How Develop the Memory - Advanced Systems
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Stores loaded programs and data to be processed. There are two types: volatile and non-volatile. Unlike non-volatile memory, volatile memory is lost when the computer is switched off or reset. There are 8 bits in a byte bytes in a kilobyte kilobytes in a megabyte megabytes in a gigabyte Therefore there are 1,, bytes in a megabyte.
A double density floppy disk holds Kb of data. A high density floppy disk contains about 1. Includes PCs, laptops etc. They typically have between 1 and Mb of memory RAM. They process data in anything from 8-bit ro bit chunks. Minicomputers: These are systems designed for multi-user access several terminals.
Varies from processing power from a very powerful micro to a small mainframe. Mainframes: Supports hundreds of terminals for multi-user access. Large amount of primary and auxiliray storage. Supercomputers: These are the fastest and most expensive systems. Implement the control of the display totally using specific hardware, adding the minimum required software for the LCD.
In this scenario, the device is totally managed by the hardware. In this option, a FPGA is needed to control the display, which implies higher costs and a great logic area. The most critical tasks, above all in time, will be implemented in specific hardware while the rest will be programmed through C in order to be executed by the microprocessor.
The hardware acts as a microprocessor. In general, working with advance digital systems is the best strategy. The whole implemented software and hardware development that is described in this section covers from the user interface application to the free distribution operating system based on an embedded Linux [ 4 ] [ 5 ], which avoids closed source software and license costs. Additionally, extra open software is compiled to run in the specific system in order to produce a more efficient and reliable application.
A web server based on Apache 2 provides the remote control and monitoring functionality, and the data storage and management is performed by a database application based on MySQL engine. Moreover, for a dynamic iteration between the web user interface and the database, a PHP server scripting language is compiled to run on the operating system.
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The embedded system is designed to manage the Geowire, a novel electromechanical device that measures the temperature inside the pipes of vertical borehole heat exchangers BHEs throughout the thermal response test TRT. The TRT is the standard method to quantify the thermal characteristics of borehole surrounding subsoil by measuring the temperature evolution at inlet and outlet.
However, it assumes that the homogeneous isotropic subsoil calculates an average conductivity value for the overall geological domain. Thus, the minimum depth of the drilling for the maximum heat transfer can be calculated to save installation costs and build more optimized BHE. The Geowire measures the temperature inside the geothermal pipes by controlling the vertical displacement of a wired digital sensor. The sensor is connected to a cable furling inside a watertight case while a slip ring allows the transmission of the signal from the rotating structure to the Zynq board.
The temperature probe goes out from the fluid output pipe connection and a servomotor rotates the furling to release or collect cable while a weight maintains it tightly by the effect of gravity. Before the cable goes outside of the case, it is guided between a roll with a magnetic encoder that transmits the signal outside the case to measure the displacement of the wire. Then, the software application is designed to control the servomotor and calculate the exact position of the sensor. Once the data for the acquisition process is defined, the device will begin to automatically sample and storage the data while the progress can be followed remotely in real time through the user interface.
The device was developed in such a way that it can be easily incorporated in geothermal pipes utilized during the TRT with or without water flow. The temperature inside the pipes can be measured with a maximum spatial resolution of 1 cm, a maximum temperature resolution of 0.
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An electromechanical limit switch is employed to determine the starting point of the measurement path. This is activated when the weight used to sink the sensor pushes it. The provided signal from this switch is used to calibrate the measurement point every time when the sensor goes down and up. Also, it is connected with the driver of the servomotor as an additional security measure to stop the motor and avoid the weight and the probe to roll inside the device enclosure. The board has been implemented as the CPU of the system that manages the performance of the secondary elements that compose the device through a user interface application.
One of the most interesting characteristics of this kind of platforms is the possibility of using PMODs peripheral module through connectors with some fixed pins from the ARM and ADCs and reconfigurable pins from the programmable logic. So, eases the redesign tasks where any upgrade or modification is required. This driver integrates a microcontroller which follows the parameters sent by Zybo board processors. Thereby, by using an RS, communication protocol is possible to manage the motor control settings. Thus, the CPU of the system regulates the speed either in clock wise CW or counter clock wise CCW directions and reads configuration, information or alarm registers from the driver.
Encoder: A magnetic encoder measures the angular movement of a roller that is rotated when the wire of the temperature sensor comes out from the Geowire to be inserted in the geothermal pipes. The wire is guided through two rollers inside the enclosure of the device to ensure the rotation by friction. When the roller rotates, the encoder generates several digital pulses that are sent to a core implemented in VHDL that measures the distance traveled by the sensor. An important advantage of this encoder is the suppression of mechanical contacts that may originate tear and wear problems.
Furthermore, this technology holds the encoder electric connections shielded against water or humidity so that the water can flow inside the device enclosure without damaging the electric connections.
Temperature sensor: This application is very important to know the exact temperature inside geothermal pipes and does not lose information during the long communications between the sensor and the CPU. Thereby, a digital temperature sensor with a resolution of 0. A typical and complicated problem that may appear in this kind of communications where the cable length is quite large is related to electromagnetic interference EMI.
Temperature probe limit switch: An electromechanical limit switch inside the pipe of the Geowire is activated when the weight used to descend the probe pushes it. The motor driver also detects this signal as a security measure that does not allow the motor to continue rolling up, avoiding the weight and the sensor to get inside the device enclosure. Thus, the processor can run operating systems and manage parallel FPGA hardware processing. This interface belongs to the fourth generation of the ARM advanced microcontroller bus architecture AMBA interface specification [ 6 ].
The other peripherals that compose the hardware are listed as follows: DDR3 volatile memory: it loads the operating system and processes. MicroSD card: this slot stores the embedded Linux kernel and its filesystem together with a copy of the hardware configuration and the bootloader. UART port: this serial communication sends the commands to the servomotor in order to control it. I2C port: with this peripheral is managed both temperature sensor driver and the RTC device. A custom core implemented in VHDL: reads the signals from the encoder, identifies the direction of rotation, and stores the information in a BRAM register.
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What is more, the core communicates with the CPU of the system and sends a signal when the distance established in the main program is reached. The core runs in parallel with the ARM processors in order to guarantee a continuous detection of the pulses and avoid loss of information in faster acquisition processes. The software that was employed to carry out the hardware development is the Vivado Design Suite 4. It is an interesting software suite that enables fast and efficient programming of the SoCs and also can automatically generate configurable cores and several interface circuits by using the block design tool.
The source code of an embedded Linux operating system was configured and compiled to run over the previously described hardware. This operating system is based on a modified version of the standard Linux kernel without a memory management unit MMU , which is optimized for running in embedded systems, but keeping Linux robustness. However, it has another important advantage, such as all the available resources can be managed by the operating system, while the programmer is abstracted from that layer of hardware.
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Furthermore, there are a lot of libraries and utilities that can be integrated in Linux make easier the upgrade or development of new applications. The operating system was implemented using the Linux version provided by the tools of uClinux distribution, which is supported by the ARM processor architecture integrated in the selected SoCs. Specifically, a stable version, in this case the version 3. As the root file system, a prebuilt ramdisk image provided by Xilinx was mounted in a microSD card and wrapped in one part of the FSBL header to boot with it.
Moreover, a device tree blob DTR project application was established by using the announced tools in order to describe the hardware in a data structure file that the kernel can understand. Thereby, the details do not need to be hard coded in the operating system, making it portable.
Once the bootloader, the kernel image and the device tree were configured and generated, they were copied into the microSD card root partition, so the operating system can boot and access the mounted file system. At last, the database, webserver, and main application processes are executed over the operating system.
These processes are an open source but are not available in this kernel distribution, so a hard work was carried out to compile and run properly.
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In a similar manner, in order to manage the compiled and installed processes, the software of Vivado Suite was employed to program and cross compiled the executable applications. The executable applications are based on a state machine that manages the system flow that interacts with the peripherals and the database. The advantages of the LAMP stack technology compared with other systems over closed system platforms are as follows: Open sourced. These characteristics help the designer to develop new applications because it is relatively easy and there is plenty of documentation available.
Commonly, SQlite [ 7 ] is implemented as database management in embedded systems because its resource optimization. Nevertheless, in this study due to the powerful processor of Zynq chip, a MySQL database was cross compiled to run in this specific architecture. MySQL offers the following advantages regarding to SQlite: Permits multiple queries and modifications at the same time.
This allows the user to control, configure, and monitor the performance of the Geowire device through surfing the pages of the programmed web interface. Hence, the web interface is structured in three sections: Settings: It allows the user to set up motor driver parameters and visualize motor performance indicators and alerts.
Test: It is possible configure database tables in order to begin a temperature acquisition process at preestablished sets of depth or load previously implemented acquisitions profiles. These parameters are storage in the database together with a timestamp during the acquisition process. Basically, when the client requests the application files to the web server in order to render the web interface, the PHP files are first processed by the server.
Then, the output of those PHP scripts is transmitted to the client so dynamic content can be added. In this manner, when the client makes a PHP request that script is processed in the server which can manage the database or the system applications. Thereby, it is possible to execute the server side applications that define the system operation flow from the client interface and manage the device peripherals.
Moreover, initially a validation is required in order to protect the web content from no authorized accesses. In this manner, even if the system is connected to Internet, the data content will not be accessible to the public if they are not accredited. One of the advantages of a system based on the AP SoC architecture is that it permits to implement the operating system in the ARM processor, instead of using the resources of the FPGA to build a software microcontroller.
Thus, in this design, the free resources available in the programmable logic of Zynq chip would make possible incorporate more hardware specialized functions or configure peripherals with different functionalities. A design using an ASIC could incorporate faster clock rates and more powerful core processors that consume less power than the implemented system.
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However, the programmable logic in the AP SoC offers more flexibility. The reconfigurable IP cores make easier to reduce the design cycle which can be a key factor for the consumer electronic industry. The peripheral can be easily added or modify to the hardware with less effort according to the necessities of the customers. Additionally, the designer can implement multiprocessor by using the dual core ARM and the logic in the FPGA, which will improve the performance of the embedded system.
The webserver robustness was test by a concurrent access of different users to the web application. A number of 20 users from different devices were able to access the different sections of the interface without affecting the system performance. Neither the speed nor the efficiency was affected in comparison with the access of a single user. The digital temperature sensor was calibrated using a thermal bath and accurate thermometer. Then, a linear trend line was calculated to fit the data from the digital sensor with the recorded temperatures through the accurate sensor.
The calibration equation is applied to the obtained data from the sensor before saving the values in the database. The wire connected to the sensor passes through three rollers that rotate when the wire is released to lower the sensor inside the geothermal pipes. In one of these rollers, six magnets were attached along the diameter and separated the same distance between them. On the external part of the device enclosing a hall effect sensor that detects the polarity changes of the magnets.
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This mechanism is the encoder that measures the angular movement of the roller. Because the roller diameter, the separation between the magnets and the wire diameter is known, the system program is able to calculate the distance traveled by the sensor. The maximum spatial resolution of 1 cm was achieved after testing and calibrating the instrument by in situ measurements. In order to ensure the repeatability of the device for longer distance increments more trials were conducted. For a distance increment of 0. In this section, an experimental test of the implemented system in one of the four BHE installed on the campus of the University of Liege Liege, Belgium is presented, with the aim of testing its performance and analyzing the obtained results.
Deposits of sand and gravel characterize the site geology until a depth of approximately 8 m. In this installation, thermal behavior of fractured bedrock stratigraphy was being investigated throughout TRTs and distribution temperature sensing DTS technique.