worthy of the trust and respect not just of his brother-in-law, but also of other foreign merchants who had already established their names in the Portuguese market. He even got carried away by the idea of opening his own establishment in order to fend off competition and to tackle the problem of low bids, which often forced him to keep the bales in store for unusually long periods of time.
In order to perceive how displaced he felt, one has to read between the lines. When his enthusiasm waned or his health gave way, an undeclared anxiety and irritation would surface. His less than flattering comments on Portuguese customs officials and the tone of his replies to his brother-in-law whenever suspicion of laxness or mismanagement hung in the air prove the point.
He became impatient when ships from Brazil, New York or Falmouth were unduly delayed. He was unnerved by the negligence of long-standing debtors, who often turned a deaf ear to his entreaties. Besides, in spite of the considerable sums of money that passed through his hands, James was far from leading an easy and comfortable life. In a sense, it was through his own body that he first measured the degree of his maladjustment. He was constantly ill, poorly dressed, and found his lodgings uncomfortable.
The weather did not suit him and he feared death might creep up on him. He would wear the same clothes for months on end, winter and summer alike. Disease would take hold of him and he would be confined to bed for several weeks. His neat copperplate handwriting would then degenerate to illegible scribbling. Convinced that he was no longer fit for the job, he would then ask Thomas to let Ambrose Pollett, a friend of the family, replace him in the firm. His physical condition would not let him endure another winter in Lisbon. To him Lisbon, thus, ended up representing the proximity of death, that ultimate moment of displacement.
His fears, however, were unfounded and he went back to England where he remained in convalescence, before returning to Portugal. But once more the climate did not agree with him. In the course of his stay, James was badly in need of a focal point to keep things in perspective and letter writing served such a purpose. More than anything else, it allowed him to keep his sense of belonging alive. These letters ended up being the only bridge not just to his origins, but above all to his own identity.
This sentimentality towards his family is in marked contrast with his attitude as an observer. Although Hutchinson cannot entirely detach himself emotionally from what he witnesses, there is a kind of Verfremdungseffekt in his writing, a journalistic objectification of the topics he covers, whereby the distance between himself and the other is never to be entirely spanned. Translating something as intimate and confidential as private letters has the potential to border on voyeurism.
It raises issues that concern the ethics of translation, since the translator, unlike the casual reader, is supposed to leave no stone unturned in his struggle to reach communicative effectiveness. In this sense, translation is to be viewed as an act of intrusion and, simultaneously, of extrusion in other words a disclosure and a close examination of that which pertains to the private sphere. The former constitutes a form of violation , of disrupting that which belongs to the realm of the confessional and becoming, to borrow the words of St. Nevertheless, such violence is mitigated by the transmutational properties of time.
Over time, these texts have acquired the status of archaeological evidence, which does not necessarily mean that in this respect the position of the translator is less delicate. After all, he was not the addressee of the letters and that fact alone poses some problems. An outsider may find it difficult to penetrate the referential fabric of the letters.
Unlike travel accounts or autobiographies written for publication, these texts were not intended for a wide readership. They were personal in tone and content, and the writer knew what responses to expect from his only reader living across the English Channel. The writer did not project an ideal or fictional reader to whom he might grant full right of access to the world recreated in his prose.
As a consequence, his world remains sealed off from a larger audience and the translator is forced to break into the textual space like a trespasser. Implicatures lie hidden within this corpus of letters but they can never be entirely unravelled: whatever inferences the translator may draw, he or she will always lack the necessary background knowledge to establish their validity.
Such implicatures, one must not forget, are a symptom of the close relationship existing between the two correspondents. Implicit meanings result from a common experience, excluding other readers. Fortunately, the text in question is generally far more objective and factual than one would suppose, and this alone gives the translator significant leverage over the hidden aspects of the correspondence. It is in the terrain of factuality and narrativity that the translator moves free from major constraints, although it is certain that the faithfulness of the representation can never be taken for granted see Polezzi What we get instead is a myriad of disparate images that can hardly be coalesced into one single picture.
The reason is obvious: the stories he tells do not follow any thematic pattern, other than the fact that all of them revolve around the city itself. Although the anecdotal episodes themselves are self-contained and refer only to fragments of both individual and collective experiences in early nineteenth-century Lisbon, they play an important part in the process of historiographical reconstruction of the past.
The historiographical value of the letters lies in the fact that they contain accounts that were neither censored nor doctored: no one ever scrutinised or edited the stories, which were simply committed to paper without any concern for accuracy, trustworthiness or factuality.
The ensemble of letters forms a sort of scrapbook containing clippings or mementos that were never meant to be published. Such moments, however, were bound together by a common genetic code: they all emerged out of the drive for novelty, a drive partly explained by the way the processes of cultural displacement affected the author. He preferred to position himself as an observer rather than as a commentator, and avoided getting entangled in elaborate considerations. Far from highly opinionated, the letters nonetheless give us the chance of peering into his personality, albeit obliquely.
Sometimes, however, he felt compelled to take sides, such as when he dared to air his own opinion on Beresford:. Such explicitness was rare. Shortly after the rebellion in Pernambuco, Brazil, Hutchinson censured himself for letting slip his views on the political turmoil that had gripped the country and decided to not to return to the issue for fear of reprisals:.
His fears over the consequences of political dissent were not wholly misplaced. The horrific hanging of the Conspirators he watched on 22 October , shortly before his departure, left a lasting impression on him:. Here, his voyeurism matched his horror as he came to the full presence of death—that dark character that kept resurfacing in his writing. As we have seen, what was once private acquires, over time, an archaeological value: the status of artefact is conferred on language as privacy metamorphoses into historical evidence.
In translation, chronological distance is of the essence: one might even argue that every translation has embedded in its genes an indelible anachronism. In sharp contrast with our contemporary world, where synchronous forms of communication and instantaneous access to information seem to have taken hold of the way we communicate with each other, the art and craft of translation necessitates the slow transit of time.
It is a painstaking process of problem-solving, reflection and maturation. It takes time and perseverance. And when it involves the representation of past historical phenomena, as in the present case, the temporal dimension acquires critical significance. On the one hand, the translator cannot help excogitating his own condition as a historical subject: he becomes conscious of the relativity of values, of the differentials separating lifestyles, habitus in the Bourdieusian sense and Weltanschauungen. And here, in the translation process, the time gap separating source and target texts functions not so much as a thread linking both acts of writing along a historical continuum but rather as a lens, generating several simultaneous optical effects, where light shifts in unsuspected ways and where appearance must be understood in its composite and elusive nature.
This, of course, entails much scrupulous work of detailed historical research, as well as the ability to articulate it within the translational process. The crux of the matter lies in being able to dwell in the interstices between two languages, two cultures and two historical periods. In other words, one must learn to come to terms with the undecidability which undermines the certainties offered by our ingrained logocentrism.
As the translator shifts, in the course of the translation process, from one logosphere in the Barthesian sense to another, he realises that the movement itself does not actually, cannot entail the loss or gain, subtraction or addition of meanings. Meaning does not constitute some sort of universal currency that is, manifestations of a universal language common to all human beings that can be subjected to a process of direct exchange or transaction.
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Meanings cannot migrate freely from one language to another. I can only subtract meanings within the system they belong to. Languages weave their own networks of meanings and the exact value of each meaning, if it can ever be assessed, is to be determined only symptomatically by the effects generated by its presence or absence in one particular social and cultural context.
To believe in the transferability of the meaning and its capacity to survive as a whole in two distinct linguistic and cultural environments as in a process of ecesis is not to realise something that Derrida pointed out: that even within the same language meanings not only differ a problem of spacing , but are forever deferred which is the condition of their temporality. One of the main problems of translation, therefore, is not just spatiality but also temporality , particularly the historical condition of the texts. And this, I think, poses an obstacle far more difficult to overcome, since it has to do with the impossibility for the translator to render two externalities compatible in one single target text.
Just as Hutchinson was compelled, as an expatriate, to come to terms with the social and cultural reality of his host country  which is, for all purposes, a question of spatiality , so the translator, like a migrant travelling through time, is forced to come to grips with an ancient world governed by laws long forsaken and now irretrievable the question of temporality. And since both writer and translator are forever barred from a fully unmediated contact with the unconsciously lived culture of the Other, both seeing it as something external to themselves, though not necessarily negative, their attempts to assimilate cultural elements and national idiosyncrasies can only take place on the terrain of the imaginary, which enables them to crop, select, filter and reshape elements and idiosyncrasies in order to discursively tame the otherness.
Translators of travel writing therefore have to operate on a double disjuncture. On the one hand, they have to deal with the cultural gap that exists between the author and the people he visits Hutchinson and the Portuguese , a gap which over-determines the perceptions, constructs, responses and projections of otherness of the British expat, but which -- since it is barely made explicit in the text -- can only be detected by means of a symptomatic reading.
On the other hand, translators have to negotiate the disjunction that will always separate them from the time and the concrete conditions under which the texts saw the light of day -- a disjunction that is further amplified by the impossibility of mapping the exact location of the intersection of cultures which gives the letters their characteristic intercultural tension see Cronin 6.
Therefore, the translator is left with no choice but to try to overcome these two disjunctions, both of which constitute distinct moments of resistance to interpretation. How can we then circumvent the limitations to translation that such a double disjuncture imposes? Of course a careful, detailed investigation into the empirical elements offered by the letters and the issues broached therein must always be conducted, but this is not enough: it can only be through a critical awareness of these tensions and resistances that translators may decentre themselves and avoid the pitfalls of identification and idealisation.
It is this decentring at the core of translation that ends up being in itself a form of travelling. It is rather the translator and his reader who are invited to venture across a frontier -- the frontier that sets the limits to their identities, values and representations, and that is both spatial and temporal. In fact, the main challenges to the translation of these letters were posed by the problem of temporality, that is, by the difficulties of bridging the time gap. The first issue to be tackled was the stylistics of the Portuguese target text.
It was not just a matter of finding the best equivalents and transferring contents from the source text into the target language without major semantic losses. It was also a matter of finding a style and a register that could somehow match the original ones. In order to do that, I compared the letters to similar archival and bibliographical sources in Portuguese.
The analysis of the examples of letters allowed me to determine the way in which the target text was to be drafted. In Portuguese, this is not so linear. In the early nineteenth century, modes of address would have varied according not only to social class, age or degree of familiarity, but also to written language conventions. The solution to the difficulty in ascertaining whether we were dealing with informality or politeness was partly given by the manual.
This was the form I resorted to throughout. Another difficulty had to do with wording. The manuals proved useful in guiding my lexical choices. I wanted to give the translation a distinctive period flavour to represent the historical dimension of the original letters. Another challenge was related to the commercial jargon both in English and in Portuguese. Nowadays commercial terminology in both languages is much more complex, but most of the neologisms that currently exist in Portuguese are English words.
Back then, that influence was more tenuous. In any case, the search for the right equivalent would have always been time-consuming. If we multiply this by the wide spectrum of nomenclatures related to those areas of economic activity Hutchinson was directly or indirectly involved in, we have an idea of the complexity of the task. To start with, there were the inner workings of the wool trade business. I had to unwind the ball of yarn of the English wool and worsted industry, including all the details concerning the different stages of the manufacturing process: recognising the provenance and differences in quality of the raw wool available in both the Portuguese and Spanish markets, the various patterns of the warp and weft, the way the cloth should be cut or dressed, specific types of woollen cloths, their designs and colours, and so on.
It took me a while before I learnt from a magazine published in London in Tilloch that the initials did not stand for any English or Portuguese words, but for Spanish ones. They referred to the way Spanish wool which also included Portuguese wool was classified: Primera or Refina R. Moreover, since conducting business ventures overseas back then was not without its risks, I had to acquaint myself with the idiom used in cargo and shipping insurance, learn about risk-assessment, shipping deadlines, storage conditions, bills of lading, types of merchant ships crossing the Atlantic, and so on.
But then there are also taxes and duties, customs procedures and the requirements of port authorities, the valuation of the bales in the Cocket,  goods lodged at the Custom House not yet dispatched -- all of this wrapped up in a language of its own, which has to be patiently disassembled, explored, digested, and then reassembled and fine-tuned in the translation process. In order to penetrate that language I had to resort to historical research once more. However, since the Revista de Estudos Anglo-Portugueses is aimed at a scholarly readership, it proved unnecessary to insist on the explanation of cultural or linguistic aspects that they are supposed to be already acquainted with.
Differences in style between early nineteenth-century and early twenty-first-century Portuguese are noticeable, but they do not make the text less intelligible. In any case, stylistic conventions should not pose a problem for all the scholars who are used to working with documents of that period. So I kept the footnotes to a minimum. The future publication of a book containing the complete correspondence of the Farrer family, this time aiming at a more general readership, will entail a different explanatory methodology, but not a different stylistic treatment.
Writing narratives of displacement and travel is in itself a translational act, where the author is always seeking to translate into his mother tongue the manifestations of the culture of the other. In the process, the translator is forced to question his identity, values and the representations of his own nation and people, especially if the original text is non-fictional and therefore stakes a claim to the immediacy and truthfulness of the experience.
The translator thus has to achieve a tour-de-force in bridging all three gaps and rendering the text accessible to the contemporary reader. However, the meanings in the target text will always have but a spectral relation with the ones in the source text: they are constructed at the same time as a re-apparition of a former presence that does not present itself as full presence and as the apparition of a new presence —a new text in its own right.
Brewster, London, New Left Books. London, R. Covering dates: Paris, ; Joaquim Ferreira de Freitas. London, Richard and Arthur Taylor, He is also the director of studies of postgraduate programmes in ELT and translation. He has also participated in several European-funded projects related to teacher training and computer-assisted language learning. Marxist discourse and its leading propagandist in Iran, the Tudeh Mass Party, played such a leading role in the Pre-Revolutionary Iran that any account of the reception of other discourses in that period should include an analysis of its relation to it.
Existentialism was the most important rival intellectual movement for Marxist discourse in Pre-Revolutionary Iran, both challenging Marxist discourse and being overwhelmed by it. The present paper aims to investigate, through related translations and indigenous writings, the early reception of existentialist discourse in Iran from to from the fall of Reza Shah to the Coup , a period which coincides with the establishment of the Tudeh party, the zenith of its power and prestige and then its drastic repression.
To this end, the article offers an account of the socio-political context of Iran from the s the beginning of the introduction of Existentialism in Iran to the early s with a focus on the role of the Tudeh party. Keywords: Sartrean Existentialism, marxist discourse, Tudeh party, Iran, history. Knowledge, discourses and theories are produced in different ways: whether they are constructed within the borders of a culture, or imported from a different culture through the channel of translation or other forms of rewriting e.
When discourses are imported, the process is generally thought to be easy and unobstructed. However, as Edward Said states, the transfer of knowledge and theory to the new environment is by no means easy and discourses undergo many transformations during the process. Said observes a recognizable and universal pattern in the transfer of theories and claims that each idea or theory goes through three or four stages in the process of its importation.
First of all, there is a starting point, or what seems to be a starting point, a set of initial conditions in which an idea is born or enters into a discourse. The second stage is the distance which the theory or idea travels to find a new significance in its new environment. In the third stage, there are sets of conditions that are called reception or resistance conditions encountered by the immigrant idea or theory. In the fourth stage, an idea that is now completely or incompletely assimilated undergoes many transformations and finds new applications Said, Venuti also refers to the neglect of translation in philosophical research and states:.
According to Venuti , philosophical thinking has long created concepts based on the native versions of foreign texts, but these native versions are generally considered to be transparent, and the influence of native culture and language on the created concepts has been ignored. Despite the general neglect of translation in many fields of study, over the past few decades, migration of theories and discourses through translation has attracted many researchers from the field of Translation Studies. Some of these scholars have sought to propose new approaches to address the migration of discourses, while others have foreshadowed the pattern of transmission and reception of these discourses.
Some others, like Susam-Sarajeva have tried to account for the migration of theories through conducting multiple- case studies within the framework of Descriptive Translation Studies. Since it is not possible to address all these studies in present paper, two examples will be provided. Robbins puts forward a model for the transmission and reception of discourses through translation, and believes that the target culture may adopt a different stance towards the discursive elements of the alien. In his view, if when confronting with a new discourse, the otherness is ignored, the target culture has an imperialist position.
If otherness is acknowledged but transformed, the target culture or discourse has a defensive stance. If the target culture or discourse does not prevent the entrance of foreign discourses, the target culture is said to have a trans-discursive stand. And finally, if the target culture encourages the introduction of new discourses, it has a defective stance and is in the position of weakness.
Dangchao proposes an approach for studying the migration of theories, which he believes is new from three perspectives: first, unlike many studies on the transfer of theories which mainly focus on the moving theories, in this approach the reception of the theories in different times and places is emphasized. Second, in this new approach, in addition to discursive issues emphasized by the previous approaches, the relation between discursive conditions and material conditions is also explored, so that in addition to the study of translated texts, the interaction between discourse and practice is also studied.
Finally, in this new approach, the complexities of power relations affecting the transfer or non-transfer of theories are also examined. According to Dangchao , there are powers at work that facilitate the transfer of certain theories and prevent the transfer of some other theories. Despite recent international focus on the role of translation in the migration of theories, in Iran modern discourses and theories are often discussed without any reference to the role of translation and translators in constructing them.
In Iran, many modern discourses and theories are products of translation. This does not mean that some elements of these discourses have not been previously present in Persian literary and philosophical works, but it means that such discourses and theories as coherent sets of knowledge, philosophy and theory and with a specific purpose and worldview are products of translation and importation from different cultures.
However, few studies have been carried out in this regard and even in those few studies the role of translation in introducing and constructing new discourses has been totally ignored. For example, in a book called Existentialism and Modern Persian literature , which explores the introduction of existential discourse into modern Persian literature, there is no mention of translators and translations as a channel through which this discourse has been introduced and represented.
To overcome this shortcoming, the present paper aims to study the early reception of Sartrean Existentialism in Iran with a focus on the role of translation. Thus, as Rundle suggests the results may interest a wider range of audience, historians as well as Translation Studies scholars. Existentialism is one of the major foreign discourses that dominated the intellectual life of Iran for decades. As the title suggests, Sartre was introduced to Iranian readers as the founder of this philosophy.
Although in the years after the Existentialist boom in Iran, Iranian philosophers and theologians took an interest in other branches of this philosophic movement including Heideggerian and religious Existentialism, what dominated the minds of many Iranian writers and intellectuals was French and, in particular, Sartrean Existentialism.
The purpose of this article is to explore the reception of this branch of Existentialism which proved to be an important intellectual movement in Iran for more than three decades. In order to understand Existentialism in Iran, we must first understand the important role that Marxist discourse and its leading propagandist, the Tudeh party, played in pre-revolutionary Iran.
This article aims to investigate the early reception of Existentialist discourse in Iran from to from the fall of Reza Shah to the Coup , a period which coincides with the establishment of the Tudeh party, its rise to popularity with intellectuals and, finally, its severe repression. During these 12 years, the country experienced many social changes and political crises. As a result of the relative freedom of the period , various parties were established and various periodicals emerged.
Among the many parties that had been active in these years, only six continued to operate in the following years as national organizations. At the beginning, the Tudeh party was a democratic and popular front. Until , the Party leadership was a combination of Marxist and Social-Democrat elements, with its Marxist members exerting much more influence.
Since the party supported democratic and popular aspirations and since the popularity of the Soviet Union was increasing at that time, the party managed to recruit many young and educated people. But perhaps the most important attraction of the party for the young and educated was its capability for publishing new European ideas. The party was the focal point for those who were interested in these ideas Katouzian The party recruited not only a relatively broad spectrum of white collar workers and craftsmen, but also many prominent intellectuals who enjoyed a high status in Iranian society Abrahamian Ehsan Tabari a: 3 , a founding member and theoretician of the Tudeh party, said at the time:.
Although, from the very beginning, Socialist Realism, the official literary and artistic school of the Soviet Union, attracted the Tudeh party members, it was not until that it dominated most of its literary productions. In fact, it can be claimed that the Tudeh party, while using intellectual writers and translators to promote its ideology, also provided them with an opportunity to publish their own ideas. After the defeat of the Azerbaijan Democratic Party in , a split occurred in the Tudeh party and a group of intellectuals led by Khalil Maleki left the party in and some of the party leaders had to move abroad Behrooz ; Katouzian The crisis that followed the suppression of the soviet-supported revolt in Azerbaijan and the reorganization of the party in , which led to its severe ideologization, along with the greater restrictions imposed by the Soviet Communist Party on writers and artists from to undermined literary and artistic pluralism in the Tudeh party and strengthened socialist realism.
Gradually the principles, criteria and foundations of socialist realism were accepted by a large number of party members, and eventually socialist realism not only became the artistic and literary ideology of the Tudeh party of Iran but, with some adjustments, it became the theoretical basis of literature and revolutionary and popular art in Iran for four decades Khosropanah The political and cultural ideology of the Tudeh party and the Soviet literature it advocated, affected the literary production of many Iranian writers and poets such as Abdul-Hossein Noushin, Mahmoud Etemadzadeh Behazin , and Siavash Kasrai.
However, this impact was ambivalent; on the one hand, it supported and promoted a new type of literature, but, on the other, it prevented the development of a free literature due to its ideological nature Akbariani In , the Tudeh party faced another crisis, which led to the dissolution of the party by the government. The Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was the victim of an assassination attempt during a ceremony at the University of Tehran that year.
The government blamed the Tudeh party, which was dissolved and forced to go underground. Since many of its leaders were arrested and the party had little experience in underground activities, the crisis posed a serious threat to its survival. However, since the government was not strong enough at the time to impose a brutal repression, the party soon managed to reorganize by creating a number of front organizations and publications in order to compensate for its inability to function openly.
After that, the Tudeh party became a full member of the International Communist Front. Behrooz ; Katouzian