Filosofía del entendimiento (Coleccion Conmemorativa 70 Aniversario) (Spanish Edition)

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Nonetheless, Ferrando surely spent time in his Western estate of Bellpuig. On August 25, , Ferrando joined or led a chivalry squad in a military parade commanded by the city councilmen Manual de novells ardits 4: , August 25, On February 17, , Ferrando acted as judge in a local joust Dietaris de la Generalitat 2: From at least Gonzalo owed large sums of money to his nephews. In , not having yet inherited from his uncle, Antonio started a judicial pro- cess to have his household loans to the Sessa repaid.

Born in Baena in , Luis also maintained the tradition of literary patronage that his grandfather Ferrando and his great-uncle Gonzalo had practiced. His testament was opened on December of that year. For all of them, Petrarchism and classicism were domi- nant intellectual and poetical trends. Neither edition, however, includes any ref- erence to Ferrando. Giraldi had to be writing about the Duke of Somma and Admiral of Naples. In addition to B and K, there is still a third manuscript connected to Ferrando.

At the same time, the examination of both codicological and bibliographical evidence will also indicate that Ferrando owned D. Figure 4. Front cover left and back cover right of MS Esp. Ownership MS D contains no colophon or any kind of paratext recording who commis- sioned, copied, or originally owned it.

Other evidence, however —both intrinsic and extrinsic to the manuscript— brings some clarifications. The implications of those archival documents involving Pedrol are twofold. The book was restored, but its original leather covers were kept, and the original leather patches on the spine were glued together onto the binding.

Each of the original leather covers measures x mm and is par- tially protected and embellished by engraved metal pieces: eight cornerpieces, two clasps that are now broken, and one lozenge-shaped centerpiece on each cover, presently missing on the front cover see Figure 3. The covers feature humanistic blind- and gold-tooling, in the form of fleuron ornaments and two different inter- lace patterns made with a roll. It is unclear how the manuscript ended up in the Medinaceli archive. As seen in Chapter 3, Ferrando belonged to another branch of the Cardona lineage, the Barons of Bellpuig; see also Yeguas These three richly decorated covers bespeak of the songbooks as prized copies.

Because of its restoration, D includes three modern guard-leaves —two at the beginning and one at the end of the book. The first folios, which contain poems, were originally numbered in Roman numerals. All folios with verses and the other three blanks include more recent pencil numbering in Arabic numerals.

The pages of D measure up to x mm. They were trimmed, but one can still see traces of the quire signatures in the bottom right corner of some leaves. Quires a-bb are quaternions containing eight folios each. The last gathering cc is a quinternion lacking its seventh and ninth folios. The missing folios do not affect the text.

Unlike D, both codi- ces are octavos. The three upper arms of the cross each end in smaller circles. The large circle contains letters M and J. This watermark can be found only in two folios, half in f. It corresponds to Bri- quet Genoa As with the gold-tooling on the covers, it is significant that, while not identical, the same watermark type is found in B and K.

Figure 6. Hand A, MS D, f. Hand B, MS D, f. Most of the text, from ff. This scribe routinely marked the beginning of his work with a holy cross on the top margin of f. The same sign can be found later on, on the top margin of f. Nonetheless, ligatures in groups ct and sp, the bullet-shaped ending strokes in vowels a or e, and some renderings of capitals P and D are examples of the most striking humanistic traits of Hand A.

They are not meant to correspond to different people working on the book. In fact, some of the hands, readers, and rubricators could be the same person carrying out a number of actions on the manuscript at different times, and employing slightly different scripts. That would explain the slightly smaller-sized and tighter script. With the exception of a few pages, Hand A featured this regular layout in quires o through bb. Hand A normally featured capital letters at the beginning of each stanza, and usually at the beginning of the fifth line, separating the two halves of the octaves.

On occasion, there is also a space separation between the first and the second half in the octaves. Not only does the regular mise-en-page in long sections of the codex support this, the quire collation is also very regular and the order of the poems in long sec- tions of the codex replicates that of earlier Marchian codices, such as F and N.

A second hand Hand B copied poem in f. Poems and were copied in dual columns. Hand B features a cursive humanistic script that is very similar to a third hand Hand C; see Figure 8. Unlike Hand B, Hand C displays sharp strokes and does not tend to link letters. Hand C played a crucial role in finishing the manuscript by adding missing stanzas and rubrics to poems 92 f. The order of poems remains stable in a few other codices: BFKN.

Within each letter heading, Hand C listed poems in the order in which they appear in the manuscript. In fact, considering the paleographical similarities between Hand B and Hand C, it would not be unlikely that both hands corresponded to a single scribe. D contains a total of poems by March, more than any other Marchian manuscript from the fifteenth or sixteenth centuries. In addition to those , D includes 4 duplicates: 30bis, 27bis, 32bis, and 40bis. Hand A copied them con- secutively between ff.

Afterwards, a reader Reader A detected that 30bis was a duplicate. Reader A canceled the poem and wrote a marginal note in Spanish and Catalan on the outer margin of f. That is in all likelihood the reason why Poem 30 was duplicated. The first stanza of Poem 30 appears in D as if merged with Poem 29, a single- stanzaic esparsa. Thus, Poem 29 looks like the first stanza of a longer compo- sition that visually encompasses both Poems 29 and 30, as the incipit of Poem 30 becomes the first verse of a second stanza in D.

It also appended missing stanzas to Poem vv. In view of these interventions, Hand C may have also canceled a few tor- nades, seguides and endreces ff. Dots, bars, and other small signs were added at some point, probably in the printing shop, cryptically mark- ing almost every incipit.

N has been dated ca. B and K also include the merging of both poems. This means that Reader A canceled 30bis prior to the intervention of Hand C. This important marginalia further supports the idea that Hand A would have performed a mechanical copy of its antigraph. When Hand C was working on the manuscript, he realized that poem 40 had been copied twice, first in ff.

Since 40bis is not included in the table, Hand C noticed the dupli- cation either before or while composing the table of contents. Finally, a different reader Reader B canceled poem 32bis, after Hand C had completed the table of contents. Reader B canceled poem 32bis from ff. The handscript of Reader B is a rounded humanistic script similar to that of Reader A, but its descenders are shorter, and vowel e occasionally displays bullet-shaped ending strokes. That is most likely the reason why Hand A did not realize that 40bis and 40 are the same poem.

Its incipit is actually v. Poem 27bis thus begins at what actually is the fourth stanza of complete Poem Rubricator A employed a thick and large Gothic script. The ink employed in these rubrics appears like that of the ornate capital letters at the beginning of each poem between ff. He worked after Hand A and Rubricator A completed their jobs, since many rubrics are clearly outside the text-block, by the upper margin of the page.

Hand A copied most of the manuscript, from ff. He must have been per- forming a mechanical copy of his antigraph. After —or as— Hand A was copy- ing the text, Rubricator A introduced rubrics and some capitals. After Hand A and Rubricator A completed their jobs, but not necessarily before the remaining hands and readers performed their respective work, Rubricator B included most of the rubrics in the manuscript. Then Hand C completed some missing stanzas and tornades, included a rubric, canceled poem 40bis, and composed a table of contents.

Before Hand C completed the table of contents, Reader A had already canceled poem 30bis; and after Hand C had finished the table of contents, Reader B canceled poem 32bis. This means that either the rubricator could access the antigraph of D as he was working on the manuscript or, perhaps more convincingly, Rubricator A may have been the same individual as Hand A. The first three stages in the compilation process had, in fact, coalesced in the antigraph or mastercopy Hand A had employed. Folios vr include four poems that were duplicates of the first hundred.

As I have explained before, these duplicates were added to the compilation inadvertently due to either misleading incipits, or due to the merging of a shorter composition with a lon- ger one. These four duplicates were copied one after the other and were thus grouped in a section after the first one hundred and one. As explained earlier, those two poems had been copied in a tighter and slightly smaller script. Hand A marked the beginning of this second task with a holy cross at the top margin of the page, which possibly denotes that some time had elapsed since he had finished f.

Last, the fifth stage in the compilation took place when Hand B copied three additional poems. Hand B used the remaining space in the bottom half of f. It is remarkable that poems and are the only ones attributed to March in nonstanzaic metrical schemes. Poem was copied between ff. It consists of couplets, in series of two octosyllables and one tetrasyllable. Be it Pedrol himself who copied the songbook, or be it several people working on his behalf, at the behest of Ferrando de Cardona, there is little doubt that the printing application license is truthful in this respect.

D and B are actually the only two textual witnesses to these two eccentric poems. Two textual particularities of D also individuate b: the merging of poems 29 and 30 ff. In addition to this selection process, the poems chosen to be published were totally rearranged in a completely different order from that of the manuscript. In preparation for the manuscript to be printed, some- one wrote down one or several letters of the alphabet on the margin at the beginning of each poem. After com- paring the order assigned by the letters of the manuscript to the order in the edition, it turns out that their coincidence is almost perfect.

Poems 30bis, 32bis, 40bis, and had been cancelled, were not considered, were not assigned a letter, and do not appear in the edition. Poems , , and do not bear any letter, nor were they included in the edition. On the other, Poems and are the only non- stanzaic ones. Finally, Poem 70 oooo was composed right before poem 52 qqqq. Poem 74 pppp was not included in the edition until later on, while it should have been set between 70 and This mistake on the part of the composi- [Left-out]: 12, 30bis, 32bis, 40bis, , These missing letters prompt the question: How were the compositors guided?

Was someone working in the printing-shop, such as Luis Pedrol, involved in the arrangement of the poems? On another note, as pointed out by Martos, a sixteenth-century reader of MS F wrote on the margin of the codex f. If someone had been recording the order of the edition in the manu- script, how and why could he possibly have committed the mistake of advanc- ing Poem 74, and only this poem, six positions?

Therefore, the compositor had to set four pages of the edition in each form. Furthermore, each quire of edition b includes sixteen pages it is a quarto in eights. This means that two sheets of paper were necessary to print each gath- ering, and also that setting by forms each quire of this quarto in eights entailed a particular distribution of sixteen pages in the four forms of every quire. Then he would cast off the content of pages before setting page 13, and finally, he would esti- mate the text to be contained in pages 14 and 15 before setting page At the same time, once the text of an entire quire had been cast off, nothing pre- vented two or more compositors from setting forms of the same quire.

As compositors were setting and casting off the text, they would scribble distinctive markings on the manuscript in order to signal where they had fin- 46 Paredes f. See Rico, El Texto del Quijote, for a thorough account of the consequences of hand-press printing to the transmission of the Quixote, which was printed in the same format as b. Most of the markings consist of a horizontal line placed between two text lines, establishing the end of a given page.

The number marks the page number , and the letter refers to one of the quires of the edition a-y. Some of these lines and some of their page and quire signa- tures do not correspond to the pages of the edition. Pages containing wrong markings also tend to include corrections. One of them employed thinner and shorter limit lines that entered the space between text-lines. His page and quire sig- natures tend to be smaller, regardless of whether he is using Arabic or Roman numerals.

The other printing worker drew thicker and longer lines that occupy most of the margin. His page and quire signatures tend to be in Arabic numerals and capitalized, although he occasionally uses Roman numerals as well. Setting and casting off D was not a simple job. The order of the poems in the manuscript would not correspond to the order of the edition.

There- fore, before setting or calculating the content of every page, the compositor had to look for the right poems back and forth in the manuscript. The first poem, bearing letter a, is Poem 39, which is placed between ff. The third poem in the edition was number 66 c, ff. The fourth poem in the edition was d, ff. This complex process of locating the poems before setting and casting off has left some remnants on the margins of D.

The most remark- able is on f. The com- positor wrote by the border line marking the beginning of page 15 in quire f f. There are two other notes left in the codex that directed the compositor in the process of locating before setting. The first one is in f. This kind of marking makes sense only to a compositor, who must know the location of all the texts that he needs to set in the same form. The second note is in f. This note is right by a limit line that marks the beginning of page 14 in quire f.

D also includes occasional crosses by the margins, marking stanzas omitted from the edition v, v, v, r. These missing stanzas reveal how one of the quires in the edition was printed, and show us the effects that the hand- press had on the transmission of texts Rico, En torno al error. Folios v, v, v, and r contain stanzas belonging to Poems and Except for the first stanza of Poem , both poems were printed in the inner sheet of quire o. As explained above, the compositors had to cast off the content of the entire quire four forms, sixteen pages , before composing the pages of a single form.

Since Poems and are in the inner sheet, and four of their stanzas were omitted from the edition, it can be deduced that the inner sheet was imposed last. As the typesetters were composing the two forms of the inner sheet, they realized that there was not enough space in those two forms so as to accommo- date all the text. They decided to exclude four stanzas. The only way this choice would have been unavailable to them would be if they had already printed the outer sheet. This sign marks in the codex the end of a page in the edition, but only in cases when the last verse 52 In addition, three of the four suppressed stanzas would have fallen in the inner form of the inner sheet, and only one in the outer form.

This could suggest that the inner form of the inner sheet was set last. The number of text lines set per page throughout the edition, including rubrics, is strikingly irregular. The line count goes any- where from 22 to 32 lines per page —excluding the also irregular spacing lines or blocks on the form. Consequently, some pages are widely spaced r, v , whereas others are crammed with text 20r, 37r; see Figure 9. Edition b, ff. Bembo was the first one to use the apostrophe in the edition of a vernacular text. Curiously enough, he also preferred to retain the initial h in Italian words; such as huomo instead of uomo.

This indeed reflects the work dynamics in a printing-shop. Just as in the case of the casting off marks, the edit- ing was introduced as a guide for the compositors. Take for instance, line 7 of poem 3 D, f. Figure Poem 3, vv. In the manuscript, Poem 8 is copied between ff. That is precisely the portion of the text that, once set in the edition, fell in the beginning of quire i.

A similar case appears in the end of quire c and the beginning of quire d: whereas the manuscript pages that were set at the end of quire c do not show any editing ff. Another proof can be found in the manuscript sections of poem 87 ff. Those two pages, belonging to the inner side of the outer sheet of the quire, are the only parts of long Poem 87 that had not been edited on the manuscript.


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Last, the first half octava of Poem 34 in f. These four verses fall on f. The second half of the octava includes hemistich bars and falls on f. In the s such editorial feature started to be common in Italian editions of vernacular texts. Also in , Andrea Gesualdo from Naples edited a new commentary, including lin- guistic notes that paid attention to the needs of non-Tuscan readers.

Some glosses were writ- 59 Another example of hemistich editing in manuscript parts that correspond to material units of the edition in f. Hemistich lines stop being added with the line marking at the end of folio 74r of the edition, that is, by v. The corrector may well have worked on the man- uscript in different moments. See the second stanza of folio 93r, in which editing appears in a darker ink, whereas hemistich lines are light brown, alike the main text.

All words containing margin glosses in b, were marked in D see Appen- dix 9, section 9. Moreover, the last page of the quire coincides with the end of poem The first quire of the edition was therefore corrected and set with somewhat more care than the rest. But was it or was it not produced to serve as such? However, the same gloss had appeared earlier on in the manuscript f. This kind of inconsistencies, like those just pointed out regarding the editing of D, could imply that those cancellations were carried out by the printing workers.

These clean copies would usually be written with a clear, often cursive script. The paper would be of low-grade quality. The manuscript would be bound, or just wrapped, in flimsy and low-quality leather covers. Luxuriously bound, written on paper of excellent quality, with wide margins, most of it in a round script with capi- tals and at times ornaments, this codex was not a mere clean copy commis- sioned in order to have a text ready for the press. Other details are notewor- thy. The table of contents was certainly used by the compositors, but the pages in the edition were not overwritten on the original pages in the manuscript.

In Manuzio tackled the issue of order in printing his new Petrarch. He moved back the division of the two parts of the Canzoniere from Poem to Poem and addressed the composition and the order of the Triumphus Fame in his letter to the readers. In Francesco Griffo printed in Bolo- gna another Petrarch that introduced a change in the order of the second and third capitoli of the Triumphus Fame. In his Venetian edition, Vellutello rendered the poems of the Canzoniere in a totally different order from the Aldine. See Belloni 78, n. These three qualities of edition b, as materially reflected in manuscript D, have been described and discussed in the previous chapter.

Now the focus will turn from the mate- rial to the hermeneutical. Humanistic jargon would use forma to refer to the actual metal forms employed in the hand printing press Rizzo Regarding Vellutello, my views are indebted to Belloni and Kennedy. Catullus, Propertius and Tibullus normally circulated together in a joint edition, stemming from their princeps, or the Aldine Gaisser; Brutrica. Finally, the blending of classical and vernacular lyric traditions had also occurred among fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Neo-Latin authors, for their elegies incorporated Petrarchist images and motives.

That poet was Janus Secundus , who corresponded with several Spanish courtiers, including Diego Hurtado de Mendoza. These books of lyric poetry —vernacular, classical, and Neo-Latin— did not feature mere thematic or metrical classifications of their content. Their poems were rather articulated organically. Their meaning not only generated from each individual composition, but from their sequence. Moreover, it can be argued that all those books belong to the same genre, and constitute a genu- ine tradition in which later authors admired and imitated their forebears.

Although occasional genetic relationships might be discussed, the former examples are to serve the purpose of establishing an interpretive dialogue between b and the tradition to which those books belong. Those models were selected for being epistemologically representative of literary traditions and editorial projects that could be relevant for the Barcelonian cultural circles sketched in Chapter 4. The final goal of this chapter is the recognition of b as belonging to the same mul- timorphic species as the other organic books of lyric poetry. Gesualdo also addressed the order model issue in his own edition dedicated to Maria de Car- dona Instead, emphasis will be on the continuity of a constructed and coherent poetic discourse across the book.

Through running titles, poems were divided into three sections: works on love, works on death, and works on morality. The second section includes many pieces ded- icated to the Aragonese rulers, and some composed during his exile in Rome , sonnets The third and final section begins after the last sonnet that mentions Luna, and includes poems addressed to a variety of con- temporary personalities , sonnet through canzone What were then the contents of the first two books in these editions? All sec- tions of these elegiac corpuses —each section is traditionally called a book and circulated independently— are unified by their poetic voice.

The sections do not imply a life-long narrative; rather, they follow a series of situations and episodes in the lives of their respective lovers. All these prefatory poems at the beginning of each elegiac section represent a fresh start and set a clear-cut boundary. For, all in all, the primary organicity in elegiac corpuses exists within every single section. His Roman edition features an organic book about his loves through the first poems. An undeniable organicity exists for book 2, but perhaps also for book 1.

Such would be the case of Poems 6 and 7; and 24 and Overall, the main question here is to decide how the second and third sections relate to the first and to each other. At that point, in the last poems of the section, March claims to be able to reflect and theorize about love. For his love is spiritual. Cardinal and ordinal numerals have the same function when applied to other authors, namely, identifying the poem in the quoted edition and its order in a macrotext.

Poem vv. Poem 93, vv. He grieves and misses her, but her passing away has purified his love from unde- sirable bodily attributes. Her absence condemns him not to feel any sort of pleasure. Poem 95, vv. In the penultimate piece of this section 97 , the lover mourns his loss and regrets his still being alive. And in the last poem of the series 96 , the lover raises more doubts about the salvation or damnation of his beloved in the other world. Poem 96, vv.

Not only does not money buy the highest delights, but it rather brings in more evil. If there exists a linkage between this section and the previous, it obviously does not involve the story of an anguished lover and his beloved. The connection, which indeed exists, is apparent on a higher, dis- cursive level, and concerns the poetic voice only. Mankind does not value virtues. People should not think exclusively about God when they are doing good.

Men follow their appetites, not virtue, and they always want more —as if fame and money were real virtues. Such behavior is just like worshipping false gods. The moral state of the earthly world is thus disgraceful and repre- hensible. March begs God for his divine justice to manifest on earth. Having bemoaned the corruption and lack of virtue in which the world finds itself, the next poem in this section focuses on the nature of the good.

Poem is a long verse treatise vv. In the tornada March begs the Virgin for as much faith as he may need; for living by it, he will eventually manage to reach salvation. Having touched again on the topics of death and redemption, the next poem is yet another long treatise vv. March realizes he is approaching his last days, and confesses to being afraid of dying. Cobrir no puch la dolor quin turmenta vehent que mort son aguayt me descobre; lo cami pla de perdre vidam, obre e traurem vol del mon sens dar empenta car tot primer virtut del cos ma tolta ja mos cinch senys no senten lo que solen los apart dins de gran por ja tremolen lenteniment de follia tem volta.

His love was purified after her departure. Memories of her comforted him. The lover was rather upset by his doubts about her salvation. Towards the conclusion of Poem vv. With such demeanor, men may attain what is eternal; salvation in the other world: donchs entengam guanyar lo perdurable aquest es Deu qui apres mort nos prenga qui linfinit acreure ferm sestenga de Paradis nos lunya ser amable Com son semblant lesperit lo cobeja, e lo finit per si, te cosa leja. The next poem displays an even more openly palinodial and peniten- tial discourse.

Men love and then, shortly after, begin to hate. He is not among the virtuous men he described in earlier poems. The division between works on love and works on death is conventionally Petrarchist. The last poem of the book concludes the story with a prayer to God where March begs for help to reach salvation. Was it also designed in the steps of Petrarchist models as closely as the over- all macrostructural design? Chronological references were one of the pivotal points of contempo- rary controversies about the order of the RVF.

Such incongruences might have been due to mechanical errors that highlight the long-lasting construction of the RVF as finally being fixed in the Vat. For the formal embedment of Poems and in their canonical position according to the Vat. As it was not uncommon in the troubadour tradition, March wrote two or perhaps three poems that include calendrical references to the date on which he fell in love. If love has caused him to be speechless, out of shyness, those two years point to the date of his enamorament. The sequencing relies instead on a linear concatenation of more or less distinct events and situations, as is discussed below.

In the last poem in book three 3.

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This was, of course, a construct. In the courtly setting that surrounded poetry-writing authors composed most of their pieces in response to occa- sional social situations, and addressed to a variety of characters, including dif- ferent ladies. Two different love experiences are the subject of his second book.


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  • Likewise, elegiac poets wrote of their love for different female and male lovers. Each of the authors considered in this study were, nonetheless, mainly known for their relation- ship with one particular puella. Centuries later, Neo-Latin poets would name their own books of elegies after the name of their puella. The poem is a maldit, a diatribe in which the lady is presented under a despicable light and denigrated to the point of being called a bawd. March ended some poems by addressing the Virgin or God.

    He also refers to Catullus and Lesbia, and to Propertius and Cynthia. In the trou- badour tradition the senhal is a sobriquet that generally refers to the lady to whom the poet is addressing his piece. In medieval Catalan poetry, con- trary to the Occitan, the senyal is regularly found in the tornada. Although each of those four senyals might refer to a different lady, little is known at this point about the persons behind those names. One of those read- ers underlined most proper names contained in the manuscript, including Dona Teresa.

    Addi- tionally, on the outer margin of f. The script dates at the very least from late sixteenth century. His prologue even features marginal notes providing legal documentation on the ownership of the estates that had belonged to March. The typology of those prologues derives less from the scholastic accessus ad auctores than from later lives of the authors. On the accessus ad auctores see Quaid; and Minnis. In her service, during her life and after her death, March wrote the most part of this book; whose works feature the most fulfilled and perfect, honest loves ever felt or written by any gentleman.

    One of the manuscripts copied for Ferrando de Cardona, K, also includes a similar rubric f. This exact rubric was added to manuscript D f. Finally, even manuscript N, at the beginning of poem 92 f. These rubrics may have referred to poem 92 or to the entire sequence. MS D grouped together and later on 97 and B and K, which had been copied for Ferrando de Cardona, grouped all poems together in the same order as they appear in b. Poem 1 is a general pref- ace.

    Acknowledgments

    Shame and remorse are the only results of his earthly vanities, for he discovered that the world is pleased by a short-lived dream. Each poet composed his own prologue, which included thorough variations over a range of different motives. He accepted the burden of being a living lesson for others, and hence the story that he will narrate through his verses is meant to be taken as a counter-exam- ple and not to be followed. His prologue extends across the first four compositions of his canzoniere Their moralistic gaze is thus independent from the precise turning point of the story, which, while for Caracciolo is linked to the death of his beloved, it is not for Cariteo Santagata, La lirica aragonese Caracciolo, on the one hand, starts his sequence by emphasizing his long-endured pain.

    His intention is not to attain fame and glory. All his tears are shed to persuade his cold and hard-hearted beloved. Its only prefatory motive may be the metapoetic references to his writing. Cariteo is straightforward about not considering his love to be sinful. Perhaps toying with the classical elegiac and prefatory topos of the recusatio, Cariteo refuses to deem his high and chaste love a foolish mis- take. His love was indeed virtuous and respectful toward God. Virtue inspired it, and his aspirations were truly honorable.

    His beloved was, moreover, a genui- ne angelical figure. In an openly Neo-Platonic fashion, Cariteo adored her as pure substance —since it is no mistake to worship God through his creation. As will be discussed later, Cariteo intertwined prefatory motives with topics belonging to the beginning of his narrative.

    Most of these examples of prefatory pieces in Petrarchist macrostructures also show traces of classical motives and topoi, literary referents to which Petrarch recurred himself. A iii recto. Hoc quoque iussit Amor; procul hinc, procul este severi! This, too, have I wrought at the bidding of Love— away from me, far away, ye austere fair! Ye are no fit audience for my tender strains. Showerman Not only does Ovid select his readership, he also posits an audience who shares his own condition.

    These two topics can also be found together in a fifteenth-century Neo- Latin poet, Christofor Landino , whose second prefatory poem of his elegiac and tripartite Xandra features both motives: Si te Pierides, vatum si tutor Apollo, vivere, parve liber, saecula longa velint, hos fuge, quos nullo quondam violaverit arcu neve suis facibus usserit asper Amor; namque negant veniam tristes qui fronte severa censuraque graves mollia verba notant. Si quis at hamatis transfixus corda sagittis pertulerit nostri vulnera cruda dei, hic veniamque dabit simul et miserebitur ultro nec feret in nostris lumina sicca malis; nam semel indignas furias expertus amantum asseret in terris durius esse nihil.

    There is an overall consolatory function implied in The debate introduces one of the key issues in the subsequent poems. Thus, 39 could have been under- stood as prefatory regardless of a former tradition or Petrarchist reading. At this moment, there is little basis to decide against any of these possibilities.

    He needs to make a decision about which desire he should pursue. The next verses stage the Mind-Body debate. Each side is understood to correspond to one of the two desires that had been haunting the poetic voice in the previous verses. Then the Mind reprimands the Body for the role it plays in love. Rico has argued see Chapter 6, n. That deadly blow entered his eyes and then his heart, where he placed virtue. The next piece 3 recalls the exact moment when Petrarch was hit by Love.

    Poem 4 praises the place where Laura was born, and 5 honors her name. Velutello proposed a change in the order of the first poems of the Aldine, which also affected the initium narationis. After the first poem, Cariteo keeps developing and amplifying his preface, and, at the same time, he lays out the beginning of his romanzo. Having introduced the name of his beloved, the place where she lives, or the cause of his suffer- ing, Cariteo addresses two poems to the protectors of his works, invokes the Muses, and formulates metapoetical reflections on his poetry.

    In verse 13 he also reveals the name of his beloved Luna. He harbors that desire against the envious, who fail to recognize his art. The past tense con- tinues to denote the prefatorial character of the poem, which regards a poste- riori the story to continue. Love is the addressee of all three compositions. This would per- haps betray a Vellutellian influence Albonico In the sixth, the lover complains that no astrological change has ever altered his fate.

    Rather than a Petrarchist inspira- tion, these poems might have been shaped by classical models. Each implies that the lover was born under the astrological sign of Venus. Pro- pertius recounts something similar about himself in the prefatory poem of his fourth book 4. RVF, 3, vv. In the fourth stanza March values his new sorrow, when he had already been accustomed to Love RVF 2, vv. And cf. Additionally, there are two other references in that are relevant to an initium narrationis sim- ilar to former examples.

    The reference to the Biscayan only makes proper sense within the opening simile: the shy poet, madly in love, feels like a Biscayan, who cannot talk about his malaise to anyone in Germany. Only a doctor from Spain can heal him —which is to say that only his lady can heal his love-sickness. What does include, though, is a thorough account of the overpowering effects of Love, which will be fur- ther developed in the poems that immediately follow. The lover is totally sub- missive to his lady, like a villein is to his lord stanza 2. He feels like a little child lost in the cliffs 3.

    Not only is his sight, but all of his senses are involved in his fall 4. He enjoys contemplating the image of his beloved he has set in his mind, and loves her superiority and disdain 5. Even being unrequited makes him love her more 6. He just wants to be close to her tornada. His allu- sions metaphorically mirror and symbolically elaborate his unrequited relation- ship with Laura the laurel into which Daphne metamorphized when chased by Apollo and his own poetic pursuits the poetic laurels, his recognition and pos- terity; see Santagata, I frammenti Such change, it has been argued, is reflected in symbolic references to the resurrection of Christ Lorenzo, , Mark 8.

    John 5. March only made occasional but consis- tent references to his love-induced sorrows as the punishments suffered by the inhabitants of the classical otherworld. Inflections in the narrative thus appear when certain features are pro- gressively or abruptly replaced by others. Setting clear-cut boundaries between shorter sequences is a somewhat arbitrary decision in many instances. Often a poem on one side of a given boundary has more than one element in common with the next poem, which belongs to the next sequence.

    The other sec- tions will be approached more expeditiously. The first section after the preface and the initium narrationis consists of Poems 3, 21, 69, 67, 10, and 68 5thth. In its second stanza, the lover appeared absolutely subdued to his beloved. In the next poem th , the poetic voice reasserts the inequality of their love from the third stanza until the end of the piece vv. Poem 21, vv. Finally, in poem th Love is portrayed again as a lord whom March serves blindly with the hope of obtaining a good reward.

    The second section comprises poems 23, 37, and 11thth. Her miraculous beauty is at the same time physical, moral, and spiritual. The next poem th furthers the description of the effects of Love-induced shyness on the lover. March also contemplates the anguishing effects of Love on his mind, but says to be enjoying those as well. Poem 37, vv. Finally, in th March praises both the physical and spiritual beauty of his beloved, but this time the emphasis is set on her body. After praising his beloved —and ending with a surprising emphasis on her body— in the next sequence March deals with the opposition between his virtuous, chaste, and imperishable desires and the low, vile, passing feelings any lover needs to confront.

    This sequence includes Poems 33, 5, 34, 73, 44, 86, 50, 18 14thth. Resuming the problems introduced in prefatory Poem nd, in this section the lover insists that his feelings for his beloved are spurred by his understanding, and did not originate in the body. Her soul is what fulfills his imperishable wishes for her 33, 5.

    The poetic voice also refers to love as a bitter or bittersweet experience and reveals how absence or distance are responsible for some of his anguish. The poetic voice begins this sequence by lamenting that his feelings are not requited; he sees himself close to dying Since misfortune has seized him, both his body and his soul suffer, and he wishes to get rid of the former When lover and beloved find themselves parted, the lover longs to be with the beloved again, but does not lose hope that Love will eventually haunt his beloved.

    He will always be faithful He wishes to die only to be able to see if she would cry out of regret for having been so cruel with him His longing is real and affects his body like an illness. If she realized all his pain, then perhaps she would also love him 2.

    When his beloved is absent, she is missed because she is the only one who can please him and save him from death or misfortune Everyone but him seem to obtain their due reward A feeling of frustration and bad Fortune is the binding theme of the poems in this section. Affliction brings the lover each day closer to death 81, 82, 11, March complains about Fortune, a force that can turn everything upside down 81, No sooner has Fortune favored him 62 , than he realizes Love brings fake pleasures 11 , and decides not to pursue better luck anymore: Fortune lit the fire, and then extinguished it March realizes that he has been given pleasure and annoyance at the same time.

    He will try to forget any pleasure that his beloved has ever granted him But he then regrets his decision, for he might only succeed in life by being good. Goodness is more important than wealth and lineage. Hence he decides to focus on practicing virtue. Now he does not want his grief to go away But then again, all his troubles may lead to his death, in which case only his family will mourn him. There is no possible defense against Love His desires thus make him feel like Tantalus Regardless, his beloved is the highest spiri- tual good of all and is on earth.

    In the subsequent poems, as a response to his unfavorable Fortune, March despises earthly goods and hopes death puts an end to his grieves 26, 36, 55, 41; 42ndth. March despises this world, full of vice, where virtues are miss- ing Death may be the medicine to his ills; the end of his life and suffering. It can remedy his bad Fortune too. He wants to abandon the world His life is on the line as a result of loving too intensely.

    Loving in excess has chal- lenged his life; and he only contemplates Love now March reasserts the moral decadence of this world, as compared to past times, and denounces the wicked actions of evil men. Blessed may be he who seeks good 41, cf. Nevertheless, in the following sequence , 58, 27, 45, 22, 46, 9; 46th- 52th , March still wishes that his troubled affection for his lady should force him to die. The poetic voice faces numerous disjunctives. In Poem , March sees that he has been subjugated by Love and Fortune.

    He admits having looked for the pleasures of the flesh, just like vulgar men, and regrets his long- developed bad habit, which he finds very difficult to reject. However, in order for March to reach that true pleasure, the poetic voice demands that his body act in agreement with his mind.

    In the next poem 58 March praises the extreme beauty of his beloved, but considers that it is his mind that she delights the most. She is the source of those enduring pleasures he was seeking. And yet, an excruciating pain has captured his mind, and he does not know whether to choose death or life That choice seems linked to the kind of love he wants to pursue 45 , a choice that has been haunting him since the beginning of his story: Will he go after a spiritual love? Will he seek a bestial love? Or will he engage in a typically human love that mixes both extremes?

    His love, the lover goes on to reckon, is of the spiritual kind But his beloved does not appre- ciate his hopeless desires, which outmatch those of any famous past lover. He will then have to abandon himself to a bodily and bestial love. March contem- plates the possibility of dying as a result of whatever love God has devised for him, for if he did, he would not stop loving her, but would hope she lost the abil- ity to love again Moreover, if he died, he would prove to everyone that he is the most extreme lover that ever existed.

    So it seems that even Love wishes his death 9. On occasion, he is not sorry about the end of his days, for his passing will prove to everyone the magnitude of his love. All these anguished and no less hyperbolic confessions precede a surpris- ing turning point: Poems 85, 38, , and Poem 85, vv. All he sees and thinks of her pleases him but his heart is not delighted: fet es de mi lo ques devie fer; perdent amor no vull, quem ajut deu en fer quel mon me done, res del seu puix no te res dispost, a mon voler. He can only relish in the profound sadness of his soul, and he begs God for his days to end soon or for him to be allowed to love with no obstacles.

    His mind races day and night, only to his detriment And he can only think about how Love ties its knot, as he sees himself heading straight to death. His past pleasure is not coming back. He only wants to forget the day, the person, and the place where Love pleased him. March believes that he must develop a new habit in order to provide spiritual goods for himself He feels that Love has abandoned him Hence March does not feel tormented by Love and is not pleased anymore by it either.

    Love is not ungrateful; what happens is that March himself is not capable of loving. March keeps recalling how in the past he had experienced love, but love turned into regret, as it was supposed to be No one in this world is compassionate, but finding some mercy in the eyes of his beloved could save him.

    In this regretful discourse, Poem 6 the 60th in b stands out for two rea- sons. An openly palinodial perspective enters the narrative, and a time refer- ence introduces a chronological anchor at this point. March begins the poem by acknowledging that it has taken him a long time to discover his mistakes in matters of love.

    March considers the possibility that he took an unfortu- nate short-cut, but also shows awareness of not having been able to find a will equal to his. March served a woman who could not make him happy. In Poem th March keeps emphasizing that he can see and acknowledge his mistake. But he had foreseen the unfavorable end to where he was headed. He only has pursued his destiny.

    Now he prays to be able to love the Virgin only. In nd March admits that it will sound coun- terintuitive, but Love is horrible and pleasing at the same time. March asserts that he pretends not to love she whom he longs for whenever she is nearby. The particular position of this poem in b is given by the tornada, in which March claims that Love cannot reach him, tie him up or scrape him. In th, the poetic voice claims to have loved to the extent that he does not wish to love anymore. The trouble has exceeded the bene- fits he used to receive from Love.

    The poetic voice considers Love to be ungrateful, considering all his service to it. Love has made him grow old and exhausted before due time. In the next poem 76 March recalls when he thought his love was requited. Now he believes it was only a mirage. Women lack constancy or faithfulness. He has developed the unfortunate habit of being in love. Without love no pleasure reaches him, so he has to admit that he does not know how to live.

    His mind is disturbed and cannot look ahead or back in time Not only does March regret his past love, he even curses his beloved and the entire female gender He has forgotten what he used to find in love: women are ignorant, lustful, and lack intelligence —they are simply intended for procreation. The poetic voice admonishes lovers not to follow his path, and damns the time when he used to love women.

    March accuses her of being a bawd and this is precisely a common character in elegiac poetry, which most memorably Ovid cursed in his Amores 1. In the next poem 8 , March tones down his attacks. In the fifth stanza, March regrets having cursed Love and women. Women are fickle by nature; it is beyond their con- trol, so it is not advisable to seek their love. Finally, in Poem 47 March criti- cizes the woman he used to love for loving a man who is not her equal. With his lady loving him back again, March feels that he can amend his past mistakes.

    He again praises his beloved and promises her that he will love her and be faithful, for he wants to finish his days loving her March remem- bers the time when her love pleased him so much March still has some hope that after all that suffering, something nice might be in store for him 15 , even though love seems to kindle all hearts but hers.

    With the arrival of spring, all animals find their equal, but that is not his case. He would like to be rewarded by his service to her, but instead she does not notice his woes and has lost his will Once again, this reconcil- iatory section seems to be modeled on what appears to be a classical pattern.

    The poetic voice goes from feeling sadly unrequited to enjoying his love for his beloved 75, 53, 43, 16, 56, , 79, 57; 76thrd. Poem 75 is an allegorical piece in which Venus sensual love overpowers all mythological gods. He is back to being shy and afraid of showing his love to his beloved He is thrilled to see her, but fears being unrequited And now March recognizes that his soul is happy to long for her soul.

    The lover reaches a point where he does not need to feel reciprocated. March admires those who have sacrificed themselves in order to enjoy what is infinite in the other world instead of enduring harder times on earth. Longing for what lies ahead in the afterlife is already enjoying the afterlife March comes to the conclusion that his love used to involve his soul only, but now pertains exclu- sively to his flesh.

    Because of a woman who is not constant about her feelings, love provides him short, perishable pleasures March warns lovers that their pleasure will change over time until it vanishes. He now loves and hates, wishes well and profoundly dislikes, experiences love and feels rage all at the same time , 65, , Rage and Love disturb him Series A, Map 70, January Hypothenemus hampei.

    Other crops and special studies [sugarcane Saccharum officinarum , coffee Coffea , nutmeg Myristica and cotton Gossypium ]. Trinidad and Tobago, pp. Tree crops programme. Junta Acuerdo de Cartagena, pp. Coffee bean beetles Hypothenemus hampei. Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari. Distribution maps of pests series agricultural. Control of coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Ferreri. Central Coffee Research Institute, India, pp 71— Managua, Nicaragua. Ministerio de Agricultura. Caracas, Venezuela, 10 pp. Coffee berry borer Coleoptera: Scolytidae Hypothenemus hampei Ferr.

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    Registro de un nuevo hospedero de la avispa de la Costa de Marfil, Cephalonomia stephanoderis. Arcila Moreno. Efecto depredador del parasitoide Cephalonomia stephanoderis Hymenoptera: Bethylidae sobre los estados inmaduros de Hypothenemus hampei Coleoptera: Scolytidae en condiciones de campo. Estudios de poblaciones de Hypothenemus hampei en fincas de caficultores experimentadores.

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    A sampling plan for a control project against the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei in Mexico. The biology, ecology and behaviour of the coffee berry borer and its parasitoids. The coffee berry borer in Colombia. Also available in Spanish as: Baker, P. A field study of a population of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Coleoptera; Scolytidae , in Chiapas, Mexico.

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    Establishment of Cephalonomia stephanoderis , the introduced parasitoid of coffee berry borer in Coorg District, Karnataka. Field evaluation of two types of coffee berry borer traps for trapping efficiency. Hirsutella sp. Infectivity of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Infectivity of ten Metarhizium anisopliae isolates to the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei Coleoptera: Curculionidae.

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    Mexico, 49 pp. Evidence for a marking pheromone in host discrimination by Cephalonomia stephanoderis Hym. Can the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei reproduce by parthenogenesis? El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico. Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, pp. Fuzzy model proposal for the coffee berry borer expansion at Colombian coffee fields. Insect gladiators II: Competitive interactions within and between bethylid parasitoid species of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Coleoptera: Scolytidae.

    Interactions among bethylid parasitoid species attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei Coleoptera: Scolytidae. Coleoptera: Scolytidae bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Effets des arbres d'ombrage sur les bioagresseurs de Coffea arabica.

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