Ornamental Fish Farming: Individual Species
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Brooders especially egg layers should be discarded after few spawnings. Health care Water exchange, is a must for maintaining water quality conducive for the fish health. Only healthy fish can withstand transportation and fetch good price. Market At present the market is mainly domestic. There is a good domestic market which is increasing. The export market for indigenously bred exotic species is also increasing.
Ornamental Fishes. Aquarium fishes are mainly grouped into two categories, viz. Further, the fresh water ornamental fish varieties can be broadly grouped into Tropical and Cold water species also. Management of these two categories are different in nature. According to water tolerance fishes are hard water tolerant, soft water tolerant species and those with wide tolerance. The fishes and the details of grouping is given below. Ornamental Fish breeding project The basic requirements for successful breeding and rearing of ornamental fish are adequate space, quality water and sufficient feed.
Considering this the following investments are required for starting an Ornamental fish project Tanks : The tanks can be of RCC or brick masonry work having flat bottoms with inlet and outlet pipes. Clay, cement, fibre glass or plastic tanks can also be used. Rearing of fishes should be done in large tanks. Size of the tanks vary according to the space, the number and type of fish cultured. Aquariums : Glass tanks of varying size are required for breeding.
Small glass bottles of ml are used for keeping individual male fighter fishes. Over head tank : An over head tank of suitable size for storing and to enable sedimentation of water is required. Water Supply : Deep tube wells would be the best source of water. Recycling of water through bio-filters or other sort of filtering mechanism can be tried.
Other sources like dug wells, Municipal water if available can also be used. A small pump to lift the water to over head tank and a network of pipes are needed to feed the culture tanks. Work Shed : Work shed should be designed in such a way that the tanks get filtered sunlight. Translucent HDPE sheets can be used.
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This also protects the culture tanks from falling debris and bird dropping etc. Aeration equipments : A blower pump with net work of tubes for aeration is a must. Continuos power supply should also be ensured through generator set or UPS or inverter. Financial viability Considering the seasonality in breeding and consequent availability of seed material for stocking, the operations are going to be seasonal.
The fecundity and the number of spawnings assumed of some of the popular species are given below. Assumptions For the purpose of working out economics of breeding unit , a unit size of sq. Unit of this size has been designed considering the small entrepreneurs in view. However the same could be increased on modular basis and the economics can be worked out in project situation accordingly.
The larval rearing has been assumed as 40 days. The recurring cost has been assumed with a fecundity of and a survival of 50 per cent upto 40 days. The breeding percentage is taken as 60 per cent. The number of brood fish depends on the fecundity and survival of each species so as to get the combined annual production of about 2. Only 50 per cent production is assumed for the first year. The index is based on five tiers, ranging from best data 1 or high belief to no data 5 to assess the individual attributes see Supplementary Information.
The data quality score for productivity and susceptibility are calculated as a weighted average of the data quality scores for the individual attributes, and provides an estimate of uncertainty for an individual vulnerability scores and denotes the overall quality of the data or belief in the score.
Finally, we explore how improved management or sourcing species from locations with low versus high management capacity could change vulnerability scores via altering susceptibility. Although aquarium fisheries in many countries are unregulated, management and fishing practices vary widely across countries.
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For example, Australia has local enforcement, fisheries management measures, and export regulations, whereas the Philippines has little regulation and oversight of fisheries or exports Roelofs, ; Roelofs and Silcock, ; Dee et al. To illustrate the sensitivity of vulnerability scores to management systems, we compared outcomes from the Philippines and Australia management information in Dee et al.
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To compare, we scored the management strategy and impact to essential fish habitat susceptibility attributes in the Philippines stocks as 3 and Australian stocks as 1. We used this comparison as a proxy for how improving management could affect susceptibility and therefore vulnerability scores, as well as to analyze the sensitivity of our results to the source location.
Combining these productivity and susceptibility estimates yielded vulnerability scores ranging from low e. Following the Panther grouper C. For 17 species in both analyses, we compare our results to the PSA from Fujita et al. Table 1A. Vulnerability V scores for the top 10 most vulnerable species in the assessment, ranked from high to low vulnerability. Table 1B. Vulnerability V scores for the 10 least vulnerable species in the assessment, ranked from highest to lowest vulnerability. The factors that led to relatively high vulnerability estimates varied among stocks Figure 2.
For example, the Banggai cardinalfish was one of the most vulnerable stocks in the analysis due to low fecundity, a breeding strategy male mouth brooding that involves considerable parental care and limited dispersal of offspring, endemism within the Banggai Archipelago of Indonesia, areal and depth overlap between the fishery and species distribution, and aggregation behavior that facilitates capture Kolm and Berglund, By comparison, Mandarinfish, S.
As a final example, the Harlequin sweet lips, P. Figure 2. Supplementary Table S1 provides details about the attribute categories, and the Supplementary Information provides criteria and for attribute scoring. Supplementary Table S2 provides the attribute scores for each stock and attribute. Many of the aquarium fish species that we reviewed share similar productivity and susceptibility attribute scores. On average, many aquarium fishes share attributes that reflect high productivity — i. These species also shared many susceptibility scores based on the locations of their fisheries in Indonesia and the Philippines i.
For instance, to our knowledge, most stocks occurred in fisheries with little to no management measures, high vertical overlap between the depth of species occurrence and where fishing occurred, and in fisheries using damaging collection practices Vaz et al. Each characteristic raised the susceptibility score and therefore the vulnerability of these species Figure 2. In contrast, breeding strategy, fecundity, recruitment pattern, mean trophic level, appropriateness, schooling and aggregation behaviors, morphology, and survival after capture varied widely across stocks Supplementary Table S2.
As a result, these attributes most often separated the low versus high vulnerability species in our relative ranking. We explored the sensitivity of vulnerability scores to management attributes by comparing scores for 12 fish species from fisheries in the Philippines and Australia Supplementary Table S6.
The more robust management measures implemented by Australia and the absence of cyanide fishing reduced vulnerability by Our results provide a relative measure of vulnerability across the most popular aquarium fish species imported into the U. Several popular fishes emerged as relatively low vulnerability. For example, Nemateleotris magnifica was one of the least vulnerable species in the analysis Table 1 yet ranked 6 th by volume from the Philippines in , and 9th across all available years, according to the available import records Rhyne et al.
Similarly, Gobiodon okinawae , the least vulnerable stock, ranked 24th by volume from Indonesia, based on import volume data from Rhyne et al. Several of the remaining most vulnerable stocks in the analysis also rank among the top imported by volume: Chromileptes altivelis ranked 47th from Indonesia in records , Plectorhinchus chaetodonoides ranked 61st from Indonesia and 64th from the Philippines , Echidna nebulosa ranked 54th from the Philippines ; and Pomacanthus semicirculatus 67th from Indonesia and 86 th from the Philippines.
Consistent with previous reports, the Banggai cardinalfish P. Notably several popular, vulnerable species, including P. To reduce vulnerability of the highest-ranking stocks, several measures are readily available, including investment in research and aquaculture, monitoring of collection and exports, and management interventions. This assessment can help identify the species in the greatest relative need of these measures Figure 1.
For these vulnerable stocks, a precautionary approach to management e. To reduce vulnerability to overcollection in wild populations, retailers and consumers can consider alternative species or sources where sustainable collection can be credibly demonstrated. Lower vulnerability species could be managed under an aggregate quota and generalized management measures e.
Low to moderate vulnerability stocks are satisfactory options for retailers and consumers. Overall, sourcing these animals from locations with known sustainable management practices would also reduce over collection risk and promote sustainability see also Fujita et al. On the demand-side, these vulnerability estimates could also inform purchasing decisions for retailers and hobbyists interested in reducing overcollection risk e. Many similarities among coral reef fishes caught by aquarium collectors resulted in clustering of vulnerability estimates for the majority of stocks Figure 1 and lower vulnerability scores relative to some fish species caught for food Patrick et al.
The aquarium fish stocks we analyzed shared various life history, catchability, and fisheries attributes from the exporting countries Figure 2. For instance, most aquarium reef fishes are small in size and short lived, exhibit fast growth rates, disperse through a pelagic larval stage, are from intermediate trophic levels, all of which raise productivity attributes see Figure 2 and Supplementary Table S2. Many stocks also had similar scoring for susceptibility attributes like impact to essential habitat and management strategy, based on the locations of these fisheries in areas with low management measures and capacity Dee et al.
Future assessments should also consider the relative vulnerability of stocks to climate change, including through its impact on essential habitat, because many of these species are dependent on live coral or anemones that are highly susceptible to heat stress. We also explored how changing susceptibility through improved management could alter vulnerability scores for several species, because susceptibility attributes, rather than intrinsic biological characteristics determining productivity, were common drivers of vulnerability scores for many stocks Figure 2. To that end, we compared vulnerability scores for 12 species exported from both the Philippines, with limited management oversights, and Australia, with regulation of collection and exports see Roelofs, ; Roelofs and Silcock, ; Dee et al.
The sensitivity analysis revealed that management and fishing practices of Australia reduced vulnerability by approximately Therefore, adjusting management practices within a source location could reduce susceptibility e. This sensitivity analysis also illustrates how species collected from other locations with management and monitoring measures could fare differently in the vulnerability rankings. Sourcing certain species from fisheries in locations with better management can offer a more immediate option for reducing risk of overcollection in wild populations reviewed in Dee et al.
Importantly, our analysis focuses solely on vulnerability of wild-caught fishes. Captive-bred fish are available for several of the most vulnerable species identified in this analysis, including S. In the case of P. However, for many other at-risk species, captive-bred specimens do not currently exist Olivotto et al. Moving forward, our results could help inform where to target investments in aquaculture efforts to reduce pressures on wild populations for species identified as relatively vulnerable to collection.
Despite the flexibility and utility of PSA in data-limited contexts, this approach has limitations. Importantly, PSA does not estimate population sizes and dynamics. Therefore, it does not provide quantitative estimates needed to determine sustainable collection levels or total allowable catch limits for managers and which species will be overharvested or collapse Hordyk and Carruthers, As a threat-based assessment tool, PSA does not consider other ecological and social objectives, such as phylogenetic uniqueness, ecological role in communities, economic considerations, or cultural and aesthetic significance Bowen, ; Mace et al.
Similarly, PSA analyses do not include information on the costs of management reform to determine how best to allocate resources e. By providing semi-quantitative information on relative threat levels, PSA serves as a useful starting point for a larger and more comprehensive assessment and management process e. This analysis identifies species exported from Indonesia and the Philippines that merit additional focus from future research, management, and monitoring efforts, as well as education initiatives for retailers and hobbyists; e.
Particularly, several of the 10 most vulnerable species to overcollection are also ranked in the top 20 imported species into the U. These species are prime candidates for additional species-specific assessment, monitoring, and standards for collection and handling practices. Similarly, the 1 imported species by volume from both Indonesia and the Philippines, Chromis viridis , scored as moderately vulnerable to overcollection Supplementary Table S4 ; according to the import records from Rhyne et al. In contrast, we also identified several species in the top imported species by volume that have relatively low vulnerability to overcollection e.
This analysis provides one step toward assessing and managing the aquarium fish trade, to ensure the sustainable collection of coral reef species to both protect reef wildlife and maintain the long-term viability of the aquarium fish trade. CL and DT scored the stocks with input from all authors. LD and DT created the figures. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We thank Andrew Rhyne and Michael Tlusty for providing data on imported species.
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We thank two reviewers for constructive comments and suggestions that improved this work. Allen, G. Threatened fishes of the world: Pterapogon kauderni koumans, Apogonidae. Fishes 57, — Beddington, J. Current problems in the management of fisheries. Science , — Bowen, B. Preserving genes, species, or ecosystems? Healing the fractured foundations of conservation policy.
Bruckner, A. Google Scholar. Burke, L. Reefs at Risk Revisited. Cope, J. An approach to defining stock complexes for U. Costello, C. Dee, L. To what extent can ecosystem services motivate protecting biodiversity? Conservation and management of ornamental coral reef wildlife: successes, shortcomings, and future directions.
Edwards, A. Environmental implications of aquarium-fish collection in the Maldives, with proposals for regulation. Froese, R. World Wide Web Electronic Publication. Available at: www. Fujita, R. Assessing and managing data-limited ornamental fisheries in coral reefs. Fish Fish. Gonzales, E. Hixon, M. Structure in fishery populations.
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