The Broken Stone: And the secret of the Heavens Henge
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The Discovery of a similar Henge at Goseck in Germany c. The archaeological dig, a mile from the stones, has revealed that people have occupied the area since 7,BC. The findings, uncovered by volunteers on a shoestring budget, are 5, years earlier than previously thought. Dr Josh Pollard, from Southampton University, said the team had "found the community who put the first monument up at Stonehenge".
Over the past seven years, the site has yielded the earliest semi-permanent settlement in the Stonehenge area from 7, to 4,BC.
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And carbon dating of material found at the site show people were there during every millennium in between'. Link to Full Article. The Stonehenge Cursus - Before the creation of the Stonehenge monument, the landscape would have been dominated by the nearby ' major ' cursus, which is over a mile long and is orientated towards Wood-henge.
This cursus was recently radio-carbon-dated at c. The same evolution in design from elongated cursus to circular henges can also be seen at Thornborough in Northern England. An artistic representation of the Stonehenge cursus including both sites? At this stage, the elements of Stonehenge indicate a lunar observation. In the first construction, the sun apparently, 'did not interest the henge builders'.
The earliest, BC, comes from a cremation of an adult within one of the Aubrey Holes. The most recent dates to between and BC. It was the remains of a woman in her mid twenties buried in the northern ditch. In all, around people were buried within the henge. The major structural addition at this time was the erection of roughly 80 bluestones, weighing up to 5 tons each, which were set up in two concentric circles around the centre. Stonehenge III - c. These were formed into a circle of continuous trilithon's, with a Horse-shoe of five larger independent Trilithon's were erected in the centre.
The stones were quarried from the Marlborough Downs about 20 miles north.
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Article: Antiquity Volume 81 No. It is a summary of progress so far on the Stonehenge Riverside Project and the Beaker isotope project , and contains some interesting and important revelations about the Stonehenge and its landscape. They now predate the earliest Beaker burials in Britain, shaking our understanding of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age L ink to summary. The architectural uniqueness of this design has led many to suggest a 'foreign' influence. For a while it was debated as to whether or not there may have been a connection between the builders of Stonehenge and the Mycenaean's.
Current dating suggests that while the Mycenaean civilisation existed from around 1, BC - 1, BC, the Stonehenge sarsen's were erected around years earlier and the debate has now been been laid to rest. The curved Mycenaean lintels have been compared to the Stonehenge lintels, which have no precedent in British prehistoric architecture. The Mycenaean tombs or Tholos all had curved lintels over the entrances. This discovery raised the suggestion that the stones were raised by Mycenaean architects as the nearest artefacts with any similarity to this dagger are those found in Mycenae. At best then, the dagger might represent a Mycenaean visit to Stonehenge, but no more.
Click here for more about Mycenaea. Traditions, Myths and Legends:. Early mention of Stonehenge was made in by chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth, who claimed that it was brought by a tribe of giants from Africa to Ireland, and from there flown by the wizard Merlin across the sea. Another legend claims that the stones were stolen from an Irish woman by the Devil, and re-erected on Salisbury Plain by Merlin for Ambrosius Aurelianus, the King of Britons.
Diodorus Siculus wrote in 50 BC - ' The moon when viewed from this island appears to be but a little distance from the Earth. The account is given also that the god visits the island every 19 yrs, the period in which the return of the stars to the same place in the heavens is accomplished. There is also in the island both a magnificent sacred fane of Apollo, and a notable temple Apart from the inherent prejudice against the Neolithic awareness of astronomy and geometry, there are several stubborn and irrefutable facts about Stonehenge which suggest exactly that Indeed, the earliest evidence of construction at Stonehenge are the 'car-park post-holes', which are accurately aligned east-west, and can therefore be considered likely astronomical in nature.
The 'Avenue' leading from Stonehenge is orientated at the same angle as the latitude upon which Stonehenge sits. There are only two latitudes in the world it which, the full moon passes directly overhead on its maximum Zeniths, these are at Stonehenge and Almendres in Portugal The oldest circle in Western-Europe. The Design of Stonehenge : In addition to having been built on a particularly significant latitude, the layout of the site also incorporates several other intrinsic astronomical features.
The 'Station-stone' quadrangle, placed into the circumference of the 'Aubrey-holes', can be used to measure the extremes of both the lunar and solar cycles. These two design features make it possible to measure the 'Metonic cycle'. They point to mid-summer sunrise in one direction, to the North-East, and to mid-winter sunset in the opposite direction, to the South-West.
In addition, the diagonal line joining 93 to 91 points to the position where the sun rose, in ancient times, on November 8th and February 4th. Looking in the opposite direction, 91 to 93, the line points to sunset on May 6th and August 8th. As well as this, t he alignment formed by the 'Avenue', continues in both directions to connect several prominent megalithic sites along the azimuth of the summer solstice sunrise.
In , with the use of computers, Steven Hawkins proposed with regards to the the specific alignments to the Sun and the Moon, that it was " Two previously undiscovered pits have been found in the Stonehenge Cursus which point to it once being used as a place of sun worship long before the stones were erected.
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The pits are positioned in such a way that when viewed from the 'Heel-Stone' at Stonehenge, they would have marked the rising and setting positions of the sun on the summers solstice. Link to Birmingham University Article. More about Archaeoastronomy. According to Peter Le Mesurier, the Sarsen-ring whose official inner diameter is 97ft or Stonehenge is geodetically aligned with several other ancient sites. Stonehenge, Avebury and Glastonbury form a right angled triangle, of which the Glastonbury-Avebury follows the azimuth of the sun on 'May-day'.
Perhaps also of interest is the recently excavated Goseck Henge c. Sir Norman Lockyer, the Astronomer Royal, noticed that Stonehenge, Grovely Castle and Old Sarum formed a near-perfect equilateral triangle, with each side 6 miles in length. The dimensions are 2, times the size of the 'Station Stone' rectangle. More about English Geodesy. The geometry of the 'Flower of Life' was recognised in the dimensions of Stonehenge. Photo Credits: Andrew Monkman.
Article : Independent. Results of Greenhatch Laser Scan of Stonehenge:. The results of the Grenhatch Laser survey at Stonehenge in , have revealed that Stonehenge represents the largest concentration of Prehistoric rock art in Southern England. It has also shown that different methods of dressing the stone were applied to different stones and perhaps more importantly, that the trilithon stone-circle was never completed, and was likely originally intended as a horseshoe shape monument.
Link to Results of Survey. Quiet patches created by acoustic interference could have created the "auditory illusion" that invisible objects stood between a listener and the instruments being played, he added'. Article: Independent. By comparing fragments of stone found at and around Stonehenge with rocks in south-west Wales, they have been able to identify the original rock outcrop that some of the Stonehenge material came from.
The work - carried out by geologists Robert Ixer of the University of Leicester and Richard Bevins has pinpointed the source as a 70 metre long rock outcrop called Craig Rhos-y-Felin, near Pont Saeson in north Pembrokeshire. It's the first time that an exact source has been found for any of the stones thought to have been used to build Stonehenge'. It is thought the pits, positioned within the Neolithic Cursus pathway, could have formed a procession route for ancient rituals celebrating the sun moving across the sky at the midsummer solstice.
Also discovered was a gap in the northern side of the Cursus, which may have been an entrance and exit point for processions taking place within the pathway. These discoveries hint that the site was already being used as an ancient centre of ritual prior to the stones being erected more than 5, years ago, the team said. Archaeologists have discovered a second Henge at Stonehenge, described as the most exciting find there in 50 years.
The circular ditch surrounding a smaller circle of deep pits about a metre 3ft wide has been unearthed at the world-famous site in Wiltshire. Archaeologists conducting a multi-million pound study believe timber posts were in the pits. It is orientated towards the great Stonehenge monument. Project leader Professor Vince Gaffney, from the University of Birmingham, said the discovery was "exceptional". The new "henge" - which means a circular monument dating to Neolithic and Bronze Ages - is situated about m 2,ft from the giant stones on Salisbury Plain.
Images show it has two entrances on the north-east and south-west sides and inside the circle is a burial mound on top which appeared much later, Professor Gaffney said. When you see that as an archaeologist, you just looked at it and thought, 'that's a henge monument' - it's a timber equivalent to Stonehenge. From the general shape, we would guess it dates backs to about the time when Stonehenge was emerging at its most complex. This is probably the first major ceremonial monument that has been found in the past 50 years or so'. Link to full article. Bluestonehenge: The Second Stone Circle.
Article: New henge-circle discovered near Stonehenge British archaeologists have found the remains of a massive stone henge, or ceremonial circle, that was part of the ancient and celebrated Stonehenge complex, a find that is shedding new light on how the monument was built and its religious uses. The new henge, called ' Bluestonehenge ' because it was built with blue Preseli dolerite mined more than miles away in Wales, was on the banks of the River Avon, where ancient pilgrims carrying the ashes of their dead relatives began the journey from the river to Stonehenge, nearly two miles away.
Some are calling it the "little sister" of Stonehenge. The approximately 25 massive bluestones were erected in a circle about 5, years ago, and eventually were encircled by a ditch and an earthen embankment. About years later, however, the stones were moved and incorporated into Stonehenge itself.
All that is left of the circle are the holes where the stones sat in the ground and a few chips of dolerite. The fact that the monument was found at the beginning of an avenue leading to Stonehenge and near the river "not only solidifies the view that Stonehenge covers the entire landscape, but also the sacred importance of the river itself," said archaeologist Christine Hastorf of UC Berkeley, who was not involved in the research. So far, they have found nine holes that they believe were part of a foot-wide circle of about 25 standing stones. Ginger Yea, I saw on another site pictures of men stippling the formerly solid and dark stones to make them look old and worn.
They did it with some kind of paint and cloth. The site says it was rebuilt in , but could be true, as well. Who would bother to do that? Sep 28, , pm. They do get around in saucer crafts and much much more. The more we sin, the more God lets more of them out the portals of hell onto the earth plain. They immediately turn their face and eyes away from my gaze and some of them even grin. They know I know, the minute I walk into a room.
They shape shift to that of humans and even animals.
I just want to see and verify for myself. You do not sense it either. Sep 25, , am. Pink Slime LOL! Just like the Loch Ness monster. It makes money so everybody keeps quiet about it. Sep 24, , am. DK Largely because it destroys a false narrative, besides which I was in the University of Readings Cybernetics department in did a study of the sounds made by the inner stone circle to see the effects and what instruments were played in prehistoric times. The stones are real, every University possibly on the entire planet has absolutely no papers on fake henge and the henge is part of a multi hectare site strewn with ancient monuments covering salisbury plain , what it does do with other ancient monuments is upset a religious point of view based on a year old earth.
The stones were re erected on MOD land where nobody could go. A total of 8 horizontal lintels. Joseph Mallord William Turner Stonehenge c. He sold these guidebooks to visitors on site, as well as handmade models of the monument. Courtesy of Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archeological Prospection and Virtual Archeology The maps, which were published Wednesday, were composed using magnetometer measurements, ground-penetrating radar surveys and 3D laser scans by researchers at the Stonehenge Hidden Landscapes Project.
Those traces appear as smudges on the landscape, looking more like microscope images of amoebas than the remains of a giant stone shrine. And from a series of grainy images, archaeologists were able to reconstruct 17 distinct structures spanning an area the size of 1, soccer fields.
The discoveries should change the way we think about the area around Stonehenge, Gaffney says. Far from an isolated monument amid a desolate landscape….. It is told by the twelfth century writer, Geoffrey of Monmouth, in his History of the Kings of Britain that Merlin brought the stones to the Salisbury Plain from Ireland. In , villagers in the boomtown of Amiens decide to build a new cathedral, large enough to fit their entire population of 20, people.
They are not alone. The opening of the king's church in St. Denis inspires dozens of towns surrounding Paris, and then throughout France, to go Gothic, each hoping to construct the tallest, most luminous building on Earth. Like many cathedrals, Amiens is built in the shape of a cross. At its very center, workers built tall walls with pointed arches to create an enormous central bay, twelve stories high.
The visible evidence is all those cracks and fissures. I mean, it's frightening to see. NARRATOR : These cracks could be the first signs of catastrophe, because to the left of the damaged arch is an enormous central support column that holds up the ceiling: thousands of tons of stone. So, these cracks could be a warning that the very heart of the cathedral is in danger of collapse. Murray is anxious to investigate. He brings in a team of scientists using the latest laser scanning technology. We can begin to see the deformations in the building and begin to understand its structural problems.
And so, it slowly pans across the wall, taking a whole series of measurements, which then are represented in three dimensions as a series of X-Y-Z coordinates. But can it reveal the lurking structural problems that threaten Amiens? It misbehaves. The arches want to push outwards. The building is sometimes guilty of misbehavior that could produce collapse. So, we'll start at the base level.
If the columns are straight, the distances should be the same. So, that's our basic measurement. And if we go up a little bit, a couple meters above, three meters above, we get So we're dealing with 10 centimeters. So, this is being pushed in by 10 centimeters, let's say five centimeters on each side.
But it gets worse. So, we'll select a point here and a point just across the way here. The distance is So, we're dealing with fully 20 centimeters difference.
In both cases, the stones in the surrounding arches are pushing out and exerting pressure on the columns. Where are those moments in the building that the builder would lose sleep over at night? And I'll pause it for a second, so we can go in and take a closer look. We see that the bricks are starting to separate from the arch. They're letting us know that, in fact, the wall has shifted over time. O'Neill simulates what happens next. Helmholz needs to counter this force, so he builds a supporting arm to prop it up. This arch is designed to counteract that.
If it's placed too low, then, up here, this can blow out this way. So, it really is important that this is placed in the right height. Helmholz is about to find out if his stone arch, without any mortar, will stand on its own. Great, that looks good. And I'll do the same, then let go. And there's no movement. It looks very good. It's quite exciting, actually, to see it work. It's always a miracle when you see an arch finally free from the centering. With the pointed arch, the flying buttress is the second Gothic innovation that allowed medieval engineers to capture heavenly light and to reach celestial heights.
The arch and buttress make up the basic building blocks of an entire cathedral.
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But it's a house of cards, where the placement of every individual stone plays a critical role. To see how critical, Helmholtz moves just one stone. It's the same sideways force that caused this collapse that's making the central columns back at Amiens bend out of shape, threatening disaster. Yet, to support the arch at the top of the central columns, outside, Amiens' engineers did build a flying buttress.
Their 3D model immediately reveals a critical error: the exterior flying buttress is not in the right place. In other words, the flying buttress is doing precious little. So, more than two centuries later, a master mason set out to fix it. He added another more solid buttress and placed it below the original, where it provides better support. But there was still no side support toward the bottom, where the wall began to crack.
In desperation, engineers go outside the Gothic playbook of stone. They turn to metal. Metal had rarely been used as a building material because blacksmiths didn't have the technology to make it thick or long enough.
And forging iron was a slow process; it had to be hammered by hand. Then, early in the 12th century, monks reinvent an ancient Greek tool, a hydraulic hammer. Located next to an iron mine, in the village of Fontenay, southeast of Amiens, this abbey is one of the oldest metal factories in all of medieval Europe. Six hundred years before water-powered machinery of the Industrial Revolution, monks use a waterwheel to turn a cog that powers a pound hammer.
Now workers could produce strong iron quickly and in large enough quantities to be used in building. But could iron rescue Amiens Cathedral? Builders make an enormous metal chain of linked iron bars. The chain runs inside the wall, along the entire length of the cathedral, to hold its central columns in place. Today, the massive metal chain at Amiens may still be the only thing that keeps these columns from collapsing. Iron may have saved Amiens, but ultimately, it's the mastery of engineering with stone that is the true Gothic breakthrough.
With the pointed arch and the flying buttress, it was possible to build these light-filled, majestic walls. But these walls are almost entirely glass. How are they able to support immense ceilings of stone? It's the first time we see it together. It's really amazing.
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And next door, the crew is building the ceiling in sections. They carefully lower the final piece, the boss stone, into place. It's a dry run to make sure everything fits together after years. It's made of two intersecting pointed arches. The ribbed vault channels the weight of the ceiling to the columns, so the walls don't bear the burden. Working with the pointed arch and the flying buttress, engineers created a skeleton that bears the weight of the building and directs it towards the ground.
Today, glassmakers, in New York City, are trying to make stained glass the same way as those medieval craftsmen. The basic process hasn't changed.