Petit Précis de limpolitesse ordinaire (French Edition)

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In the radicalization of the individualistic tendency of the Enlightenment, abortion appears as a right of freedom: the woman must be able to take charge of herself.

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She must have the freedom to decide whether she will bring a child into the world or rid herself of it. She must have the power to make decisions about her own life, and no one else can—so we are told—impose from the outside any ultimately binding norm. What is at stake is the right to self-determination.

But is it really the case that the woman who aborts is making a decision about her own life? Is she not deciding precisely about someone else—deciding that no freedom shall be granted to another, and that the space of freedom, which is life, must be taken from him, because it competes with her own freedom? The question we must therefore ask is this: exactly what sort of freedom has even the right to annul another's freedom as soon as it begins? Now, let it not be said that the issue of abortion concerns a special case and is not suited to clarify the general problem of freedom.

No, it is this very example which brings out the basic figure of human freedom and makes clear what is typically human about it. For what is at stake here? The being of another person is so closely interwoven with the being of this person, the mother, that for the present it can survive only by physically being with the mother, in a physical unity with her.

Such unity, however, does not eliminate the otherness of this being or authorize us to dispute its distinct selfhood. However, to be oneself in this way is to be radically from and through another. Conversely, this being-with compels the being of the other—that is, the mother—to become a being-for, which contradicts her own desire to be an independent self and is thus experienced as the antithesis of her own freedom. We must now add that even once the child is born and the outer form of its being-from and-with changes, it remains just as dependent on, and at the mercy of, a being-for.

One can, of course, send the child off to an institution and assign it to the care of another "for," but the anthropological figure is the same, since there is still a "from" which demands a "for. If we open our eyes, we see that this, in turn, is true not only of the child, but that the child in the mother's womb is simply a very graphic depiction of the essence of human existence in general.

Even the adult can exist only with and from another, and is thus continually thrown back on that being-for which is the very thing he would like to shut out. Let us say it even more precisely: man quite spontaneously takes for granted the being-for of others in the form of today's network of service systems, yet if he had his way he would prefer not to be forced to participate in such a "from" and "for," but would like to become wholly independent, and to be able to do and not to do just what he pleases.

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The radical demand for freedom, which has proved itself more and more clearly to be the outcome of the historical course of the Enlightenment, especially of the line inaugurated by Rousseau, and which today largely shapes the public mentality, prefers to have neither a whence nor a whither, to be neither from nor for, but to be wholly at liberty.

In other words, it regards what is actually the fundamental figure of human existence itself as an attack on freedom which assails it before any individual has a chance to live and act. The radical cry for freedom demands man's liberation from his very essence as man, so that he may become the "new man. Although Ernst Topitsch believed he could safely say that today no reasonable man still wants to be like or equal to God, if we look more closely we must assert the exact opposite: the implicit goal of all of modernity's struggles for freedom is to be at last like a god who depends on nothing and no one, and whose own freedom is not restricted by that of another.

Once we glimpse this hidden theological core of the radical will to freedom, we can also discern the fundamental error which still spreads its influence even where such radical conclusions are not directly willed or are even rejected. To be totally free, without the competing freedom of others, without a "from" and a "for"—this desire presupposes not an image of God, but an idol. The primal error of such a radicalized will to freedom lies in the idea of a divinity conceived as a pure egoism. The god thought of in this way is not a God, but an idol.

Indeed, it is the image of what the Christian tradition would call the devil—the anti-God—because it harbors exactly the radical antithesis to the real God. The real God is by his very nature entirely being-for Father , being-from Son , and being-with Holy Spirit. Man, for his part, is God's image precisely insofar as the "from," "with," and "for" constitute the fundamental anthropological pattern.

Whenever there is an attempt to free ourselves from this pattern, we are not on our way to divinity, but to dehumanization, to the destruction of being itself through the destruction of the truth. The Jacobin variant of the idea of liberation let us call the radicalisms of modernity by this name is a rebellion against man's very being, a rebellion against truth, which consequently leads man—as Sartre penetratingly saw—into a self-contradictory existence which we call hell.

The foregoing has made it clear that freedom is tied to a measure, the measure of reality—to the truth. Freedom to destroy oneself or to destroy another is not freedom, but its demonic parody. Man's freedom is shared freedom, freedom in the conjoint existence of liberties which limit and thus sustain one another. Freedom must measure itself by what I am, by what we are—otherwise it annuls itself. But having said this, we are now ready to make an essential correction of the superficial image of freedom which largely dominates the present: if man's freedom can consist only in the ordered coexistence of liberties, this means that order—right8—is not the conceptual antithesis of freedom, but rather its condition, indeed, a constitutive element of freedom itself.

Right is not an obstacle to freedom, but constitutes it. The absence of right is the absence of freedom. Freedom and responsibility Admittedly, this insight immediately gives rise to new questions as well: which right accords with freedom? How must right be structured so as to constitute a just order of freedom? For there doubtless exists a counterfeit right, which enslaves and is therefore not right at all but a regulated form of injustice. Our criticism must not be directed at right—self, inasmuch as right belongs to the essence of freedom; it must unmask counterfeit right for what it is and serve to bring to light the true right—that right which is in accord with the truth and consequently with freedom.

But how do we find this right order? This is the great question of the true history of freedom, posed at last in its proper form. As we have already done so far, let us refrain from setting to work with abstract philosophical considerations. Rather, let us try to approach an answer inductively starting from the realities of history as they are actually given. If we begin with a small community of manageable proportions, its possibilities and limits furnish some basis for finding out which order best serves the shared life of all the members, so that a common form of freedom emerges from their joint existence.

But no such small community is self-contained; it has its place within larger orders which, along with other factors, determine its essence. In the age of the nation—states it was customary to assume that one's own nation was the standard unit—that its common good was also the right measure of its freedom as a community. Developments in our century have made it clear that this point of view is inadequate.

Augustine had said on this score that a state which measures itself only by its common interests and not by justice itself, by true justice, is not structurally different from a well-organized robber band. After all, the robber band typically takes as its measure the good of the band independently of the good of others. Looking back at the colonial period and the ravages it bequeathed to the world, we see today that even well-ordered and civilized states were in some respects close to the nature of robber bands because they thought only in terms of their own good and not of the good itself.

Accordingly, freedom guaranteed in this way accordingly has something of the brigand's freedom. It is not true, genuinely human freedom. In the search for the right measure, the whole of humanity must be kept in mind and again—as we see ever more clearly—the humanity not only of today, but of tomorrow as well. The criterion of real right—right entitled to call itself true right which accords with freedom—can therefore only be the good of the whole, the good itself.

On the basis of this insight, Hans Jonas has defined responsibility as the central concept of ethics. Accordingly, the history of liberation can never occur except as a history of growth in responsibility. Increase of freedom can no longer lie simply in giving more and more latitude to individual rights—which leads to absurdity and to the destruction of those very individual freedoms themselves.

Increase in freedom must be an increase in responsibility, which includes acceptance of the ever greater bonds required both by the claims of humanity's shared existence and by conformity to man's essence. If responsibility is answering to the truth of man's being, then we can say that an essential component of the history of liberation is ongoing purification for the sake of the truth. The true history of freedom consists in the purification of individuals and of institutions through this truth. The principle of responsibility sets up a framework which needs to be filled by some content.

This is the context in which we have to look at the proposal for the development of a planetary ethos, for which Hans Kung has been the preeminent and passionately committed spokesman. It is no doubt sensible, indeed, in our present situation necessary, to search for the basic elements common to the ethical traditions of the various religions and cultures. In this sense, such an endeavor is by all means important and appropriate. On the other hand, the limits of this sort of enterprise are evident; Joachim Fest, among others, has called attention to these limits in a sympathetic, but also very pessimistic analysis, whose general drift comes quite close to the skepticism of Szizypiorski.

Despite every effort to reach a clearly understandable position, it also lacks the obviousness to reason which, in the opinion of the authors, could and should replace authority; it also lacks the concreteness without which ethics cannot come into its own. There is no great philosophy which does not draw life from listening to and accepting religious tradition.

Wherever this relation is cut off, philosophical thought withers and becomes a mere conceptual game. For, although the general approach of the principle of responsibility is very much to the point, it is still a question of how we are supposed to get a comprehensive view of what is good for all-good not only for today, but also for tomorrow. A twofold danger lies in wait here. On the one hand there is the risk of sliding into consequentialism, which the pope rightly criticizes in his moral encyclical VS, nn.

Man simply overreaches himself if he believes that he can assess the whole range of consequences resulting from his action and make them the norm of his freedom. In doing so he sacrifices the present to the future, while also failing even to construct the future. On the other hand, who decides what our responsibility enjoins? When the truth is no longer seen in the context of an intelligent appropriation of the great traditions of belief, it is replaced by consensus.

But once again we must ask: whose consensus? The common answer is the consensus of those capable of rational argument. Because it is impossible to ignore the elitist arrogance of such an intellectual dictatorship, it is then said that those capable of rational argument would also have to engage in "advocacy" on behalf of those who are not. This whole line of thought can hardly inspire confidence. The fragility of consensuses and the ease with which in a certain intellectual climate partisan groups can assert their claim to be the sole rightful representatives of progress and responsibility are plain for all to see.

It is all too easy here to drive out the devil with Beelzebub; it is all too easy to replace the demon of bygone intellectual systems with seven new and worse ones. The truth of our humanity How we are to establish the right relationship between responsibility and freedom cannot be settled simply by means of a calculus of effects. We must return to the idea that man's freedom is a freedom in the coexistence of freedoms; only thus is it true, that is, in conformity with the authentic reality of man.

It follows that it is by no means necessary to seek outside elements in order to correct the freedom of the individual. Otherwise, freedom and responsibility, freedom and truth, would be perpetual opposites, which they are not. Properly understood, the reality of the individual itself includes reference to the whole, to the other. Accordingly, our answer to the question above is that there is a common truth of a single humanity present in every man. The tradition has called this truth man's "nature.

In this idea, freedom and community, order and concern for the future, are a single whole.

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Responsibility would thus mean to live our being as an answer—as a response to what we are in truth. This one truth of man, in which freedom and the good of all are inextricably correlative, is centrally expressed in the biblical tradition in the Decalogue, which, by the way, coincides in many respects with the great ethical traditions of other religions. The Decalogue is at once the self-presentation and self-exhibition of God and the exposition of what man is, the luminous manifestation of his truth.

This truth becomes visible in the mirror of God's essence, because man can be rightly understood only in relation to God. To live the Decalogue means to live our God-likeness, to correspond to the truth of our being and thus to do the good. Said in yet another way, to live the Decalogue means to live the divinity of man, which is the very definition of freedom: the fusion of our being with the divine being and the resulting harmony of all with all CCC, nn.

In order to understand this statement aright, we must add a further remark. Every significant human word reaches into greater depths beyond what the speaker is immediately conscious of saying: in what is said there is always an excess of the unsaid, which allows the words to grow as the ages go forward. The Decalogue is never simply understood once and for all. In the successive, changing situations where responsibility is exercised historically the Decalogue appears in ever new perspectives, and ever new dimensions of its significance are opened.

Man is led into the whole of the truth, truth which could by no means be borne in just one historical moment alone cf. Jn f. For the Christian, the exegesis of the Decalogue accomplished in the words, life, passion, and Resurrection of Christ is the decisive interpretive authority, which a hitherto unsuspected depth opens up.

Consequently, man's listening to the message of faith is not the passive registering of otherwise unknown information, but the resuscitation of our choked memory and the opening of the powers of understanding which await the light of the truth in us. Hence, such understanding is a supremely active process, in which reason's entire quest for the criteria of our responsibility truly comes into its own for the first time. Reason's quest is not stifled, but is freed from circling helplessly in impenetrable darkness and set on its way.

If the Decalogue, unfolded in rational understanding, is the answer to the intrinsic requirements of our essence, then it is not the counter-pole of our freedom, but its real form. It is, in other words, the foundation of every just order of freedom and the true liberating power in human history. Summary of the results "Perhaps the worn-out steam engine of the Enlightenment, after two centuries of profitable, trouble-free labor has come to a standstill before our eyes and with our cooperation.

Now, I would say that the operation of this machine was never trouble-free let us think only of the two World Wars of our century and of the dictatorships which we have witnessed. But I would add that we by no means need to retire the whole inheritance of the Enlightenment as such from service and pronounce it a worn-out steam engine. What we do need, however, is a course correction on three essential points, with which I would like to sum up the yield of my reflections.

Freedom, if it is not to lead to deceit and self-destruction, must orient itself by the truth, that is, by what we really are, and must correspond to our being. Since man's essence consists in being-from, being-with and being-for, human freedom can exist only in the ordered communion of freedoms. Right is therefore not antithetical to freedom, but is a condition, indeed, a constitutive element of freedom itself. Liberation does not lie in the gradual abolition of right and of norms, but in the purification of ourselves and of the norms so that they will make possible the humane coexistence of freedoms.

Man is always underway and always finite. Szizypiorski, considering both the notorious injustice of the socialist order and all the problems of the liberal order, had posed the doubt-filled question: what if there is no right order at all? Our response must now be that, in fact, the absolutely ideal order of things, which is right in all respects, will never exist. Faith in progress is not false in every respect. What is false, however, is the myth of the liberated world of the future, in which everything will be different and good.

We can erect only relative orders, which can never be and embody right except in their relative way. But we must strive precisely for this best possible approximation to what is truly right. Nothing else, no inner-historical eschatology, liberates, but it deceives and therefore enslaves.

For this reason, the mythic luster attached to concepts such as change and revolution must be demythologized. Change is not a good in itself. Whether it is good or bad depends upon its concrete contents and points of reference. The opinion that the essential task in the struggle for freedom is to change the world is—I repeat—a myth.

History will always have its vicissitudes. When it comes to man's ethical nature in the strict sense, things do not proceed in a straight line, but in cycles. It is our task always to struggle in the present for the relatively best constitution of man's shared existence and in so doing to preserve the good we have already achieved, to overcome existing ills, and to resist the in-breaking of the forces of destruction. Human reason needs the support of the great religious traditions of humanity. It will, of course, examine critically the individual religious traditions. The pathology of religion is the most dangerous sickness of the human mind.

It exists in the religions, but it also exists precisely where religion as such is rejected and the status of an absolute is assigned to relative goods: the atheistic systems of modernity are the most terrifying examples of a religious passion alienated from its nature, which is a life-threatening sickness of the human mind. Where God is denied, freedom is not built up, but robbed of its foundation and thus distorted. Even philosophical ethics cannot be unqualifiedly autonomous. It cannot renounce the idea of God or the idea of a truth of being having an ethical character.

Only the truth makes us free. Translated by Adrian Walker Endnotes 1 K. Marx and F. Engels, Werke, 39 vols. Berlin, , Rousseau und M. Pieper, "Kreaturlichkeit und menschliche Natur. Fest sums up his observations on Kung's "planetary ethos": "The farther the agreements—which cannot be reached without concessions—are pushed, the more elastic and consequently the more impotent the ethical norms become, to the point that the project finally amounts to a mere corroboration of that unbinding morality which is not the goal, but the problem" Wald Hamburg, , , as well as , esp.

To subscribe write Communio, P. Box , Washington, D. Citation de: Usher le 10Avril, , Et j'ignorais que "nomination" signifiait "nominer quelqu'un". Citation de: Glorfindel le 10Avril, , Peu importe le latin. Il se trouve juste que c'est la langue officielle? J'en connais qui le sont bien plus que moi. Ma foi oscille en permanence entre les hauts et les bas. Le doute est un compagnon qui ne me quitte jamais bien longtemps. Et alors? Ils ne t'imposent pas d'y assister, que je sache.

Cela ne te concerne en rien. Et sur ce, bonne nuit. C'est l'heure de faire dodo. Citation de: Hikaki le 10Avril, , Je suis de trop? Belle explication, merci! Ce n'est certes pas moins qui te contredirais. C'est le symbolisme de l'agneau pascal. Citation de: Glorfindel le 11Avril, , Sujet que je serais bien en peine d'expliquer. Non, du tout. Pour les catholiques, l'institution de la messe par le Christ correspond au dernier repas qu'il prend en compagnie de ses disciples, avant son arrestation. Il n'y a effectivement pas de chants, ni rien de cet ordre. Citation de: Hikaki le 11Avril, , On avance, on avance La vache!

Les filles! On y est presque! Citation de: Hikaki le 16Avril, , Citation de: Puck le 16Avril, , A voir absolument! Citation de: Cuchulain le 27Avril, , Amis vautours, bonsoir!!! Pour nos amis les profs. Citation de: estrella le 03Mai, , Citation de: Pan Paniscus le 04Mai, , Citation de: Puck le 04Mai, , Nos amis turcs se refont Kill Bill Une bonne nouvelle. Citation de: Puck le 05Mai, , Citation de: Morgalel le 05Mai, , Citation de: Octave le 05Mai, , Citation de: Pan Paniscus le 06Mai, , Citation de: cccp le 06Mai, , Citation de: Cuchulain le 06Mai, , Citation de: Findae le 06Mai, , Ne vous y trompez pas!

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C'te blague Citation de: ithilion le 07Mai, , JEAN 3. Citation de: Pan Paniscus le 07Mai, , A chaque fois, ils font plus fort. Il semble que cela ne soit pas le cas chez TF1. Quant au reste : comme je l'ai dit, c'est mon opinion et je la partage. Citation de: Puck le 07Mai, , Citation de: Cuchulain le 07Mai, , Citation de: Ohtar Celebrin le 08Mai, , Il ne peut y en avoir qu'un! La pizza! La meilleure amie du roliste Ah, non! C'est beau l'informatique On continue avec la religion, mais avec un mec vachement moins sympathique Citation de: Puck le 15Mai, , Les fachos n'ont pas de couilles.

Citation de: Puck le 19Mai, , Citation de: Pan Paniscus le 20Mai, , Citation de: Cuchulain le 29Mai, , Ca fait longtemps qu'on l'attendait! Pas de bol Citation de: Morgalel le 02Juin, , Citation de: Morgalel le 05Juin, , Citation de: Pan Paniscus le 05Juin, , Citation de: Puck le 05Juin, , Vous avez dit que certainement pour plus tard ce serait vrai.

J'ai fait appel de votre refus. Il y a du bon et du mauvais. Citation de: Puck le 09Juin, , Citation de: Cuchulain le 09Juin, , Simple non? Citation de: Pan Paniscus le 09Juin, , Ensuite, il n'avait pas de backstab. Alors que la dague, c'est 1D4. Je commande les pizzas comme un chef! Citation de: Cuchulain le 10Juin, , Quand je pense qu'un jour Sarko fera parti de ce conseil.

Citation de: Pan Paniscus le 10Juin, , Citation de: Ohtar Celebrin le 09Juin, , Citation de: Xaramis le 10Juin, , Citation de: Usher le 11Juin, , Citation de: Mortlock le 11Juin, , Le vote blanc exprime quelque chose. Ensuite s'il y au moins une chose de claire dans ce vote c'est que selon les circonstances aucune "proposition" des diverses listes ne conviennent au citoyen s'exprimant de la sorte. J'y inclue mon groupe vert. Coup de gueule Bon je vais pousser ma gueulante!

Voter blanc, c'est voter Citation de: Le Pixx le 11Juin, , Je ne fais pas l'apologie du vote blanc. Citation de: cccp le 11Juin, , Citation de: Morgalel le 11Juin, , Citation de: Moustrap le 11Juin, , Ca fait pas mal de thune Juste une citation Francis Lalanne, Laprovence. C'est ce que signifie le bulletin blanc. Je ne partage la vision politique ni de l'un, ni de l'autre, je ne suis d'accord ni avec le programme de l'un ni avec le programme de l'autre. Je comprends parfaitement Xaramis. Voter blanc est un acte, s'abstenir est un non-acte. Voter blanc, c'est prendre sur son dimanche pour aller faire passer un message.

S'abstenir, en soi, ne veut rien dire. Voter blanc, c'est voter. Pas d'accord avec Xaramis, par contre, sur son analyse des votants Chirac contre Lepen. Citation de: Cuchulain le 11Juin, , Citation de: Puck le 11Juin, , Citation de: ithilion le 11Juin, , Xaramis nous ne sommes pas d'accord et sur cette question nos points de vues ne sont pas conciliables. On l'oublie trop souvent. Killerklown fermement pour l'introduction d'une amende pour les non votants. Citation de: killerklown le 12Juin, , Citation de: Hikaki le 11Juin, , Mais comme un devoir juridique, non. En passant, l'argument "des gens sont morts pour le droit de vote" me parait un peu en bois.

Citation de: Pan Paniscus le 12Juin, , Toujours est-il que je suis pour une obligation de vote avec amende au bout! En parlant de droit civique et moral, la proposition de Mme Abanulle me fait froid dans le dos!

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Comme quoi tout arrive. Je proteste c'est inique, indigne et scandaleux!! Ca lui donne un bon gout frais!! C'est un don chez lui je dirais! Citation de: Pan Paniscus le 22Juin, , Un mythe je vous dit Citation de: Usher le 21Juin, , Citation de: Pan Paniscus le 25Juin, , Il semble que non. Quand Adolf se fait ban de WoW Michael Jackson est mort! C'est le coeur gros que je vous le dis. Citation de: Puck le 26Juin, , Citation de: Puck le 01Juillet, , C'est juste Citation de: Puck le 09Juillet, , July 10 Bloomberg -- An unexpected characteristic has emerged among many swine flu victims who become severely ill: They are fat.

Doctors tracking the pandemic say they see a pattern in hospital reports from Glasgow to Melbourne and from Santiago to New York. People infected with the bug who have a body mass index greater than 40, deemed morbidly obese, suffer respiratory complications that are harder to treat and can be fatal. Citation de: Rom1 le 12Juillet, , C'est bien.

Mais n'oubliez pas de payer votre facture EDF. Donc taxable. Citation de: Kazanoff le 22Juillet, , Citation de: ithilion le 27Juillet, , Citation de: Cuchulain le 28Juillet, , Et PAF le chien! Et PAF la vieille! Citation de: Puck le 28Juillet, , Pourtant s'ily a bien un pays qu'ils devraient connaitre au Moyen Orient c'est bien l' "Egypte". Notez, c'est une carte de Fox News. Citation de: Usher le 30Juillet, , Citation de: killerklown le 30Juillet, , Y'a des sports vachement crevant Fumble de construction Contaminez les tous et Nurgle reconnaitra les siens.

Merci Microsoft pour ce grand moment de racisme C'est tout un pan de ma jeunesse qui s'en va The Duke took passage at Flushing for Margate ; " Mais je croy, n'ayant declare mon intention aux vents, ils ne me furent favorables pour ce dessein," p. It took him four days and five nights to reach England, and even then he did not land where he wanted. He gives a list of the kings who have died a violent death, and a host of details showing small sympathy for the country he visits. That he was astounded by all he saw is manifest from the confused nature of his impressions. He mingles cooking recipes with appreciations on the Government ; flies off" to the kitchen and back to Parliament in a fever of bewilder- ment.

He too notes disagreeable details complacently, but he occasionally does justice, according to his views, to his neighbours over-sea. Thus London seems to him " a very fine town, and, after Paris, one of the finest, largest, and wealthiest in the whole world. And one must not talk of Lisbon, nor of Antwerp, nor of Pampeluna. It is a pastime to read how Natalis Comes Conti, the Italian from whom Scarron took the subject of his " Typhon " , in like manner speaking of our affaires, dooth clip the names of our English lords.

First, the people do not love the French over much, and when, they see a Frenchman they call him " France chesneue " knave , " France dogue," and even " or son. The women of England are very pretty : on that point also there will be unanimity henceforth. That the men are great drunkards, " de grands yvrongnes," is another remark unanimously repeated. When they drink they pro- nounce cabalistic words, always the same, which, according to Perlin, are, " drind you ; iplaigiou " ; the reply being, " Tanque artelay.

Their artisans earn and spend a great deal : a wealth which is noted by every traveller down to Voltaire ; one sees artisans who " stake a crown at tennis " ; they go to the tavern and make good cheer " on rabbits, hares, and all sorts of viands. The English are turbulent and fickle. On this point again there is unanimity. That nation which is usually looked upon now as essentially " conservative," passed in the Middle Ages, at the Renaissance, and up to the French Revolution for the most dangerous and hard to manage, " les plus perilleux et merveilleux a tenir," in Europe.

Nothing, he writes, can be more fickle than the English : " Now they will love a prince, turn your hand, they will want to kill and crucify him. Certes, I had liefer with due reverence to the reader be a swineherd and keep safe my head. Think what it is to see a man like that " Milor Notumbellant," erstwhile master of the whole country and queen-maker, in the hands of the headsman, a headsman who seemed a butcher!

This high and mighty lord made great lamentations and regrets at dying, and said this orison in English, throwing himself on his knees, looking heavenwards and weeping tenderly : ' Lorde God, mi fatre prie fort ous poores siners nond vand in the hoore of our theath. And after execution done, you would have seen little children receiving the blood which had fallen through some chinks in the scaffold. The best French writers and greatest poets of the period 1 Sit in Perlin.

Jacques Grevin, famous as a lyric and dramatic poet, went twice to England, in and , during the time of the French religious j wars — " Alors qu'abandonne aux ondcs popullaires Je naviguoys la mcr dcs civilles miseres. But the " deaf waters of the Thames, and the silent stones of the palaces," could not assuage the sorrow he felt, far from those he 1 " Lc Chant du eigne.

EARLY DAYS 13 oved : l the people of England seemed to him even more " tumultuous " in their peace 2 than the French people in the midst of their civil wars ; his heart bled at the thought of the distant mother country, of sweet France, " France, my sweet mother," and he expressed his feelings in verses of matchless tenderness and beauty — " France, ma douce mere, helas, je t'ai laisse, Non sans un long regret et une longue plainte, Non sans avoir au cceur une douleur empreinte, Et un long pensement mille fois repense. He spent thirty months in Scotland and six in London.

He had performed the long sea voyage between France and Scotland in the company of one of the most famous poets of the latter country, the quick-witted Sir David jLyndesay. Mais l'onde qui est sourde et la pierre muette, Les bestes sans raison ne me font qu'ennuyer Depuis qu'il me souvient de ceulx que je regrette. Dorez, " Bulletin du Bibliophile," September 1 5, ' But the good instinct of the true Frenchman tickled him every hour, and invited him to return home ; and he did so. He does not seem to have preserved any remembrance of Lyndesay, whose fame, however, was destined to cross the seas, his English poems being translated during the sixteenth century, not into French, it is true, but into Danish.

He was not aware that " cet ornement des 1 " Discours de la vie de Pierre de Ronsard," Paris, , 4 , p. Binet says, by mistake, that the journey took place on the occasion of the second marriage of James V. Several of Lyndesay's works were published in English, "at the command and expenses of Maister Samuel Jascuy in Paris" but this seems to be a fancy localisation, as no such printer is known.

He had observed the presence of swans on the Thames, and that seemed to him a good omen for the poetical future of the race ; but the way in which he expresses himself clearly shows that he had seen the swans with his own eves but not the poets. The traveller had I described to him the queen, a youthful, learned, elegant, beautiful queen, who loved all arts, knew everything, and spoke all languages — " On dit que vous savez conter en tous langages.

When, at a later date, wounds obliged him to renounce an active life, and he began to note all he remembered of his chequered career, he found room in his memoirs for three things he had been struck by among all those he had seen in England : a play, a picture, and a breed of dogs. The play was a mask of the wise and foolish virgins performed at Court in the year of "Gorboduc". Elsewhere Ronsard again mentions England as a land of poetry, but he remains just as vague. Poetry is like a will-o'-the-wisp, "Lequel aux nuits d'hyver, comme un presage est veu Ores dessus un fleuve, ores sus unc prec.

Elle a veu l'Allcmagne, et a pris accroissance Aux rives d'Angleterre, en Escosse et en France, Sautant deca, dela, et prenant grand plaisir, En estrange pays, divers homines choisir. Even the queen danced, and she did so with excellent good grace and royal majesty ; for she was then in all her beauty and grace. There would be only praise for her had she not caused the poor Queen of Scots to be executed. But the only sight which seems to have given the visitor a heart- beat was the unexpected encounter, in the Tower, of i certain dogs, which suddenly reminded him of his native Perigord.

With filial joy Bran to me discovered, among the ;" spaniels of the Queen of England," a quantity of 1 those dogs, as beautiful as before and as black as ever ; ; they had increased to the number of twenty-four, and the Lieutenant of the Tower certified their origin and i pedigree : " Feu M. He had been able to see, during his second journey in , the two or three great theatres i newly built in London while there was only one in Paris , but he remembered only the dogs.

Very different were the results of this intercourse in the two countries. While English literature con- tinued ignored in France, French literature was familiar to everybody in London. Skelton imitates the " Pelerinage de la vie humaine," Barclay translates Gringoire, Wyatt derives his inspiration not only from the Italians, but also from Marot and Saint Gelais ; Spenser copies Marot, translates the Roman sonnets of Du Bellay, and borrows from French literature the idea of his royal and noble shepherds : Raleigh is in his lines the " shepheard of the ocean," and Elizabeth is the " great shepheardesse," in the same way as Louise de Savoie is, in Marot, "la mere au grand berger," Francis I.

Margaret of Navarre is praised by Nash as "a maintener of mirth. Ronsard figures on the most elegant desks ; James VI. Montaigne is translated and becomes familiar ] to Shakespeare ; Du Bartas, owing partly to the simili- I tude of religion, becomes more celebrated in England than in France ; even the " sweete conceites " of Des-! In imitation of the king, the English noblemen paid great attention to French cus- toms, fashions, and literature ; so much so that Sir Thomas More found in the London francomaniac a fit object for his satire, and described, with his usual humour, the fop of his day, who wore his ribbons and shoe-strings French fashion, who spoke Italian with a French accent, and even English with a French accent, and all languages, in fact, with a French accent — except French alone — "Nam gallicam solam sonat Britannice.

English was a language unknown in France ; English literature was, to Parisian men of letters, as though it did not exist. None of the English books printed in London by the Frenchman Pynson with types brought from Rouen found any purchasers in France. The need of English grammars was by no means felt in France. Saint-Lien, who translated his name into English, Holyband, became almost famous ; his " French Littleton " had countless editions ; he could secure commendatory lines from no less a person than George Gascoigne, lost lines if any!

EARLY DAYS 21 — a sonnet, complete, " Tarn Marti quam Mercuric" Unlike Palsgrave, who would not sell his grammars to all comers, for fear of losing his pupils, Saint-Lien sold his by the hundred and resorted to other means in order to fill his school : he inserted in his books familiar dialogues on himself, in which he gave his address and his terms, and disparaged rival teachers, of whom too many, alas, are " fort negligens et paresseux," quite the reverse of one whom we have given as a master to our bov : "Jan comment s'appelle ton maistre?

Claude de Sainliens. Grosart, " it was a rule all should speak French ; he who spoke English, though only a sentence, was obliged to wear a fool's cap at meals and to continue to wear it till he caught another in the same fault. Dedicace dated London, March 25, The first edition is of ; other editions in , He had published a "French Schoolmaister," to learn French without a teacher, in , and a "Dictionarie French and English" in , London, 4.

But this, again. The dictionary went through numerous editions in the seventeenth century, all printed in England. The edition of was preceded by an essay on the French language by James Howell, who had travelled in France, and who, although he did not acknowledge it, drew from the " Recherches de la France " of Pasquier all his information, quo- tations, explanations of proverbs, and comical mistakes, this one for instance : " Scaliger would etymologize [Languedoc] from langue d'Ouy sic whereas it comes from langue de Got in regard to the Goths and Saracens.

He introduced, moreover, words of his own in praise of Cardinal Richelieu who " also had a privat place in Paris called l'Academie des beaux esprits, where forty of the choicest wits in France used to meet every Munday to refine and garble the French language of all pedantic and old words. Howell, London, , fol. Howell addressed himself "to the nobility and gentry of Great Britain that are desirous to speak French for their pleasure and ornament, as also to all merchant adventurers as well English as.

The chief professor of English at that time, Gabriel Meurier, lived, not in Paris, but in Antwerp, and did not teach English alone. He had founded and directed for fifty years a sort of polyglot institution where French, Spanish, Flemish, Italian, and English could be learnt. It seems evident from the title of his works on the English language that he too had in view English rather than French pupils : one of his books, for instance, is called : " Com- munications familieres non moins propres que tres utiles a la nation angloise desireuse et diseteuse du langage Francois.

When Rabelais would describe the first meeting of Pantagruel with Pan urge " so ill favoured that he seemed to be just off from the teeth of dogs," he was able to represent the queer fellow addressing the giant in all sorts of languages : German, Italian, Dutch, Spanish, Hebrew and even Utopian ; 1 Antwerp, , 8 3. English figures only among the supplementary specimens of Panurge's erudition introduced into subsequent editions. And the printer having added his own mistakes to the incorrections of the master, we have, as a result, the following example of " English as she was spoke " in sixteenth-century France : " Lard ghest tholb be sua virtuiss be intel- ligence : ass yi body schal biss be naturall relutht tholb suld of me pety haue for natur hass ulss equal y maide : bot fortune sum exaltit hess and oyis depreuit It must be remembered, however, that Con- tinental printers, when unchecked by English cor- rectors, would put forth garbled texts of this sort even in more serious cases.

A dignified treatise by Hooper printed at Zurich in i begins : " For asmouche as all mightye God of his infinit mercye and Goddenys preparyd Ameanes wherby. No wonder Pantagruel, on hearing the strange idiom, simply exclaimed " Less than ever! In France a thirst for knowledge was felt in all classes of society : foreign arts, strange countries, forgotten literatures, new systems and inventions elicited keen attention, and often caused enthusiasm.

People 1 "Pantagruel," i. Marty-Laveaux, i. At a time when an English grammar was a rarity and remained unknown to all Frenchmen of any account, Villegagnon and Lery compiled dialogues and vocabularies, printed in , to teach the language of Brazilian natives, 1 and Ronsard, attracted by novelties, as all his contemporaries were, warmed at the descriptions of the travellers, and dreamed of going, with Villegagnon, to South America where man lived " innocently, free of garments and wickedness both "— " D'habits tout aussi nu qu'il est nu de malice.

Mon- taigne wanted young people to be early taken abroad I to rub and polish their brains against others','' and to learn languages on the spot. Ronsard, to whom Boileau attributes opinions exactly contrary to those he really held, insists upon the French tongue being cultivated above all others, " the which should be the nearer thine heart that it is thy mother-tongue. Its past history should be carefully learnt : " Thou must not reject the old words of 'Included by Lery in his "Voyage au Bresil," chap.

Thou shalt not despise old French words. I hold them still in vigour, until they have given birth in their place like an old stock to an offshoot ; and then thou shalt use the offshoot and not the stock the which gives all its substance to its little child, to make it grow and finally take its place. There is no good writing in a vulgar tongue if one does not know the language of the most honourable and famous foreigners.

Judging from Ronsard's own works, they were Petrarch, Ariosto, Bembo, and even obscure Capilupi ; no room was found among them for any Surrey, Wyatt, Sackville, or Spenser. Such a view was not at all an isolated one ; it was, on the contrary, the common opinion of the day.

Henri Estienne, brother of Sir Thomas Smith's printer, published, in , his treatise on the " Precellence du langage Francois," written to show that French could 1 " je te conseille de les scavoir parfaictement, ct d'ellcs, comme d'un vieil tresor, trouve soubs terre, enrichir ta proprc nation ; car il est fort malaise de bien escrire en langue vulgaire si on n'est instruit en celles des plus honorables et fameux estrangers.

This is precisely the subject chosen for competition by the Berlin Academy two centuries later. Estienne declares in his preface that the French language has two rivals — Italian and Spanish. No other language is of any account ; Italian having the richest literature is the one against which the champion of French wages war with the greatest zeal. Spanish is admitted to be worthy of consideration, German is mentioned, and i English totally ignored.

The one French poet who came nearest making his compatriots suspect that there was such a thing as an ] English literature, was that famous Huguenot Du I Bartas, who was praised in London above all foreign ; poets, and who had been sent on missions to England and Scotland. In his second " Semaine " he drew a picture of all literatures. Coming to the English I nation and surveying " the spacious times " in which I he was living, he could only name three writers, " the : pillars," he said, " of the English speech. To the familiar names I of More and Bacon, he adds only that of the " sweet singing swan," Sidney, whom he knew personally and corresponded with :— " Le parler des Anglois a pour termes piliers Thomas More et Baccon tous deux grands chanceliers.

Et le milor Cydne qui, cygne doux-chantant, Va les Hots orgueilleux de Tamise flatant. The comment added by Simon Goulard to Du Bartas's text is not less characteristic. And who was the " eagle " and " phoenix," the sure guide to the heaven of poetry, before whom he chose to bow his genius in an admirable line — "Ombre je vole en terre et toi dedans la nue"?

None but the conscientious pedant, James VI. There were, doubtless, some battles and difficulties ; but their import was com- paratively small, and the results were balanced on both sides. The great enemy was the Spaniard, who had had the best of it at Pavia and the worst at Cerisoles, who threatened France on all her frontiers — Pyrenees, Pro- English simply nothing.

Here is the only information he can give about Sidney : " Ouant ail Milord Sidne, il a acquis aussi par tout ce mesme los que luy donnc le poetc. Pellissier, M. Bcnetrix affirm that he knew English, but there is no proof of it. Pellissier infers that he must have known English since he was sent on a mission to England ; but this is no proof whatever, as it was not at all the custom, far from it, with envoys to know the language. Spanish grammars and vocabularies swarmed on French soil ; translating from the Spanish had become a regular trade.

Italian spread : no less. In Sonnet XVI. Grevin describes the "doleful tragedy" of France ; all foreign nations attend the performance ; the English " talk of it," while the others think of " the booty. A tradition, which did not cease to operate for centuries, had established itself in the remote days of the Conquest, in accordance to which all people of any- standing in England spoke French, all thinkers and philosophers spoke Latin, and the rest were of no account.

For ignorance was strictly limited to works in the English tongue ; the thinkers, philosophers, and historians of Great Britain were familiar to every one in Paris, and had there as many admirers as in their own country. But they were known only under their names in us — Moms, Camdenus, Seldenus ; they ex- changed letters with their French brethren, and received epistles from Budsus, Stephanus, and Thuanus.

A Paris edition of More's " Utopia " appeared long before there was a London one, and the work was translated into French before it was turned into English. Bacon was renowned alike on both sides of the Channel. But all that he or others had written in English was prac- tically non-existent for the French public. Du Bellay translated "Adieu ma lyre" from the Latin of Buchanan, but no one suspected that he would have better served the muses by putting into French — " My lute awake, perform the last Labour that thou and I shall waste," the exquisite and touching lines of the Ambassador Wyatt.

Cooper, , p. For which reason the poets of days gone by have set little store by their generation, and have always esteemed them as a strange and barbarous race, for their fount and origin may not be traced from people who were born in the land, but from strange men, barbarians and fugitives. Thus it came to pass that, at the time of Shakespeare, the French Stage could be influenced by the ancients, the Italians, and the Spaniards, but not at all by the English. In both countries the starting-points stood very close together. Great differences were doubtless to be expected as dramatic art developed, on account of differences in the genius of both 1 Vauquelin dc la Frcsnayc, "Art Poetique," , book i.

Parquoy les poetes du temps passe ont peu faict dc compte de leur generation, et les out tousjours estime comme une terre barbare et estrange, car leur principe et origine n'estpoinct venu de gens qui soyent estes nais la, mais des estranges et barbares et prof'uges.

Both arts followed, for some while, no very dissimilar paths. In the two countries clever people, worshiptul critics, men of knowledge, had given their verdict in favour of Renaissance, antiquity, and rules, against Middle Ages, Gothic barbarity, and unbridled freedom. In the two countries certain people protested and rebelled against Aristotle and his exponents ; but what of that?

They were men who knew kW small Latin and less Greek. In his " Apologie 'for poetrie," invoking the authority of Aristotle and of Reason, he proclaims the dogma of the unities : "The stage should alwaies represent but one place, and the ; uttermost time presupposed in it should be both by Aristotle's precept and common reason but one day. But he preferred, even to "Gorboduc," the Latin tragedies of Buchanan, in which the little Montaigne " had played the chief parts 1 "An Apologie for poetrie, written by the right noble, vertuous and learned Sir Phillip Sydney Knight, — Odi profanum vulgus et iarceo.

Written about I , reprinted by Arbor. The great thinker of the period, Bacon, assists in the construction of an English play according to the classical standard at a time when Marlowe had already produced his " Faust. According to Jonson art should reign supreme ; those who are found wanting in that respect must not receive more than their due : " Shakespeere wanted arte. On that subject, see my "Theatre en Angleterre," chap, vi. Cunning- ham, vol. Queen Elizabeth herself, who knew, however, how to be merry with Falstaff, gave encouragement on num- berless occasions to classically-inclined dramatists by her presence at their plays.

She saw " Gorboduc " in 1 56 1, a Latin "Dido" in , " Tancred and Gismund," with passages unexpectedly drawn from i Virgil, in , 2 the "Misfortunes of Arthur" — for! She was a lettered queen if ever there was one, a great admirer of the ancients, and had trans- lated herself, among other things, fragments of Horace's! While Englishmen of renown imitated those models and spread such ideas, without knowing for certain which style would triumph among them in the end, French i writers, being still so near mediaeval picturesqueness and unruliness, were very far from adhering strictly to classical dogmas.

We are still in the sixteenth century, an age of wars, duels, rebellion, and debauch, the age of Marig- 1 "Cornelia," translated by Thomas Kyd, ; another edition under the title of " Pompey the Great," 1 ; " The Tragedie of Antonie," printed with care and elegance upon fine paper, translated by the Countess of Pembroke, , 16 the translation made in Pember- ton, E. This prince of poets found room in his verses for all sorts of words, many of which would not be allowed now even in prose ; he was afraid of nothing, admitted in his poems low and subtle expres- sions alike, and coined new words, reproaching the Huguenots with following an empistolled Christ — " un Christ empistole.

Moreover, mediaeval " gothicity " still continued to hold the French stage during all the sixteenth century and even part of the seventeenth, at the Hotel de Bour- gogne, the only theatre Paris then possessed. Mediaeval art was patented, had privileges ; the " Confreres de la Passion," lessees of that famous playhouse, had a monopoly which they exerted jealously ; the early classical dramatists in France, Jodelle, Gamier, Grevin, did not know where to have their plavs performed, and were re- duced to composing most of them as much with a view 1 " Ne preche plus en France une Evangile arraee, Un Christ empistole, tout noirci de fumee, Portant un morion en tcte.

The Middle Ages, incoherent, irregular, rash, with their executions, their bloody martyrdoms, their farcical plays in the fabliau style, their armies on the march, their changes of time and place, thus live on, protected by decrees and letters patent, threatened sometimes with being dis- lodged, but impregnable as yet in their stronghold of the Hotel de Bourgogne. Theatres multiplied in London in the days of Shakespeare : at the time of his death, and even long after, Paris still had but one, that ; of the Confreres ; ' and if no genius made himself known there, it certainly cannot be alleged that the fault j lay with Aristotle's rules.

On the other hand, French dramatists were treating, at the same period, the same subjects as English poets, sometimes the same as Shakespeare. The Passion ; Brothers, however, as early as the sixteenth century, were wont to I let their hall to others when it was in their interest to do so. We shall see an example of it further on, p. This drama, plaved in 1 , was taken, like Shakespeare's play, from Bandello's novel. Clement and De la Porte, "Anecdotes dramatiques," Paris, , 3 vols. Rotrou's"Les Menechmes " drawn from Plautus as "The Comedy of Errors" had been , were performed in and printed in French Antony, like English Antony, shook the blood-stained gown of Caesar before the assembled Romans : — " You all do know this mantle.

They offered the peculiarity of being drawn from a novel of Greene's, the same which Shakespeare used, and one of the very first literary works translated from English into French. Several passages might be compared with Shakespeare's : for instance, the soliloquy of Brutus in Grevin : — " Rome ne peult servir, Brute vivant en elle, Et cachant dedans soy ceste antique querelle.

Ce n'est assez que Brute aist arrache des mains D'un Tarquin orgueilleux l'empire des Romains. In Shakespeare : — " Shall Rome stand under one man's awe? My ancestors did from the streets of Rome The Tarquin drive when he was called a king. From a French engraving, EARLY DAYS 43 it was several times remodelled, and, as late as , a new version of it was published with curious cuts, showing a Florizel and a Perdita dressed in eighteenth century dresses and taking part in the shepherds' feast. The second, by Puget de la Serre, " Pandoste ou la Princesse malheureuse," was printed in , and is divided into two days, each of five very short acts.

It is written in the prodigiously florid and precieux style which was then fashionable with many. The play is dedicated to the Lady " Urania " : " Your black locks always in mourning for the death of your slaves are as many chains which keep my pen prisoner. The sweetest pleasures which can be tasted in this nether world are the everyday dishes for my table. O Fortune, when wilt thou change thy face?

It was analysed in in the " Bibliotheque universelle des Romans," Paris, vol. Speak, 1 charge thee, infamous one, but speak from afar, lest the wind from thy mouth poisons me. It seems as if thy tears would drown thee in their waters, to make good the curse to which thy fate has condemned thee. Let us mix our tears together and undergo the same ship- wreck.

What character do you want me to sustain in order to show you the sincerity of my love? The character of a shepherd. I am one already, for from the first day that 1 saw you, my desires and my thoughts have watched the sheep with you. Before a mystery play had been devoted in France to the Maid of Orleans burnt in 1 , and in it " the] English army left its island. Petit de Julleville, " Les Mysteres," , vol.

It is an apology of the Saint Barthelemi. Ronsard, while giving their full due to Rome and Athens, foresaw that Grevin might dramatise the dissensions with which France was being rent : — " D'Athenes, Troye, Argos, dc Thebes et Mycenes Sont pris les arguments qui convienment aux scenes ; Rome t'en a donne, que nous voyons ici, Et crains que les Francois ne t'en donnent aussi. This tragedy treats of the death of Mustapha, a favourite subject with dramatists in England as in France during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries treated in England, e.

It seems as though he were calling forth Voltaire's Tancrede and Zaire l two hundred years before their time : — " Portez done en trophe les depouilles payennes Au sommet des clochers de vos cites chretiennes. O barbare, O tyran, O homme abominable! Pellissier, , p. They pro- duce most unexpected personages on the stage. Long before the ghost of old Hamlet had been placed by Shakespeare on the boards, Jodelle had shown his audience the ghost of Antony — a French ghost, how- ever, who was careful to declare in the opening lines of 1 " Les Tragedies de A. Auvray, Revue d'Histoire litteraire de la France, January 15, The " Ecossaise " is ornamented with a portrait of the author; the verses which accompany the engraving resemble those that Jonson wrote a little later for the portrait of Shakespeare in the first folio : — " Son corps et son esprit sont peints en cct ouvrage, L'un dedans ce tableau, l'autre en cc qu'il escrit : Si Ton trouvc bien fait le portrait du visage, Je trouvc encor mieux fait le portrait de l'esprit.

Decorum and the " convenances " are but ill observed ; Jodelle's Cleopatra seizes Seleucus by the hair of his head, and says : — " Plucked out shall be the hair of thy cruel head. Have at thee, traitor, have at thee! Hold her back, mighty Caesar, hold her back, I say! In making ghosts appear upon the stage, Jodelle was simply following the example of Seneca : — " Thiestis Umbra. Opaca linquens, Ditis inferni loca, Adsum profundo Tartari emissus specu. Ores je rcule un roc du haut d'une montagne. Non moins que moi le cardinal mon frere Et l'apostat Calvin ne font qu'heurler et braire.

The messenger who relates the Saint Bar- thelemi in Chantelouve's tragedy puts in his discourse as much irrelevant poetry as he can, and first describes fair-haired Aurora driving away the black horses of Night. Add to this the remarkable fact that English players came 1 " Lorsque la blonde Aurore Chassoit les noirs chevaux de la deesse more Et que, laissant le lict son mari vieillard, Ses couleurs pour le ciel semoit de toute part.

English dramatists came too, and among others Shakespeare's best friend, Ben Jonson, while some French dramatists, such as Grevin, Montchrestien, and Schelandre, went to England. The English actors who came to Paris were not mere strolling players ; they did things on a rather large scale, for there was only one permanent theatre in Paris, and that one they hired.

The lease, dated Mav 25, , by which the " Confreres de la Passion " allow them free use of the " Grande salle et theatre de 1'Hotel de Bourgogne," is still in existence among the papers of a notary public in Paris. They had at their head " Jehan Sehais, comedien Anglois. The Hotel de Bourgogne was not enough for them ; they wanted to, and actually did play outside the hotel, contrary to the privileges of the Passion Brothers. The judge had to interfere, and the Chatelet passed a sentence "against the said English comedians," obliging them to pay an indemnity to the brothers.

Troops of them swarmed ; they roamed over the highways of Europe, meeting with the adventurers of premature " Comical Romances " which unfortunately no Scarron has re- corded. A troupe of English acrobats had been seen in Paris in Fournier, "Chansons de Gaultier Garguille," , p.

The difficulty of pleasing the audience with dramas in a strange tongue, obliged them to have recourse to all the little talents they might happen to possess ; they played different instru- ments, amused the public with their comical gesticu- lations, and excited admiration by antics more worthy of acrobats than of dancers. Previous to the arrival of the troupe of we find in Paris some English " volteadors in a Spanish company. In Holland and Germany the English comedians are often designated by the name of " instrumentisten.

The list in which figure several plays oi Shake- speare, is a list of plays performed at Dresden by English comedians in Their qualitv of actor-acrobats is shown sometimes by their passports, wherein it is stated that they intend to "exercer EARLY DAYS 55 We may well believe that in Paris the English actors, who would scarcely have been less understood had they spoken native Brazilian, must have had recourse more than once to their supplementarv talents in order to hold an audience.

Even then their success does not seem to have come up to their expectations, for we soon loose sight of them, and no one knows now whether the spectators of the Hotel de Bourgogne saw " Romeo " as in London, or graceful leaps as in Leyden. Heroard, physician in ordinary to the young prince, who was then scarcely four vears old, saw the plav with his pupil.

It consisted of one of those wild and bloody dramas, destined to cause such lively discussions in France, but not till a century and a half later. Heroard writes in his journal: " Saturdav iSth [September, ] at half-past three, lunch ; then conducted the dauphin to the great new hall " — the famous hall just then finished, where a stage was erected later, and plays were constantly performed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries — " to hear a tragedy performed by English players.

He listened with coldness, gravity, and patience, till the head of one of the heroes had to be cut ofF. Was the child indignant as by a prescience of the arrests of Boileau ; leurs qualitez en faict de musique, agilitez et joeuz de commedies, tragedies et histoires. Heroard is mute on this point, but he continues : " Taken him to the garden and then to the kennel to see the quarry of the hart given to the hounds.

He sees the hounds come to his very feet, busy with the carnage, and he views the scene with the most remarkable assurance. Young Louis kept, in any case, a most lively remembrance of the tragedy and of the words, acting, and attitudes of the English players. At half-past six, supped. He goes to his room, has himself dressed in his disguise, and says, ' Let us go and see maman ; we are comedians.

Youthtul Louis did not prove a bad observer, and if, when on the throne, arms and hunting had not become his only pastimes, he would, in all probability, have given his support to a sort of drama different from the kind that was to be favoured by a certain young man, then nineteen, and very busv with theological studies, the future Cardinal de Richelieu. Soulie and de Barthelemy, Paris, , 2 vols. In a letter to the " Intermediate des Chercheurs et Curieux," vol. Coote has expressed the opinion that the plav was probably Shakespeare's " Henry IV. This is a very doubtful inference, as no one is be- headed in this play.

The "Argenis" of John Barclay was later one of the favourite books of Richelieu. Sidney appeared at the Court of Charles IX. Henri of Navarre, who was to welcome the English comedians at Fontainebleau, struck up a friendship with him. He must surely have known " Helen " de Surgeres, who was then maid of honour to Catherine de Medicis, and the beloved of Ronsard. Whether he may not have climbed, in company with the elder poet, the intermin- able stairs which led to the rooms of the " docte de la cour," l is left for-speculation : — " Tu logcs au sommet du palais dc nos rois, Olvmpe n'avait pas la cimc si hautaine.

Jonson's sojourn had even lesser results, although no one would have been better entitled to a hearing. Illustrious as he was among his compatriots, a great 1 Nolhac, " Lc dernier amour de Ronsard," a reprint from the Nouvelle Revue. EARLY DAYS 59 admirer of the ancients, a translator of the Poetical Art of Horace, whose severe precepts were thus put into English for the second or third time, 1 a personal friend of Shakespeare, whom he used to meet constantly at the tavern only a little before, and who had lent him his assistance as actor and perhaps as poet on the occasion of his " Sejanus," Jonson might have given some idea of what the English drama was like.

But old Ben loved a tavern even when there was no Shakespeare in it, and he appears to have made him- self conspicuous in Paris only as a drinker. He accompanied to France Master Raleigh, the son of the famous captain and writer. The young fellow, an enterprising youth who had already killed his man in a duel his tutor being the last person who might have blamed him for it, as he had done the same , gave himself the pleasure of causing his mentor " to be drunken and dead drunk so that he knew not where he was.

Not Any fourth man, to speak at all aspire. The anecdote is so strange that we might doubt the truth of it, did we not hold it from Jonson himself. The knowledge of literary England was so strictly limited to the Latin works she had produced, that writers using the English tongue had no great illusions themselves on that score. Nash notices in what we observe ourselves three centuries later : that the pro- digious impulse received by dramatic art in London at that time remained totally ignored in France, Spain, and Italy.

In order that his fellow authors and the actors who performed their plays, might receive their due, he was preparing a work in Latin to make their names known beyond the seas. Seebohm Dordrecht, Springer. History of science, epistemology, and ontology Flavia Marcacci in: Science between truth and ethical responsibility, Dordrecht : Springer.

Hominoid cranial diversity and adaptation Alan Bilsborough , Todd C. Rae in: Handbook of Paleoanthropology, Dordrecht : Springer. Homo respondens Bernhard Waldenfels Phainomena Homology: a philosophical and biological perspective Olivier Rieppel in: Handbook of Paleoanthropology, Dordrecht : Springer. Horizons of authenticity in phenomenology, existentialism, and moral psychology: essays in honor of Charles Guignon Hans Pedersen , Megan Altman ed Dordrecht, Springer. How is perceptual experience possible? How rare is chairman Mao?

How to do intercultural philosophy? How to invent a form: an inquiry into Gilbert Simondon's philosophy of perception Giovanni Carrozzini in: Morphogenesis and individuation, Dordrecht : Springer. Human conversation and the evolution of ethics in Kitcher's pragmatic naturalism in: The ethics of subjectivity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Human embodiment: An eidetic and empirical communicology of phantom limb Richard L Lanigan Metodo.

Human space colonies: towards a governance architecture Rick Wylie in: The meaning of liberty beyond earth, Dordrecht : Springer. Hundred years of intelligence testing: moving from traditional iq to second-generation intelligence tests Jack A. Naglieri in: Handbook of intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. Husserl and Geiger on feelings and intentionality Michele Averchi in: Feeling and value, willing and action, Dordrecht : Springer. Husserl and Heidegger on reduction, primordiality, and the categorial: phenomenology beyond its original divide Panos Theodorou Dordrecht, Springer.

Husserl and Heidegger on the social dimensions of the life-world Thomas Nenon in: The phenomenological critique of mathematisation and the question of responsibility, Dordrecht : Springer. Husserl's conception of cognition as an action: an inquiry into its prehistory Genki Uemura in: Feeling and value, willing and action, Dordrecht : Springer. Husserl's hermeneutical phenomenology of the life-world as culture reconsidered Nicolas de Warren in: The phenomenological critique of mathematisation and the question of responsibility, Dordrecht : Springer. Comins Mingo, F.

Ideal and actual inventories of biodiversity Anouk Barberousse , Sophie Bary Rivista di estetica Identifying verb-preposition multi-category words in Chinese-English patent machine translation Hongzheng Li , Yun Zhu , Yaohong Jin in: Artificial life and computational intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. Identity: difficulties, discontinuities and pluralities of personhood James DiGiovanna in: The Palgrave handbook of posthumanism in film and television, Dordrecht : Springer. Identity today and the critical task of semioethics Susan Petrilli in: International handbook of semiotics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Ikealismo assoluto Enrico Terrone Rivista di estetica Il diritto di essere un uomo Jeanne Hersch Milano, Mimesis. Il Finnegans Wake di U. Il possibile necessario Vittorio Gregotti Rivista di estetica Il postumano e la ciabatta: ermeneutica e antropocentrismo Leonardo Caffo Rivista di estetica Il ritorno dell'altro nel discorso che lo interdice: Vie d'uscita a partire dalla riflessione di Michel de Certeau Sara De Carlo Metodo.

Illusions and perceptual norms as spandrels of the temporality of living David Morris in: Normativity in perception, Dordrecht : Springer. Implementation fundamentals for ethical medical agents Mark R. Waser in: Machine medical ethics, Dordrecht : Springer. Implications of experimental versus quasi-experimental designs Jeremy W. Grabbe in: The Palgrave handbook of research design in business and management, Dordrecht : Springer. In defense of the expressive conception of norms Andrej Kristan in: Problems of normativity, rules and rule-following, Dordrecht : Springer.

In the "era of tyrannies": the international order from nazism to the cold war Matthias Oppermann in: The companion to Raymond Aron, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Individuation and semiogenesis: an interplay between geometric harmonics and structural morphodynamics Alessandro Sarti , David Piotrowski in: Morphogenesis and individuation, Dordrecht : Springer. Appareil 16 Individuer Simondon Inerpretation and rule following in law: the complexity of easy cases Ralf Poscher in: Problems of normativity, rules and rule-following, Dordrecht : Springer. Instance, example, case, and the relationship of the legal case to the law Hans Lipps in: Exemplarity and singularity, London-New York : Routledge.

Integrating multiple case studies with a merger and acquisition example Lars Schweizer in: The Palgrave handbook of research design in business and management, Dordrecht : Springer. Intelligence: defined as neurocognitive processing Tulio M. Otero in: Handbook of intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. Intelligence and culture: history and assessment Donald H. Suzuki in: Handbook of intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer.

Intelligence as a malleable construct Lisa S. Greenwood in: Handbook of intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. Intelligence explosion quest for humankind Eva Zackova in: Beyond artificial intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. Intelligence in nonprimates Thomas R. Zentall in: Handbook of intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. Intentionality of moods and horizon consciousness in Husserl's phenomenology Ignacio Quepons in: Feeling and value, willing and action, Dordrecht : Springer. Konstruktionen des Anderen Burbules , Morwenna Griffiths ed Dordrecht, Springer.

International handbook of semiotics ed Dordrecht, Springer. Interplanetary federalism: maximising the chances of extraterrestrial peace, diversity and liberty Ian A. Crawford in: The meaning of liberty beyond earth, Dordrecht : Springer. Interpretation and hermeneutical judgment Jure Zovko in: Science between truth and ethical responsibility, Dordrecht : Springer.

Interpretation, social science, and educational research Deborah Kerdeman in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer. Interpreting education policy and primary teachers' work in England Geoff Troman , Bob Jeffrey in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer.

Interpreting findings and discussing implications for all ideologies Mary Ann Rafoth , George Semich , Richard Fuller in: The Palgrave handbook of research design in business and management, Dordrecht : Springer. Interpreting power: rethinking the relationship between mythos and logos as prolegomena to an intercultural theological hermeneutics Marion Grau in: Renegotiating power, theology, and politics, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Interpreting street narratives of children and parents in Indonesia Sophie Dewayani in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer.

Interpreting visual and verbal data: teenagers' views on belonging to a language minority group in Finland Gunilla Holm , Monica Londen , Jan-Erik Mansikka in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer. Interpreting websites in educational contexts: a social-semiotic, multimodal approach Emilia Djonov , John S.

Knox , Sumin Zhao in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer. Intersections between four phenomenological approaches to the work of art Jacques Taminiaux in: Phenomenology in a new key, Dordrecht : Springer. Intersubjectivity of Dasein in Heidegger's Being and time: how authenticity is a return to community K. Introduction: Some remarks about ontopoiesis as new metaphysics Francesco Totaro in: From sky and earth to metaphysics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Introduction Hans Pedersen , Megan Altman in: Horizons of authenticity in phenomenology, existentialism, and moral psychology, Dordrecht : Springer. Introduction Peer F. Bundgaard in: Investigations into the phenomenology and the ontology of the work of art, Dordrecht : Springer. Introduction: penser le management? Introduction Gil C. Watts in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer. Introduction Jane Mulderrig , Vally Lytra in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer.

Introduction Francesca Gobbo , Kathryn Anderson-Levitt in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer. Introduction Dennis Beach , Elina Lahelma in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer. Introduction Lynn Fendler , Marc Depaepe in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer.

Introduction: the meaning of liberty beyond the earth Charles S. Introduction: objectivity in science Jonathan Y. Introduction: third reality — on the persistence of Philip K. Introduction: modernity, ethics and the subject Elvis Imafidon in: The ethics of subjectivity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Introduction William J. Introduction to biosemiotics Kalevi Kull in: International handbook of semiotics, Dordrecht : Springer. Introduction—modern Indian philosophy: from colonialism to cosmopolitanism Sharad Deshpande in: Philosophy in colonial India, Dordrecht : Springer.

Intuition, gender and the under-representation of women in philosophy Vera Tripodi Rivista di estetica Revista de estud i os sobre Fichte 10 Inv i erno Investigation on extracellular matrix proteins in fossil bone: facts and perspectives Tyede H. Investigations into the phenomenology and the ontology of the work of art: what are artworks and how do we experience them?

Bundgaard , Frederik Stjernfelt ed Dordrecht, Springer. Is logic universal or hierarchical? Is mind extended or scaffolded? Is monitoring one's actions causally relevant to choking under pressure? Ist das Bildung? Italian reactionary thought and critical theory: an inquiry into savage modernities Andrea Righi Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.

Iterative-pragmatic case study method and comparisons with other case study method ideologies Harm-Jan Steenhuis in: The Palgrave handbook of research design in business and management, Dordrecht : Springer. Davis in: The Palgrave handbook of social theory in health, illness and medicine, Dordrecht : Springer. Schear ed. Nancy, A. Jacques Derrida on the ethics of hospitality Gerasimos Kakoliris in: The ethics of subjectivity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Arbor Mundi - Mirovoe Drevo 21 Jakobson segodnja Japanese buddhism and its responses to natural disasters: past and present Yukio Yotsumoto in: The changing world religion map, Dordrecht : Springer. Jaspers' dilemma: The psychopathological challenge to subjectivity theories of consciousness Alexandre Billon , Uriah Kriegel in: Disturbed consciousness, Cambridge, Mass. Jean-Michel Adam dir. Joseph M. Julia Kristeva: abjection, embodiment and boundaries Trudy Rudge in: The Palgrave handbook of social theory in health, illness and medicine, Dordrecht : Springer.

Just like magic: activating landscape of witchcraft and sorcery in rural tourism, iceland in: The changing world religion map, Dordrecht : Springer.

LE MÉTAL ET LA CHAIR. ANTHROPOLOGIE DES PROTHÈSES INFORMATISÉES

Bhattacharyya and Spivak on Kant: colonial and post-colonial perspectives, lessons, and prospects Kanchana Mahadevan in: Philosophy in colonial India, Dordrecht : Springer. Kant's contribution to moral evolution: from modernism to postmodernism Joseph Osei in: The ethics of subjectivity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Karl Marx and Frederich Engels: capitalism, health and the healthcare industry Fran Collyer in: The Palgrave handbook of social theory in health, illness and medicine, Dordrecht : Springer. Kierkegaard and the problem of ironic agency Hans Pedersen in: Horizons of authenticity in phenomenology, existentialism, and moral psychology, Dordrecht : Springer.

Kinaesthetic empathy as aesthetic experience of music: a phenomenological approach Jin Hyun Kim Les Cahiers Philosophiques de Strasbourg Knowing thyself in a contemporary context: a fresh look at Heideggerian authenticity Steven Burgess , Casey Rentmeester in: Horizons of authenticity in phenomenology, existentialism, and moral psychology, Dordrecht : Springer.

Knowledge, by philosophy or science? Kommentar: Fairness lohnt sich! Pfeil in: Fairness und Fairplay, Dordrecht : Springer. Kommentar: Fairplay im Ferntourismus? Kreuzeswissenschaft Edith Stein. Kripke's thought-paradox and the 5th antinomy Graham Priest in: Unifying the philosophy of truth, Dordrecht : Springer.

Kuhn and the historiography of science Alexander Bird in: Kuhn's structure of scientific revolutions, Dordrecht : Springer. Kuhn's development before and after structure Paul Hoyningen-Huene in: Kuhn's structure of scientific revolutions, Dordrecht : Springer. Kuhn's social epistemology and the sociology of science K. Brad Wray in: Kuhn's structure of scientific revolutions, Dordrecht : Springer. Kuhn's structure: a moment in modern naturalism Steven Shapin in: Kuhn's structure of scientific revolutions, Dordrecht : Springer.

Kuhn's structure of scientific revolutions: 50 years on William J. Devlin , Alisa Bokulich ed Dordrecht, Springer. L'anthropologie philosophique — une science empirique? L'impolitique, la religion, la dette Jean Robelin Noesis L'influence du dispositif communicationnelsur les formes de violence verbaledans les relations entreprises - clients Laurence Rosier , Pierre-Nicolas Schwab Semen La bellezza utile dell'architettura Simona Chiodo Rivista di estetica La critica di Banfi a Husserl A. Laresca Paradigmi 3.

La philosophie de la culture de Georg Simmel, un humanisme sans anthropologie? Language, meaning, and culture: Research in the humanities Lawrence Kimmel in: From sky and earth to metaphysics, Dordrecht : Springer. Last resting places? Le figural entre imagination et perception Valeria De Luca Metodo. Learning at the family—school boundary: when new roles and identities are created Delma Barros Filho in: Educational contexts and borders through a cultural lens, Dordrecht : Springer.

Learning nursery rhymes using adaptive parameter neurodynamic programming Josiah Walker , Stephan K. Chalup in: Artificial life and computational intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. Learning styles and strategies: the importance of the tool selection in: Psychiatry and neuroscience update, Dordrecht : Springer. Learning to survive in Sri Lanka: education and training in times of catastrophe Mara Benadusi in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer. Lebensweltorientierte und organisationssoziologische Perspektiven auf Organisation en als Beitrag einer kritischen Sozialen Arbeit Klaus Grunwald in: Biografie und Lebenswelt, Dordrecht : Springer.

Lectures et critiques Legal precision or fuzzy feelings? Bailes in: Recognition in international relations, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Legal rules: defeasible or indefeasible? Leopold Blaustein's critique of Husserl's early theory of intentional act, object and content Marek Pokropski Studia Phaenomenologica Levels of trust in the context of machine ethics Herman T.

Levelt, J. Levinas meets the postcolonial: rethinking the ethics of the other in: The ethics of subjectivity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Liberal eugenics, human enhancement and the concept of the normal Catherine Mills in: Medicine and society, Dordrecht : Springer.


  • Publications in 2011.
  • Hors-jeu => La Taverne de la Cour => Discussion démarrée par: Hikaki le 20Décembre, 2007, 13:50:52.
  • Princeton Football (Images of Sports).
  • Qui est derrière cette arnaque ?;
  • France-inverse.com;
  • Demons Beware (Demons Beware series Book 1);

Liberty, freedom and democracy: paradox for an extraterrestrial society David Baker in: The meaning of liberty beyond earth, Dordrecht : Springer. Life history research and the interpretation of working class success in higher education in the United Kingdom Michael F. Liminal fictions in postmodern culture: the politics of self-development Thomas Phillips Dordrecht, Springer.

Linguistica saussuriana ed economia politica Augusto Ponzio in: Scienze dei linguaggi e linguaggi delle scienze, Milano : Mimesis. Lips in language and space: imaginary places in James Dawson's Australian aborigines Paul Carter in: Spatiality and symbolic expression, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Listening to the grandmother spirit: the chance for prophetic change in contemporary healing David Paul Smith in: Therapy, culture and spirituality, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Los problemas del concepto de "idealismo trascendental" en el Sistema del idealismo trascendental de F. Schelling Fernando Wirtz Revista de estud i os sobre Fichte Louis Paul Cailletet, the liquefaction of oxygen and the emergence of an "in-between discipline": low-temperature research Faidra Papanelopoulou in: Relocating the history of science, Dordrecht : Springer.

Ludovico Dolce e la nascita della critica d'arte: Un momento della ricezione della poetica aristotelica nel Rinascimento Marco Sgarbi Rivista di estetica Ludwik Fleck: thought collectives and the sociology of medical knowledge Kevin White in: The Palgrave handbook of social theory in health, illness and medicine, Dordrecht : Springer. Staudigl ed. Machine medical ethics: when a human is delusive but the machine has its wits about him Johan F. Hoorn in: Machine medical ethics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Machine medical ethics and robot law: legal necessity or science fiction? Making knowledge of meaning explicit Bernhard Weiss in: Dummett on analytical philosophy, Dordrecht : Springer. Making oneself at home in climate change: religion as a skill of creative adaptation Sigurd Bergmann in: The changing world religion map, Dordrecht : Springer. Managing therapeutic, spiritual and faith-based Pastoral programmes in an international multi-faith higher education community Terry Biddington in: Therapy, culture and spirituality, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Maps, diagrams, and signs: visual experience in Peirce's semiotics Vitaly Kiryushchenko in: International handbook of semiotics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Margaret Stacey: the sociology of health and healing Hannah Bradby in: The Palgrave handbook of social theory in health, illness and medicine, Dordrecht : Springer. Marx et la tradition Florian Gulli Philosophique Marx, the body, and human nature John G. Fox Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan. Master and emissary: The brain's drama of dark energy Rebecca Painter in: From sky and earth to metaphysics, Dordrecht : Springer. Matching research method with ideology and strategy Kenneth D. Maurice Mouillaud, Le discours et ses doubles. Max Weber: bureaucracy, formal rationality and the modern hospital William C.

Cockerham in: The Palgrave handbook of social theory in health, illness and medicine, Dordrecht : Springer. Meaning-making as a socially distributed and embodied practice Jessica Lindblom in: Aesthetics and the embodied mind, Dordrecht : Springer. Meanings of violence: the classroom as a meeting point for discourse and practices Marilena Ristum in: Educational contexts and borders through a cultural lens, Dordrecht : Springer.

Measurement and metaphysics in van Fraassen's scientific representation Sergio A. Mechanical generation of networks with surplus complexity Russell K. Standish in: Artificial life and computational intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. Mediating systemic change through sociocultural methods in educational systems in the USA Elizabeth B. Kozleski , Alfredo J. Artiles in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer.

Medicine and society: New perspectives in continental philosophy Darian Meacham ed Dordrecht, Springer. Memory and mental states in the appreciation of literature Marisa Bortolussi , Peter Dixon in: Investigations into the phenomenology and the ontology of the work of art, Dordrecht : Springer. Memory development from early childhood through emerging adulthood Wolfgang Schneider Dordrecht, Springer. Mereological foundation vs. Meta-ecclesiology: chronicles on church awareness Cyril Hovorun Dordrecht, Springer. Metaphysics and ontology Paolo Musso in: Science between truth and ethical responsibility, Dordrecht : Springer.

Metrosexual masculinities Matthew Hall Dordrecht, Springer. Michel Foucault: governmentality health policy and the governance of childhood obesity Julie Henderson in: The Palgrave handbook of social theory in health, illness and medicine, Dordrecht : Springer. Microscopic research on fossil human bone Michael Schultz , Tyede H. Milton's sky-earth alchemy and Heidegger's earth-sky continuum: A comparative analysis Bernard Micallef in: From sky and earth to metaphysics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Revue germanique internationale 22 Mimesis Mit Stift und Papier in digitalen Welten? Modeling the past: the primatological approach Robert W. Modeling the past: the paleoethnological approach Paolo Biagi in: Handbook of Paleoanthropology, Dordrecht : Springer. Modeling the past: archaeology Miriam N. Haidle in: Handbook of Paleoanthropology, Dordrecht : Springer. Modelling consciousness-dependent expertise in machine medical moral agents Steve Torrance , Ron Chrisley in: Machine medical ethics, Dordrecht : Springer. Models of the patient-machine-clinician relationship in closed-loop machine neuromodulation Eran Klein in: Machine medical ethics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Molecular evidence on primate origins and evolution Ryan L. Raaum in: Handbook of Paleoanthropology, Dordrecht : Springer. Monte carlo simulation using excel: case study in financial forecasting Seifedine Kadry in: The Palgrave handbook of research design in business and management, Dordrecht : Springer. Montesquieu and Aron on democracy's virtues and corruption: the question of political legitimacy Miguel Morgado in: The companion to Raymond Aron, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Moral ecology approaches to machine ethics in: Machine medical ethics, Dordrecht : Springer. Moral enhancement and artificial intelligence: moral AI?

Moral strangers, proceduralism, and moral consensus Fabrice Jotterand in: At the foundations of bioethics and biopolitics, Dordrecht : Springer. More seeing-in: surface seeing, design seeing, and meaning seeing in pictures Peer F. Morphogenesis under construction: tracing the process of individuation along physico-aesthetic coordinates Claudia Mongini in: Morphogenesis and individuation, Dordrecht : Springer. Moving from "interesting data" to a publishable research article: some interpretive and representational dilemmas in a linguistic ethnographic analysis of an English literacy lesson Julia Snell , Adam Lefstein in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer.

Mr Tagomi's planet: Philip K. Muddy worlds: re-viewing environmental narratives John Bruni in: The Palgrave handbook of posthumanism in film and television, Dordrecht : Springer. Multiculturalism, religion and counselling: freedom to heal Roy Moodley , Claire Barnes in: Therapy, culture and spirituality, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Multiple intelligences in the new age of thinking Robert Sternberg in: Handbook of intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer.

Music as art — art as being — being as music: a philosophical investigation into how music education can embrace a work of art based on Heidegger's thinking Susanna Leijonhufvud , Cecilia Ferm Thorgersen in: Philosophy of music education challenged: Heideggerian inspirations, Dordrecht : Springer. Music education as a dialogue between the outer and the inner: a Jazz pedagogue's philosophy of music education Elin Angelo in: Philosophy of music education challenged: Heideggerian inspirations, Dordrecht : Springer.

Music, truth and belonging: listening with Heidegger Erik Wallrup in: Philosophy of music education challenged: Heideggerian inspirations, Dordrecht : Springer. Musings of Heidegger: arts education and the mall as a "debased" Dreyfus work of art Frederik Pio in: Philosophy of music education challenged: Heideggerian inspirations, Dordrecht : Springer. Narrative and the transmission of traditions: informal learning among Italian artisan stone carvers Amy Shuman in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer.

Naturalizing what? Naturalness of artificial intelligence Jan Romportl in: Beyond artificial intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. Nature, culture and the quest of the sacred Anne Buttimer in: The changing world religion map, Dordrecht : Springer. Navigating Feyerabend's moral philosophy from boundaries without values to values without boundaries Isaac E. Ukpokolo in: The ethics of subjectivity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Negating rules Giovanni Battista Ratti in: Problems of normativity, rules and rule-following, Dordrecht : Springer. Negative feelings as emotional enhancement in cinema: the case of Ulrich Seidl's Paradise trilogy Tarja Laine in: The Palgrave handbook of posthumanism in film and television, Dordrecht : Springer.

Negotiating the boundaries within: an anthropologist at home in a multiethnic neighborhood in urban Japan Yuko Okubo in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer. Neo-aristotelian ethics: naturalistic or phenomenological John Drummond in: Phenomenology in a new key, Dordrecht : Springer. Neo-hellenic enlightenment: in search of a European identity Manolis Patiniotis in: Relocating the history of science, Dordrecht : Springer. Neuroaesthetics as an enactive enterprise Christian Tewes in: Aesthetics and the embodied mind, Dordrecht : Springer.

Neurosciences, neuroeconomics, and metaphysics Ricardo F. Crespo in: Psychiatry and neuroscience update, Dordrecht : Springer. Neurosophie Wolfram K. Neurovascular cognitive alterations: implication of brain renin—angiotensin system Natalia A. New insights in glutamate-mediated mechanisms underlying benzodiazepines dependence and cocaine vulnerability Laura A. Gabach , Mariela F. Nietzsche's sovereign individual and the ethics of subjectivity Sharli Paphitis in: The ethics of subjectivity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.


  • The Legend Of Ravens Ridge (The Letterbox Mysteries Book 1).
  • Between a Rock and a White Blaze: Searching for Significance on the Appalachian Trail.
  • Visualizing Maths.
  • GUITAR CHORDS FOR KEYS (Instant Knowledge);

Niklas Luhmann: social systems theory and the translation of public health research Samantha Meyer , Barry Gibson , Paul Ward in: The Palgrave handbook of social theory in health, illness and medicine, Dordrecht : Springer. No neuron is an island: a neuroaesthetic inquiry into Omer Fast's mimetic interactions Sally McKay in: Aesthetics and the embodied mind, Dordrecht : Springer. Non-certain foundations: clinical ethics consultation for the rest of us in: At the foundations of bioethics and biopolitics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Norbert Elias and Erving Goffman: civilised-dramaturgical bodies, social status and health inequalities Peter Freund in: The Palgrave handbook of social theory in health, illness and medicine, Dordrecht : Springer. Normality and normativity in experience Maren Wehrle in: Normativity in perception, Dordrecht : Springer. Normativity and rationality: framing the problem Joanna Klimczyk in: Problems of normativity, rules and rule-following, Dordrecht : Springer. Hopkins in: The phenomenological critique of mathematisation and the question of responsibility, Dordrecht : Springer.

Object-oriented ontology Graham Harman in: The Palgrave handbook of posthumanism in film and television, Dordrecht : Springer. Objectivity for sciences from below Sandra Harding in: Objectivity in science, Dordrecht : Springer. Objectivity in science: new perspectives from science and technology studies Flavia Padovani , Alan Richardson , Jonathan Y. Tsou ed Dordrecht, Springer. Objectivity, intellectual virtue, and community Moira Howes in: Objectivity in science, Dordrecht : Springer. Obligation: a legal-theoretical perspective Stefano Bertea in: Problems of normativity, rules and rule-following, Dordrecht : Springer.

Observing schools in disadvantaged neighborhoods in France Jean-Paul Payet in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer. Of iron men and green monsters: superheroes and posthumanism Dan Hassler-Forest in: The Palgrave handbook of posthumanism in film and television, Dordrecht : Springer. Of posthuman born: gender, utopia and the posthuman in films and tv Francesca Ferrando in: The Palgrave handbook of posthumanism in film and television, Dordrecht : Springer. Oikos: the sign of nature Gunta Mackars in: International handbook of semiotics, Dordrecht : Springer.

Oliver Wendell Holmes jr. Markov's attitude towards Brouwer's intuitionism Ioannis M. On communicative being in postmodern times Daniela Verducci in: From sky and earth to metaphysics, Dordrecht : Springer. On getting a good look: normativity and visual experience Charles Siewert in: Normativity in perception, Dordrecht : Springer. On growth and form of narrative structures Guido Ferraro in: Morphogenesis and individuation, Dordrecht : Springer. On metalogical relativism Vladimir L. On obligations, norms and rules Dietmar von der Pfordten in: Problems of normativity, rules and rule-following, Dordrecht : Springer.

On scientific biography and biographies of scientists Helge Kragh in: Relocating the history of science, Dordrecht : Springer. On substances and causes again: Simondon's philosophy of individuation and the critique of the metaphysical roots of determinism Andrea Bardin in: Morphogenesis and individuation, Dordrecht : Springer. On the distinction between sets and classes: a categorical perspective Samuele Maschio in: From logic to practice, Dordrecht : Springer. On the estimation of convergence times to invariant sets in convex polytopic uncertain systems Ryan J.

Seron in: Artificial life and computational intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. On the hazardousness of the concept "technology": notes on a conversation between the history of science and the history of technology Aristotle Tympas in: Relocating the history of science, Dordrecht : Springer. On the indispensable premises of the indispensability argument Marco Panza , Andrea Sereni in: From logic to practice, Dordrecht : Springer. On the origins of illness and the hiddenness of health: A hermeneutic approach to the history of a problem Niall Keane in: Medicine and society, Dordrecht : Springer.

On the philosophical roots of today's science policy: any lessons from the "Lysenko affair"? On the subject of sex: an ethnographic approach to gender, sexuality, and sexual learning in England in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer. On the transcendental Andrea Altobrando Metodo. On three comics adaptations of Philip K. One Western size fits all: counsellor training in different countries and cultures William West in: Therapy, culture and spirituality, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Onscreen ontology: stages in the posthumanist paradigm shift Thomas D.

Philbeck in: The Palgrave handbook of posthumanism in film and television, Dordrecht : Springer. Ontological and computational aspects of economic-environmental modelling James Juniper in: Artificial life and computational intelligence, Dordrecht : Springer. Ontologie informatiche della geografia: Una sistematizzazione del dibattito contemporaneo Timothy Tambassi , Diego Magro Rivista di estetica Op weg naar Broxeele: the production of shared spaces Catherine Emerson in: Spatiality and symbolic expression, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan.

Open standard, open judgment and value revision in Karl Popper's moral philosophy Peter A. Ikhane in: The ethics of subjectivity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Opportunity costs: scarcity and complex medical machines Adam Henschke in: Machine medical ethics, Dordrecht : Springer. Organizing and conducting scholarly literature reviews Linnaya Graf in: The Palgrave handbook of research design in business and management, Dordrecht : Springer.

Our posthuman skin condition Teodora Manea in: The Palgrave handbook of posthumanism in film and television, Dordrecht : Springer. Outlines of Jacques Lacan's ethics of subjectivity Gregory B. Sadler in: The ethics of subjectivity, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Paleoecology: an adequate window on the past?

Menke in: Handbook of Paleoanthropology, Dordrecht : Springer. Paleopathology: vestiges of pathological conditions in fossil human bone Michael Schultz , Tyede H. Paradox and inconsistency: revising Tennant's distinction through Schroeder-Heister's assumption rules Luca Tranchini in: From logic to practice, Dordrecht : Springer. Parental involvement: possibilities and tensions Felicity Wikeley , Joanna Apps in: Educational contexts and borders through a cultural lens, Dordrecht : Springer. Parental proxy talk in Japanese parents how does a parent express oneself through a baby's voice?

Participant observation as ethnography or ethnography as participant observation in organizational research in: The Palgrave handbook of research design in business and management, Dordrecht : Springer. Patient authority and enduring novelty: pragmatizing Robert W. Jenson on time and language Joshua Daniel in: Renegotiating power, theology, and politics, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Patterns of rationality: recurring inferences in science, social cognition and religious thinking Tommaso Bertolotti Dordrecht, Springer. Paul Farmer: structural violence and the embodiment of inequality Fernando De Maio in: The Palgrave handbook of social theory in health, illness and medicine, Dordrecht : Springer.

Peirce's role in the history of logic: lingua universalis and calculus ratiocinator Irving H. People "of passage": an intercultural educator's interpretation of diversity and cultural identity in Italy Francesca Gobbo in: International handbook of interpretation in educational research, Dordrecht : Springer.

Perceiving sensible things: Husserl and the act of perception Anita Williams in: The phenomenological critique of mathematisation and the question of responsibility, Dordrecht : Springer. Perception and normative self-consciousness Maxime Doyon in: Normativity in perception, Dordrecht : Springer. Percezioni, ragionamenti e illusioni Alessandra Jacomuzzi Rivista di estetica Performance e documenti vuoti: Maurizio Ferraris e la cantometrica Vincenzo Santarcangelo Rivista di estetica Performing leisure, making place: wilderness identity and representation in online trip reports Daniel Williams , Joseph Champ in: Landscapes of leisure, Dordrecht : Springer.

Perspectives at the edge of experiencing in clinical supervision Greg Nolan in: Therapy, culture and spirituality, Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Perspectives on interculturality: the construction of meaning in relationships of difference Michal Jan Rozbicki ed Dordrecht, Springer. Phenomenal experience and the scope of phenomenology: a Husserlian response to some Wittgensteinean remarks Andrea Staiti in: Phenomenology in a new key, Dordrecht : Springer. Phenomenological aesthetics after the centenary Alex Cosmescu Phenomenological Reviews 1.

Phenomenological ontology and supervenience Andrea Zhok Metodo. Phenomenology and extreme sports in natural landscapes Eric Brymer , Robert D. Schweitzer in: Landscapes of leisure, Dordrecht : Springer. Phenomenology as social critique William Koch in: Horizons of authenticity in phenomenology, existentialism, and moral psychology, Dordrecht : Springer.

Phenomenology in action in psychotherapy: on pure psychology and its applications in psychotherapy and mental health care Ian R Owen Dordrecht, Springer. Phenomenology is a humanism: Husserl's hermeneutical-historical struggle to determine the genuine meaning of human existence in "The crisis of the European sciences and transcendental phenomenology" George Heffernan in: From sky and earth to metaphysics, Dordrecht : Springer. Phenomenology of the embodied organization: the contribution of Merleau-Ponty for organizational studies and practice Wendelin M.

Phenomenology of value and the value of phenomenology Benjamin Crowe in: Horizons of authenticity in phenomenology, existentialism, and moral psychology, Dordrecht : Springer. Phenomenology variations from traditional approaches to eidetic and hermeneutic applications Jillian McCarthy in: The Palgrave handbook of research design in business and management, Dordrecht : Springer. Philosophical anthropology Matteo Negro in: Science between truth and ethical responsibility, Dordrecht : Springer.

Philosophical hermeneutics and the one and the many Frank C. Richardson , Robert C. Bishop in: Horizons of authenticity in phenomenology, existentialism, and moral psychology, Dordrecht : Springer.