Communities of the Air: Radio Century, Radio Culture
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Library Links. Getting Started Guidelines and Policies Services. Embed Experimental. Layout options: Carousel Grid List Card. Include data citation:. Copy to clipboard Close. Cite Data - Experimental. Structured data from the Bibframe namespace is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Additional terms may apply to data associated with third party namespaces. Link Analysis Experimental. Network Analysis Inbound Links 2 1 Total. One of the challenges it faces is that there is no proper measurement tool. When you are on a digital platform, you can measure the audience.
There is no proper scientific parameter available to measure content on radio.
Communities of the Air: Radio Century, Radio Culture
A lot of assessments are still perception-led. That is one of the biggest drawbacks for the radio industry. Another area where radio falls behind is news broadcasting. There is so much happening around us on different subjects, all of which can make for good current affairs programmes. Unfortunately, news is not allowed and whatever is allowed is news from All India Radio, which most private radio stations do not broadcast as they have sister companies within their respective groups — operating through print or television — which specialise in news.
Moreover, the fee charged by the Prasar Bharati Corporation is exorbitant. As a consequence, most of them end up playing the same music, which I think is detrimental to the medium because it is not looked upon as a serious one. If there is any information people need, radio is not the first port of call in our country. This restriction has hurt the medium in a big way. Another point to be considered pertains to the licensing fee. The huge licensing fee acts as a deterrent. The initial few years are a bit of a struggle for any operator as there is a lot of clutter in the market.
Very few operators are able to differentiate themselves in terms of content. As most radio stations are on the same bandwidth and targeting the same audience, the recovery of investment takes its own time. If the license fees were not so high, and we could encourage regional players, the market would grow. These factors have slowed the growth of radio. Diversifying and creating different revenue streams is extremely critical.
We can consider the example of the numerous radio stations — about 23 — based in Colombo. They include channels specialising in diverse genres — like news, devotional music and adult programmes. The time has come for the government to reconsider its licensing model. The fee can be determined by the content being offered.
There could be content aimed at children or women or sports and the fees can be worked out accordingly. This could also act as a check on the current auctioning process which has led to a lot of speculation. A program was begun to train personnel and launch nine Gulf-based radio stations as part of khaleejnet. Two other community radio stations have been established in Jordan. Farah FM is under construction, but has a license to broadcast in Amman and Zarqa Jordan's second-largest city.
This station will focus primarily on youth and women's issues. Its stations nationwide broadcast a live Manila feed via satellite; sometimes stations air local programming, cutting the Manila feed. It is considered a community network, because local programs air on different RN stations. Radyo Natin is owned by the Manila Broadcasting Company.
Radyo Natin is the largest network of community radio stations in the Philippines, counting over small FM stations throughout the archipelago from Batanes in the north to Tawi-Tawi in the south. RN stations are owned and operated by franchise holders, who are public-service-oriented communicators in their own right.
Communities of the air : radio century, radio culture - Colby College Libraries
With audio streaming, it is possible for the national feed to reach listeners all over the world via the internet; it is hoped that in the near future as of [update] , the franchise stations will also be heard worldwide. Radyo Natin is able to reach audiences which have never been reached before by radio. During the afternoons, Radyo Natin features popular music. These stations, in turn, rebroadcast its signals locally.
These individual Radyo Natin stations can, however, "unhook" from the Manila central studios and air events in their own areas at specified times; thus, Radyo Natin is nationwide in coverage but local in nature. In a show-cause order containing a cease-and-desist directive from the commissioner of the National Telecommunications Commission was issued to Radyo Natin, forcing the closure of all stations. In the order against Manila Broadcasting Company, NTC Commissioner Ronald Olivar Solis said that the company is "operating a low power FM station as a commercial broadcasting station without the necessary authority from the Commission.
Nepal adopted community radio in when Radio Sagarmatha Sagarmatha is the Nepalese name for "Mount Everest" , broadcasting on Radio Sagarmatha is in the front lines of the fights for freedom of expression and the right to information of Nepalese citizens. As of [update] , there are more than community radio stations which have been licensed by the Nepalese government. In Nepal, there are no separate policies or laws for community radio. The existing policy and applies to both community and commercial radio stations. Community radio stations have been petitioning the government to introduce different policy and law for community radio stations, whose mottoes are social change and social justice.
They have played a role in restoring democracy and changing Nepal to a republic from a monarchy. The rule of law, gender equality, education, health, civics, anti-corruption initiatives, good governance, the environment and day-to-day problems and issues are examined in a different format by the local community radio stations. Community radio enjoys good coverage throughout Nepal, and news is one of its most popular formats.
Ghamaraj Luitel, who served Radio Sagarmatha holding different positions in programme and top management for nearly one and half decade. He made Radio Sagarmatha very popular through unique radio programmes among its listeners during his 15 years service and left it after playing vital role to develop it as Station Manager for four years.
Luitel lead Radio Sagarmatha during the King Gyanendra 's coup to save independent radio movement playing role as central spokesperson after February 1, Radio Sagarmatha's history is interwoven with the gradual loosening of government control over the airwaves in Nepal. From the time of the new constitution in November , the drive to put the station on the air was instrumental in bringing about a new communications environment and a new awareness of the importance and need for independent, public-interest broadcasting.
Mass media in Nepal face barriers; the geography of the country is ill-suited to either mass-circulation print media or coverage by electronic media. Access to newspapers, radio, television and education is limited by poverty; Nepal has a low literacy level, particularly in rural areas and among women. Both print and electronic media are concentrated in urban centers like Kathmandu and are thought to have limited relevance for rural people. In , Nepal changed from a monarchical non-party system to a parliamentary model.
A new constitution enshrined the right to freedom of expression specifically, the right of every citizen to demand and receive information on any matter of public importance. The expression of basic communication rights in the constitution was followed by more focused policy and practical guidelines: in , a National Communications Policy; in , a National Broadcasting Act and in , broadcast regulations.
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Before radio broadcasting was the exclusive domain of Radio Nepal , the state broadcaster established during the early s. Even after , state governments were slow in relinquishing monopoly control of radio broadcasting. The first independent license was granted in , four-and-a-half years after the initial application. The battle for this license was long, hard-fought and significant. The main obstacles were an unstable political environment, conservative politicians and bureaucrats disinclined to change and the monolithic presence of Radio Nepal.
Between October when the application was registered and May when the license was granted , Nepal had four different governments, four ministers and four secretaries of communication. Waged primarily by journalists committed to the cause of free expression and public-interest broadcasting, the fight involved figures of national prominence, professional associations, NGOs, the print media, foreign embassies, UN organizations, and INGOs. From the outset the main organization vehicle for Radio Sagarmatha for both the campaign to get a license and to establish a radio station has been the Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists, a non-governmental organization and association of journalists.
Through NEFEJ bylaws, the board had representation from all four partner NGOs and met monthly to review and plan activities, set policy and provide direction for the station. In April , Radio Sagarmatha operated with the following staff: a station manager, six full-time producers, two technicians, a music librarian, an engineer, an accountant and an assistant. The station also benefited from the contributions and experience of international supporters. Volunteers are an important part of Radio Sagarmatha's programming and operation.
The station's programming has given many people the opportunity to have their voices and opinions heard in a public forum. On a daily basis, the station takes listeners into everyday life. The variety of voices and sounds and its less-than-state-of-the-art equipment gives the station a different tone from other broadcasters in the region: one of real life, as lived and programmed by real people. Interviewees and those profiled on the station come from a variety of backgrounds and occupations. Radio Sagarmatha works to present listeners with "a human package": a combination of issues and entertainment, social discussions and music, and a conduit for the variety of voices and opinion previously unheard on Nepal's radio channels.
In its programming, the station's difference from the state broadcaster and the growing number of Western-style commercial stations is most evident. Public-affairs journalism and broadcasting are at the heart of Radio Sagarmatha's mission and vision for a more responsible press and a more pluralistic society. With a long tradition of folk media and a rich musical heritage, cultural programming is also prominent in the station's six-hour daily broadcast. Other aspects of programming include an initiative named "Safa Radio: The Clean Air Campaign" in which the station works with the Nepal Environmental Scientific Society to measure air pollution in Kathmandu and broadcasts information about the capital's air quality.
Though prohibited at first from broadcasting news, the station airs summaries of daily news stories in a format mixed with music and broadcasts daily community-news programs. Community access is an important part of programming.
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There is a daily feature, It's My Turn Now in which individuals from the community voice their opinions , vox populi segments, listeners' letters and feedback recorded by telephone. In late , Radio Sagarmatha formed a partnership with the BBC World Service; 30 minutes of the BBC Nepali service and 30 minutes of world news in English are heard in, respectively, the evening and morning programme blocks.
The stations, established between and and receiving government funding since , broadcast community programming and provide facilities, training and on-air time for individuals and community groups to produce the programming. Stations operate independently and locally, making decisions on programming and scheduling by consensus. For nearly half a century it was the only broadcaster permitted to operate, and faced no independent radio competition on South African territory until the early s' transition to democracy.
An Independent Broadcast Authority was created to oversee the opening of the country's airwaves, with small community radio stations being permitted to broadcast for the first time. Applications were discussed in open session, to ensure transparency and accountability. In March—June these were used to strengthen women and youth networking under a peace-building project of the Commonwealth of Learning.
It is now led by Mr Mpho Mhlongo who is a former presenter and one of the founders of the station. The South Korean government licensed several low-power community radio stations in Commercials were not permitted until , but stations are primarily operated as non-profit NGOs. There are community radio stations in the country.
It was established on Community radio in Thailand grew quickly during the government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra , taking advantage of a delay in the establishment of a regulatory authority. Thailand's 2, to 3, community radio stations often operating unlicensed have been accused of causing interference with air-traffic-control and other radio stations.
In the UK, the idea of community-based services can be traced back at least as far as the original concept for BBC local radio in the early s. As pirate stations proliferated during the late s and early s, these stations were joined by those broadcasting specifically to minority immigrant communities such as the Afro-Caribbean and Asian communities, particularly in cities such as London , Birmingham , Bristol , Gloucester and Manchester.
Although "community radio" remains synonymous with "pirate radio" for some people in the UK, most minority immigrant stations focused purely on specific musical genres and were operated theoretically at least on a for-profit basis. Community radio services in the UK are operated on a not-for-profit basis, with community ownership and control built into their structure.
Community radio stations were in operation on cable systems from  onwards; mostly situated in new-town areas, they were operated by volunteers. Notable stations included Radio Thamesmead later RTM Radio in southeast London, one of the first cable radio stations in the UK , which began on the Rediffusion cable system in the southeast London area in During the late s and early s, the newly formed Radio Authority awarded licences termed " Incremental " by the outgoing Independent Broadcasting Authority to a number of new, ex-pirate and cable-based community ventures.
The old breed of community radio stations could raise funds by selling airtime and by receiving donations or grants.
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Following an experiment by the former UK broadcast regulator Radio Authority, since  some such stations have been licensed by broadcasting regulator Ofcom. Most community radio stations in the UK are on FM , typically at a power of 25 watts. A few community radio station also operate on AM medium wave , particularly in rural areas, and some community radio stations operate online, like Windmill Broadcasting , the UK's only radio station broadcasting from a Windmill , in the Broad Eye Windmill , Stafford. In the U.
These stations differ from other public radio outlets in the U. Community stations are distinct from NPR stations in that most community-radio programming is locally produced by non-professional disc jockeys and producers, whereas traditional public stations rely on programming from NPR and other outlets such as PRI. Many community stations are licensed as full-power FM stations, while others, particularly those founded after , are licensed under low-power broadcasting rules. Many of the former were founded in the s and s when cultural experimentation such as the New Left in the U.
Community radio stations are usually overseen by non-profit organizations, which are led boards of directors and often include paid staff for managing business operations and coordinating volunteers. Community radio programming involving volunteers is also offered as part of student-run stations at colleges, universities and in some cases, high schools.
The National Federation of Community Broadcasters was formed in as a membership organization for community radio stations. NFCB publishes handbooks for stations, hosts an annual conference and lobbies on behalf of community radio at the federal level. It was criticized in the s for perceptions it advocated homogenization of programming.
The Grassroots Radio Coalition is a loose network of stations which formed as a reaction against increasing commercialization of public radio and lack of support for volunteer-based stations. UNESCO is a strong supporter of community radio and works to increase the viability of local radio stations around the world. This handbook specifically gives recommendations to radio station personnel in how to engage listeners in democratic debate as a means to forward community development. The Organization has also supported community radio through the direct training of radio station staff.
Workshops focused on improving the quality of broadcasts, building widespread correspondent networks and promoting sustainability. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is 64 kilobytes. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. September Main article: Alliance of Community Radio Austria. See also: List of community radio stations in Canada.
Main article: Radyo Natin Network. Main article: Association of Community Access Broadcasters. Main article: Community radio in South Africa. See also: Partial list of community radio stations in Sweden. Main article: Community radio in the United Kingdom. Radio portal.
Australian Communications and Media Authority. Archived from the original PDF on 28 February Retrieved 3 April CB Online. Community Broadcasting Association of Australia. Archived from the original pdf on 12 October Retrieved 3 January Christina L. Retrieved 5 May Archived from the original on Retrieved Senado Federal in Portuguese. Portal Amirt.