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In Italy and Portugal , both judges and lawyers wear particular black robes. In some countries, especially in the Commonwealth of Nations , judges wear wigs. The long wig often associated with judges is now reserved for ceremonial occasions, although it was part of the standard attire in previous centuries. A short wig resembling but not identical to a barrister 's wig a Bench Wig would be worn in court. This tradition, however, is being phased out in Britain in non-criminal courts.

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In Oman , the judge wears a long stripe red, green white , while the attorneys wear the black gown. In Portugal and in the former Portuguese Empire , the judges used to carry a staff that was red for ordinary judges and white for the judges from the outside. Judges of Hong Kong retain many of the English traditions such as wearing wigs and robes in trials. In the lower courts, magistrates are addressed as Your worship , and district court judges as Your Honour. Masters of the High Court are addressed as Master. As per the rule, lawyers can address the court as Your Honour and refer to it as Honourable Court.

If it is a subordinate court, lawyers can use terms such as sir or any equivalent phrase in the regional language concerned. Explaining the rationale behind the move, the Bar Council had held that the words such as My Lord and Your Lordship were "relics of the colonial past". The resolution has since been circulated to all state councils and the Supreme Court for adoption but over five years now, the resolution largely remained on paper.

Judges of the superior courts are addressed as Yang Arif lit. There is some resistance to this on religious grounds but more or less continues till this day. In lower courts, judges are addressed as sir , madam or the Urdu equivalent Janab or Judge Sahab. There is no special form of address; ordinary politeness is sufficient and the procedure lacks arcane rituals.

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Finnish judges use gavels, but there are no robes or cloaks used in any Finnish courts. They are assisted by notaries notaari , assessors asessori and referendaries viskaali who may sometimes even chair sessions. In appeals courts hovioikeus an ordinary judge has the title hovioikeudenneuvos , the chairman of a section is hovioikeudenlaamanni and the court is led by a presidentti. In the Supreme Court, judges are titled oikeusneuvos and the court is led by a presidentti.

Judge hits a pair of homers

Out of the courtroom, judges are referred to as Monsieur le juge or Madame le juge. Smith J. Before , they were addressed as My Lord A thiarna. Justices of the Supreme Court who do not hold life peerages are now given the courtesy style "Lord" or "Lady. Only experienced barristers or solicitors are usually appointed as judges.

When a Justice of the High Court who is not present is being referred to they are described as "Mr. Justice N. Masters of the High Court are addressed as "Master".


Circuit Judges and Recorders are addressed as "Your Honour". Lay magistrates are sometimes still addressed as " Your Worship " in much of England, although in northern England " Your Honour " is more usually used by advocates before the court. The judicial system of Northern Ireland is very similar to that of England and Wales, and superior court judges are addressed the same way as those in England and Wales.

However, there are a few differences at the lower levels. A district judge sitting in the County Court is addressed as "Your Honour". A Lay Magistrate, in cases where they are present, is also addressed as "Your Worship", and may use the post nominals "LM", e.

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In general, Canadian judges may be addressed directly, depending on the province, as "My Lord", "My Lady", "Your Honour" or "Justice" and are formally referred to in the third person as "The Honourable Mr. Judges in some superior courts are addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady". Both the titles "judge" and "justice" are translated juge. Generally, it is only appropriate to use the term "judge" when speaking of an anonymous or general position, such as "the trial judge," or when referring to a member of an inferior or provincial court such as the Ontario Court of Justice. The exception is Citizenship Judges who are referred to only as "Judge 'Surname.

Like other members of the Commonwealth, a justice of the peace is addressed as "Your Worship," and a Master of a Superior Court is both addressed and referred to as "Master. In many states throughout the United States , a judge is addressed as "Your Honor" or "Judge" when presiding over the court.

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Notably, the Superior Court of Los Angeles County , the largest unified trial court in the United States, has a rule that the judge shall be addressed only as "Your Honor" while in court, and never as "Judge," "Judge name ," "ma'am," or "sir. The judges of the Supreme Court of the United States , and the judges of the supreme courts of several US states and other countries are called "justices".

Chief Justice" but also may be identified and addressed as "Chief Justice name ". The justices of the supreme courts usually hold higher offices than any other judges in a jurisdiction, including a justice of the peace , a judge who holds police court in some jurisdictions and who may also try small claims and misdemeanors. However, the State of New York inverts this usual order.

The initial trial court in this state is called the Supreme Court of New York, and its judges are called "justices". The next highest appellate court is the Supreme Court, Appellate Division, whose judges are also called "justices". Judges in certain jurisdictions, such as New York and New Jersey, who deal with guardianships, trusts and estates are known as " surrogates.

In , he was appointed the 4 th Attorney-General and was appointed Senior Counsel in He was also the first commander of the Volunteer Special Constabulary, holding the rank of Assistant Commissioner of Police. He received his Master of Laws from the University of Cambridge in Justice Chua began his legal career in He held various positions such as serving as Deputy Registrar and Magistrate of the Subordinate Courts renamed as State Courts in Justice Chua continues to serve on various committees of the Singapore Academy of Law.

He was appointed Judicial Commissioner on 15 October Before joining the legal service, Justice Chan was a Colombo Plan scholar. Since then, he has been with Messrs. Harry Elias. Judicial Commissioner Gill specialises in intellectual property law. He had appeared as counsel before the High Court and Court of Appeal for major corporate clients and has established a considerable reputation for his expertise and experience in intellectual property law.

He was then admitted as an Advocate and Solicitor in Singapore in , and appointed Senior Counsel in Before his appointment as a Judicial Commissioner, Justice Ramesh was Managing Partner of Messrs Tan Kok Quan Partnership, where he specialised in dispute resolution, insolvency and restructuring, and international arbitration. She retired in before returning as Senior Judge in A year later, Justice Lai was admitted as advocate and solicitor in Singapore. She chose to further her studies and earned her Master of Laws degree from University College, University of London in Justice Lai left the firm in May to join the Supreme Court.

Until his appointment as a Judicial Commissioner, he was also Director of Maxwell Chambers, a dispute resolution complex located in Singapore. Judicial Commissioner Lim joined the Legal Service in She spent more than 6 years with the Supreme Court and was appointed Deputy Registrar in She was admitted as an advocate and solicitor in Singapore in While teaching, she also assisted the Family Courts as a court mediator and the Supreme Court as amicus curiae. Justice Ong published the book entitled International Issues in Family Law in Singapore in January , and has contributed numerous articles in local as well as international scholarly journals.

Opening address at the Muslim Law Practice Course. He pursued his postgraduate studies at Harvard University, where he was conferred his Master of Laws and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees in and , respectively. From to , he was a District Judge of the then Subordinate Courts now the State Courts , where he dealt with a range of cases covering civil, criminal and family law matters. In , Judicial Commissioner Pang was appointed the Director-General of the International Affairs Division of AGC, overseeing a department of lawyers, responsible for advising government departments on international law matters and representing the government in international negotiations and international disputes.

He retired in before returning as Senior Judge in January It was simply impossible to judge with any accuracy of the distance of the ship. On that foul throng that wrought them wrong—on Jury and on Judge! I was the only judge, in my own wise opinion, of what was right and fit. Judge me, then, my dear, as any indifferent person knowing what you know of me would do. Of the poetry we could not judge, but the music was miserable.