La BD de Maé Saison 2 (French Edition)

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Fitted values for this study and for Kettle et al. Parameter C as a function of altitude. Only the parameter values for the water bodies for which the fitting was successful were kept. Above a certain value, the model was insensitive to the value of the parameter D. This critical value depended on the value of E , being greater for greater values of E. This value may be considered as the minimum value to assure there is autumn overturn independently of the value of E.

For low values of D , the epilimnion and hypolimnion temperature curves do not intersect, so that the mixing algorithm is not applied. That would be the case of a water body stratified all the year round. Their estimated joint distribution Fig. In addition, the value of E depends on depth Fig. The parameter E reflects the temperature gradient between the epilimnion and the hypolimnion.

Subsurface outlets present in many reservoirs cause the lowering of the thermocline and a more gradual temperature gradient Han et al. As a consequence, we defined two different parameterizations of E as a function of lake depth, one for natural lakes and another for artificial lakes.

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We parameterized E as a sigmoid function of lake depth L D : 28 where the fitted values of the coefficients e 1 to e 3 can be found in Table 4. For natural lakes RMSE was 0. Parameter E as a function of depth and lake type Q : quarry lake; P : pond; G : gravel pit lake; L : natural lake; R : reservoir. The lines indicate the estimations of E according to equation 28 and the values in the Table 4.

Fitted values of the coefficients of equation The simulation period was from 1 January to 31 December Two kinds of data were used to assess the performance of the three presented models: RCS-RCO networks profile measurements for water bodies and continuous profile measurements for 5 water bodies. The simulation results of the OK model are good in absolute terms and in comparison to the results of the other two models Fig.

These performance statistics compare favourably to those of FLake and air2water models. For epilimnion temperature the median RMSE was 2. The quality of the epilimnion temperature simulations was similar for most water body types Fig. No hypolimnion temperatures are simulated by the a2w model. Root mean square error RMSE and mean error ME of the simulation of epilimnion and hypolimnion temperatures with the Ottosson-Kettle model by water body type Q : 6 quarry lakes; P : 26 ponds; G : 27 gravel pit lakes; L : 63 natural lakes; R : reservoirs.

Root mean square error RMSE of the simulation of epilimnion and hypolimnion temperatures with the Ottosson modified model for different water body types Q : 6 quarry lakes; P : 26 ponds; G : 27 gravel pit lakes; L : 63 natural lakes; R : reservoirs. To describe the thermal environment of ectotherms it is necessary to take into account the range of temperature variation Camacho et al. In particular, environmental agencies and stakeholders are most interested in high temperatures, which can cause mortality and thermal stress Caissie et al.

In fact, in France maximum annual water temperature is the main parameter determining the composition of the fish community in lakes Roubeix et al. However, low temperatures are important too. Low winter temperatures are important for the recruitment of fish species McCollum et al. For these reasons, it is especially important to simulate accurately summer and winter temperatures.

The results for these periods by model are shown in the Figure In average the OK model tended to give slightly biased estimates of summer temperatures median bias of 0. Air2water had the smallest median RMSE for winter temperatures 1.

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Although some patterns other than those expressed above seem to appear in the figures, the low number of water bodies in some categories and the great variability in the reservoirs and natural lakes groups do not allow to state further conclusions. Root mean square error RMSE and mean error ME of the simulation of summer and winter epilimnion temperatures with the Ottosson modified model by water body type Q : quarry lake; P : pond; G : gravel pit lake; L : natural lake; R : reservoir. In the summer data was available for 6 quarry lakes, 26 ponds, 27 gravel pit lakes, 63 natural lakes and reservoirs; in the winter data was available for 4 quarry lakes, 4 ponds, 5 gravel pit lakes, 17 natural lakes and 89 reservoirs.

Mean error ME of the simulation of summer and winter epilimnion temperatures with the Ottosson modified model for different water body types Q : quarry lake; P : pond; G : gravel pit lake; L : natural lake; R : reservoir and LOWESS smoothing line over all data points discontinuous line. Model performance varied with water body, and the simulated epilimnion or hypolimnion temperatures Tabs.

For the five sites of the French continuous network of lake water temperature Tab. In this case, the OK model accurately simulated the temperatures during the warming part of the annual cycle, but FLake simulated better the cooling part of the cycle. Most of the time, the air2water model with fitted parameters and the OK model showed similar trajectories following closely the measured temperatures. However, the OK model tended to overestimate temperatures, except in autumn and winter in SCR04 where it tended to underestimate them.

Hypolimnion temperatures were simulated best by FLake at four out of five sites, the exception being PAV63, where the OK model performed better. However, the correlation between measurements and simulations was better for the OK model, except at LPC38 where it was very similar for both models. In addition, the evaluation of the performance of hypolimnion temperature simulations made using profile data and continuous data seemed to produce different results, that is, with profile data the OK model performed better than FLake, while with continuous data FLake seemed to perform better than the OK model.

Root mean square error RMSE of epilimnion and hypolimnion temperatures by the three models FL: FLake, OK: Ottosson-Kettle model, a2w: 4-parameter air2water, a2w fitted: air2water with parameters fitted to the data at five sites with continuous measurements available. Mean error ME of epilimnion and hypolimnion temperatures by the three models FL: FLake, Om: Ottosson modified, a2w: 4-parameter air2water, a2w fitted: air2water with parameters fitted to the data at five sites with continuous measurements available.

Epilimnion temperature: continuous measurements and simulations with the three different models FL: FLake; OK: Ottosson-Kettle model; a2w: 4-parameter air2water, a2w fitted: air2water with fitted parameters for — Although the OK model is not process-based, the values of its parameters reflect the thermal processes taking place.

They show geographical and altitudinal gradients, as well as the influence of morphometry. This effect is linked to wind effects, that favour mixing Rueda and Schladow, and evaporation. The rate of epilimnion temperature decrease with altitude is coherent with estimations of 4. The reason for such high lapse rates for Swiss lakes may be the effect of ice and snow in the catchment area Livingstone et al. For lakes above masl Livingstone et al. Although some of our study lakes were above masl, there were not enough satellite images, or there were not enough measurements in the year, to determine the MAET.

Thus, our data does not allow us to confirm whether such a change in lapse rate occurs in French lakes. Greater surface areas tend to decrease smoothing, while greater volumes and depths tend to intensify it, as reflected in equation Given two water bodies of equal volume, the one with a greater surface area has a greater surface of exchange of heat with the atmosphere and responds more steadily to atmospheric conditions. Plus, the greater the volume and depth of a water body is, the greater its thermal inertia. These values are coherent with the values found by Kettle et al.

Still, Livingstone et al. The parameter B affects the amplitude of the annual water temperature cycle. Kettle et al. In contrast to their results, in our case the relation between B and depth was linear rather than logarithmic Tab.

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Still, the variation in the individually fitted values was great in comparison to the slope of the linear regression, which resulted in a low correlation coefficient with the simulated values. The parameter C affects the mean, amplitude and phase of the annual water temperature cycle: an increase in the value of C increases the mean temperature, advances the annual temperature maximum and enlarges the annual amplitude.

This also explains that it can take negative values to compensate for the effect of the other parameters. In Greenland lakes, Kettle et al. These differences may be the reflection of a geographical variation of the thermal processes taking place, which the limited latitudinal variation in our data set between As described in the Section 5. Other authors propose that the transition between polymictic and stratified lakes occurs at L A 0. One of the objectives of this paper is to derive a parameterization for the OK model that can be applied to French lakes where data for calibration is insufficient and to assess its performance in comparison to two other widely used models.

Our results support the good performance of the parameterized OK model, which performed better than FLake and the parameterized version of air2water. However, FLake used no calibrated values and the calibrated parameters used in the implementation of air2water were a preliminary calibration with 14 mostly large lakes Toffolon et al. Still, using individually calibrated values improves the quality of the simulations and is preferable when sufficient data is available and the modeller is interested in simulating accurate temperatures rather than understanding general patterns.

In fact, when using the individually calibrated values of the parameters for the OK model, the median RMSE of epilimnion temperatures was 1. For air2water, the median RMSE of the simulations with the original calibration data was 1. In addition, Layden et al. The performance of the OK model was also good in comparison to more complex lake models. In the application of another water quality model, MINLAKE, to a set of 28 Minnesota lakes, the average standard error of temperature simulations was 1.

Regarding summer temperatures, which are of special interest for managers, they were well simulated by the OK model, with a median RMSE of 1. Winter temperatures were simulated slightly less well, with a median bias of 1. This different performance between seasons may be due to the unequal distribution of satellite measurements throughout the year.

Because satellite surface temperature measurements depend on the absence of clouds, more measurements were available in the spring, summer and autumn than in winter, so that winter measurements had less weight in the fitting of the parameters for individual water bodies. In summer, it is mostly the epilimnion that responds to meteorological forcing while in the winter all the water column is affected Boehrer and Schultze, Recent results by Schmidt et al. In addition, they found differences in water temperature variability between spring and autumn that were not due to differences in air temperature variability or mean water temperature, but to the vertical thermal structure and associated mixing processes.

Woolway et al. Surface water temperature is more sensitive to air temperature variations in the warming phase of the annual cycle than in the cooling phase McCombie, ; Livingstone and Lotter, In the winter reservoirs showed a much greater variability in bias than the other types of water body Fig.

In some cases the winter bias could amount to several degrees Figs. However, in the winter the number of reservoirs with available profile measurements 89 reservoirs was much greater than for the rest of water bodies 4 quarry lakes, 4 ponds, 5 gravel pit lakes and 17 natural lakes , which could explain the greater variability in bias for reservoirs.

Another possible explanation is that the water level in reservoirs varies much more than in other types of water body, affecting their thermal behaviour, while the water level is considered constant in the simulations. The quality of the hypolimnion temperature simulations made with the OK model was worse than that of epilimnion temperature simulations. In particular, the value of E for stratifying not-natural lakes depends greatly on the outlet depth and water level management plan.

However, since the objective was to derive a parameterisation based on morphometry and geographical variables, this fact has not been taken into account, causing higher errors in the simulations of hypolimnion temperatures for this type of water bodies Fig. In those cases, and especially for deep reservoirs, it would be advisable to use individually fitted values of E. If at least summer temperature profile data is available, the equation 26 may be used to estimate E. Still, the value of E is related to several variables Prats and Danis, , including wind speed and Secchi disk depth, and a more appropriate course of action might be the derivation of a criterion based on the use of stability indexes that take into account the effect of wind such as Schmidt stability or the Wedderburn number Imberger and Patterson, A first attempt to include such effects was done by Bouchez by proposing a mixing criterion that depended on the Wedderburn number.

This has not been done here to keep the model as simple as possible and to limit the requirements of input data. The simulation of water temperature is a complex issue that depends on the exchanges of heat short wave and long wave radiation, evaporation and conduction , matter water vapour, inflows and outflows and mechanical energy wind stress Imberger and Patterson, The simulation of water temperatures also depends on the internal mixing and stratification processes driven by the exchanges of energy and influenced by chemical and thermal gradients and by biological activity Imberger and Patterson, ; Boehrer and Schultze, Process-based lake ecosystem models are designed to take into account all these factors and are the best option when the system is well known and we are interested in studying its behaviour out of the range of historical observations Robson, However, they require lots of data to calibrate the model Mooij et al.

For many water bodies detailed data flow, water level, bathymetry, etc. The approach proposed here requires only air temperature as forcing data and a few morphological and geographical characteristics to determine the value of the model parameters. While the results show a good performance compared to other models, its limitations should be acknowledged.

First, given the statistical nature of the parameterization, the model cannot be applied out of the range of conditions for which it has been derived Robson, In particular, simulations to assess the effect of climate change should be interpreted with caution, not only because of the statistical nature of the model, but also because it does not take into account all the factors that may affect the thermal behaviour.

Climate change can affect other meteorological variables in addition to air temperature. In addition, the model does not take into account the effect of inflow and outflow. For example, under climate change an increase of snowmelt from glaciers can cause the cooling of lakes Pizarro et al. Thermal effluents from power plants or the variation in the inflow volume can also affect the thermal behaviour of lakes Kirillin et al.

These effects cannot be simulated by the models used in this paper, and are expected to be more important in water bodies with short residence times Rimmer et al. Other factors not taken into account by the OK model are water transparency and wind speed. Since wind speed affects evaporation and the mixing regime, the lake surface temperature is very sensitive to it Henderson-Sellers, A part of the effect of wind is taken into account through the epilimnion parameters depending on surface area, the surface over which the wind can act. However, this is a general effect and transient effects due to high wind speeds that can produce the mixing of the water column are not taken into account.

The inclusion of transparency and wind effects in future versions of the model would probably improve its performance further. We present herein a two-layer water temperature model based in the modification of the model of Ottosson and Abrahamsson by replacing the epilimnion temperature formulation by that proposed by Kettle et al. The new parameterisation is dependent on the geographical latitude and altitude and morphological characteristics depth, surface and volume of the water bodies. And it includes a different parameterisation of the parameter E , which determines the vertical temperature gradient, for natural and not-natural lakes.

We believe the proposed parameterisation should be applicable to water bodies with similar characteristics to those in the study set and not affected by upstream glaciers. The performance of the model was good median RMSE of 1. Simulated epilimnion winter temperatures, though, tended to be overestimated by 0. The simulation of hypolimnion temperatures was best for shallow water bodies and for deep natural lakes.

For the simulation of hypolimnion temperatures for deep reservoirs, and given the fact that the model does not take into account the outlet depth and water level management, it would be preferable to use a value of E based on actual measurements of the vertical temperature profile. Because of the simplicity of the model, which only requires air temperature as forcing data and the geographical and morphological characteristics of the studied water bodies, and because of its good performance, the modified Ottosson's model is a good choice for managers for the simulation of lake water temperatures, and in particular of summer water temperatures.

Danis obtained funding and designed the study, and managed the continuous monitoring of temperature in French lakes. Prats developed the model code and performed the simulations. Danis tested the model code and user guide. Prats prepared the manuscript with contributions from P.

An epilimnion and hypolimnion temperature model based on air temperature and lake characteristics. Data correspond to usage on the plateform after The current usage metrics is available hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days. All issues No Knowl. Open Access. Issue Knowl. Table 1 Characteristics of the studied water bodies. Table 2 Characteristics of the five water bodies with continuous measurements. Table 3 Parameterisations of model parameters for different geographical regions.

Table 4 Fitted values of the coefficients of equation Table 5 Root mean square error RMSE of epilimnion and hypolimnion temperatures by the three models FL: FLake, OK: Ottosson-Kettle model, a2w: 4-parameter air2water, a2w fitted: air2water with parameters fitted to the data at five sites with continuous measurements available. Table 6 Mean error ME of epilimnion and hypolimnion temperatures by the three models FL: FLake, Om: Ottosson modified, a2w: 4-parameter air2water, a2w fitted: air2water with parameters fitted to the data at five sites with continuous measurements available.

Spatial heterogeneity in geothermally-influenced lakes derived from atmospherically corrected Landsat thermal imagery and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling. Int J Appl Earth Obs — R package version 1. Lake ice phenology in Berlin-Brandenburg from — observations and model hindcasts. Clim Change — Stratification of lakes. Rev Geophys L Environ Modell Softw — Sensitivity of lake thermal and mixing dynamics to climate change. A limited memory algorithm for bound constrained optimization. Modelling of maximum daily water temperatures in a small stream using air temperatures. J Hydrol 14— Extreme operative temperatures are better descriptors of the thermal environment than mean temperatures.

J Therm Biol 49— — On multiple-comparisons procedures. J Limnol — Vulnerability of two European lakes in response to future climatic changes. Geophys Res Lett L Climate change impacts on structure and diversity of fish communities in rivers. Glob Change Biol — Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci — Paris, France: Typographie Chamerot et Renouard, pp. Daily air temperature interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region. Clim Res 8: 1— Toward improved validation of satellite sea surface skin temperature measurements for climate research.

J Clim — Ecol Indic — An overview of problems caused by toxic blue-green algae cyanobacteria in drinking and recreational water. Environ Toxicol 5— Simulations of water quality and oxythermal cisco habitat in Minnesota lakes under past and future climate scenarios. Water Qual Res J Can — Simulations of climate effects on water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and ice and snow covers in lakes of the contiguous United States under past and future climate scenarios.

Limnol Oceanogr — Freshwater Biol — Elevation correction of ERA-Interim temperature data in complex terrain. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci — Influence of lake surface area and depth upon thermal stratification and the depth of the summer thermocline. J Great Lakes Res — Historical record of Landsat global coverage. Photogramm Eng Remote Sensing — The effect of climate on lake mixing patterns and temperatures. In: Viner AB, ed. Inland Waters of New Zealand. A new, simple, general technique to predict seasonal variability of river discharge and lake temperature for lake ecosystem models.

Ecol Model — A practical approach to predict the duration of the growing season for European lakes. Thermal infrared remote sensing of water temperature in riverine landscapes. Fluvial Remote Sensing for Science and Management. NJ: Wiley, pp. Effects of water clarity on lake stratification and lake-atmosphere heat exchange. J Geophys Res Atmos — Sensitivity of thermal stratification models to changing boundary conditions. Appl Math Model 31— Sci Total Environ 44— Hydrological and thermal response of lakes to climate: description and modeling.

Physics and Chemistry of Lakes. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. Water Resour Res — Current approaches to cyanotoxin risk assessment and risk management around the globe. Harmful Algae 63— Physical limnology. Adv Appl Mech — Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models: a community perspective. Aquat Ecol — Summer heatwaves promote blooms of harmful cyanobacteria. Diurnal sea surface temperature variation and its impact on the atmosphere and ocean: A review. J Oceanogr — Empirical modeling of summer lake surface temperatures in southwest Greenland. Generalized scaling of seasonal thermal stratification in lakes.

Earth-Sci Rev — Consequences of thermal pollution from a nuclear plant on lake temperature and mixing regime. Later that month, rumors began circulating that Netflix was considering reviving Young Justice for a third season based on its viewership numbers. That's the best answer I can give you.

I'd be happy to do another one; Greg [Weisman] would be; Phil Bourassa, the character designer.

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We'd all in a heartbeat come back to do a third season if the Powers-That-Be feel they want to do that. On June 26, , Greg Weisman commented that the possibility of Young Justice returning for a third season is "very real," but noted that fans need to keep the show trending to convince Netflix and Warner Bros.

On August 23, , a Reddit user claimed to have heard that Peter David was approached by Netflix about a potential Young Justice season 3.

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On September 9, , Greg Weisman gave response to questions on his website Station Eight regarding the possibility of Netflix picking up the show for a third season. He stated, "I think there's a decent chance of the show coming back. Not a guarantee, mind you, but a solid decent chance. I don't say that lightly either. On November 7, , a third season was officially announced.

Sam Register, President of Warner Bros. Animation and Warner Digital Series stated, "The affection that fans have had for Young Justice , and their rallying cry for more episodes, has always resonated with us. We are excited to bring the show back for this loyal fanbase and to provide an opportunity for new viewers to discover this excellent series. On April 25, , Warner Bros. Since its original airing, Young Justice has garnered critical acclaim for its originality as well as its mature and complex storyline. Many actors have also garnered acclaim for their roles such as Jason Spisak who, according to critic Ava Dordi, "captures the lighthearted essence of Kid Flash well" [82] as well as Nolan North , who producer Greg Weisman notes provides "good separation" between the dual roles he portrays as Superman and Superboy.

Geoff Johns took a liking to Kaldur'ahm as Aqualad, [19] who was consequently introduced to mainstream continuity altered in comic book issue No. In Brightest Day , he is introduced as a teenager from New Mexico by the name of Jackson Hyde who is largely unaware of his Atlantean roots. Artemis was also brought into the main timeline during the early days of the New 52, but was killed within one issue of her appearance, to great fan outcry. In , WatchMojo. Three volumes of four episodes each were individually released to cover the first half of the first season, and later sold together as a "fun-pack".

Season 2 was released as two different 2 disc volumes containing 10 episodes each. It was released on January 22, A Blu-ray version of season 1 manufactured by Warner Archive was released on August 12, Warner Bros. Young Justice has an official tie-in comic book series outside the television broadcast, expanding on the show's coverage of the continuity.

Mike Norton provided the interior art for the first four issues and cover art for the first six issues.

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Art Baltazar and Franco Aureliani substituted in place of Weisman and Hopps for issues 1—6, due to the latter duo's conflicting schedule and workload. The comic series largely takes place in-between the episodes of the show, and often expands upon events alluded to or mentioned in the series. For instance, issue No. In the episode "Welcome to Happy Harbor", Robin mentions that the Justice League had been forced to abandon their headquarters in Happy Harbor after its location was compromised by supervillains, which is revealed in issue No. In addition, Baltazar and Aureliani confirmed that they were asked to introduce the Joker in the comic in order to set up his eventual appearance on the show.

Starting with the 20th issue, the comic was rebranded Young Justice: Invasion to match the title of the show's second season. The series was canceled in November , with issue 25 being the last. Additionally, several products based on the series were licensed for release. Mattel released lines of character action figures and accompanying playsets , among other toys and games. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the comic book series, see Young Justice. For the video game based on this show, see Young Justice: Legacy.

Action Adventure Science fiction Superhero Teen drama. Main article: List of Young Justice episodes. Main article: List of Young Justice characters. Main article: Young Justice: Legacy. DC Comics Podcast. DC Comics. Retrieved July 27, Comic Vine. Retrieved July 26, October 11, Retrieved November 3, The World's Finest. Retrieved December 24, Retrieved October 2, July 28, Young Justice. Season 1. Episode 8. Cartoon Network. Archived from the original on October 1, Retrieved October 7, April 11, Retrieved August 29, Retrieved August 13, Retrieved July 28, Retrieved February 13, Comics Alliance.

Retrieved July 29, Comic Book Resources. Retrieved August 6, Retrieved August 19, Retrieved August 15, Ask Greg. Retrieved August 24, Toon Zone. Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved July 9, Retrieved July 25, Retrieved September 4, Retrieved August 18, Brandon Vietti. Retrieved January 1, MOI Animation. Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved April 13, Retrieved February 4, Retrieved February 3, SoundCloud Podcast.

Event occurs at Retrieved March 12, Retrieved March 12, — via Twitter. Want YJ S3? Or buy BluRays!

Geek Tyrant. SpeedForce baby! DC Comics Movie. Christopher Jones Art. Retrieved March 17, Cosmic Book News. August 23, November 7, Archived from the original on July 11, Retrieved August 5, Retrieved July 23, Retrieved June 28, Retrieved November 16, TV Line. Retrieved March 30, Retrieved May 1, Screen Rant. Valnet, Inc.

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