Das Pferdegeschenk in Hartmann von Aues Erec: Symbolgehalt und Funktionen (German Edition)

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Postcard from Kobe posted on It seems that his employer possibly traded with bicycles or he was an enthusiastic cyclist himself. Privat wohnten sie in Yokohama 12 Bluff.

History of German Literature

Privately, they resided in Yokohama 12 Bluff. His work in Japan ended in Sie kamen in Japan am Er hat auch an der Kwansei Gakuin und der Lambuth Schule gelehrt. Er vermachte seine Bibliothek dem Kentucky Wesleyan College. September On June 15, he married Georgiana Dashiell in Nashville. After their marriage they were both sent to Japan as missionaries of the Methodist Episcopal Mission. They arrived in Japan on August 21, and worked from in Osaka; in Oita; in Tadotsu; in Hiroshima; in Kobe; in USA; in Himeji; in Ashiya; in U.

He acted for many years as Superintendent of the Kobe District and treasurer of the Mission. Kentucky Wesleyan College honoured him with the Doctor of Divinity in He bequeathed his library to the Kentucky Wesleyan College. His wife taught as a missionary music and held English Bible and cooking classes in her home. They left Japan on September 1, Zum Weitertransport der Maschinen mietete die Regierung einen Dampfer, und am Er war u.

Curt Netto replaced this method by the wet method of Mansfeld and had an appropriate oven built. The necessary machinery were ordered in Germany and also an engineer for the machines to be assembled in the silver mine at Kosaka, Akita-ken, was requested. The government hired a steamer for the further transport of the machines and Hagmaier left Yokohama with the machines on June 10, In October , the plant was handed over to the owners as a technically modern mine.

For financial reasons, the mine was later transferred to the Fujita Group, which gradually developed to one of the largest metal combines in Japan. Today the mine is shut down but in the vicinity a new copper mine is in operation. Among others, he was also engaged in connection with the employment of Carl HEER, there is a special memorandum dated June 17, Carl] [Karl]. Privat lebten sie in Yokohama Bluff.

Ab ist auch ihre Tochte Milley im Hotel Makado gelistet. Ab arbeitetete er als Leiter des neuen Bekleidungs-Hauses, Yokohama Seine Frau, die am He worked for that company until Privately they resided at Yokohama Bluff. As of , also his life changed. His wife opened at Makado-dori, Negishi, a hotel, named Makado-Hotel and partly he also supported her. As of , also their daughter Milley is recorded in the hotel Makado. His wife, who was born on April 3, , died on July 21, She was buried in the Foreigners' Cemetery of Yokohama. Nach seiner Grundausbildung besuchte er die Reichs- Oberschule in Berlin, die er mit dem Abitur abschloss.

Vom Senior High School in Kumamoto angestellt. Sein Vertrag wurde bis zum Er beendete am Sein Vertrag lief bis zum After his basic education he entered in the Imperial High School of Berlin and graduated from it in In the autumn of the same year, he entered the Friedrich-Wilhelm-University of the Berlin and studied at the philosophy department.

His study was interrupted twice: at the beginning for the military service and at the end for a long-term school excursion to the U. In spring of he was finally conferred the degree of Doctor of Philosophy cum laude at the University of Halle. His contract was prolonged until July 31, Afterwards he confirmed another extension of his occupation for three years but for personal reasons he had to leave Japan for Germany on March 31, He returned to Japan and resumed his work on September 1, He resigned on August 31, and moved to Nagoya to act as German lecturer on the 8th Higher School until March 31, During his stay in Nagoya he additionally taught German as part-time teacher at the Aichi Medical College from August until March Most surely, influenced by WW I, he went to Germany but after the war he visited Japan again in He took up his post as German lecturer at the Aichi Medical College, preparatory course, on March 27, The term of his office lasted until March 31, Er wurde auf das Magree College, Mo.

Regiment von Illinois ein, er diente in der Armee 3 Jahre. Nach der Ausmusterung schloss er das College ab. Danach wurde er durch die Union der Presbyterianer geweiht und durfte das Evangelium predigen. Er wurde in den Pfarrbereich von Uniontown, Pa. Er war zusammen mit seinem Bruder John B. Hoekje Beide Kinder wurden ebenfalls Missionare in Japan.

He was sent to Magree College, Mo. While he was at this college Civil War broke out and he enlisted in the 15th Regiment of the Illinois Volunteers, and served in the army for three years. After being mustered out, he completed his college course. Afterwards he was licensed and ordained to the gospel ministry by the Union Presbytery.

He was called to the pastorate of the church at Uniontown, Pa. He also served the church at Cumberland and at Berlin Heights, Ohio. After serving this church for several years, he took a year's course in the Oberlin Theological College and following this graduation he studied medicine in the Cleveland Medical College, in he was conferred the Doctor of Theology from this university. He was accepted by the Board of Foreign and Domestic Missions of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church as a candidate for the foreign field in In he was sent as a missionary to Japan arriving in Nobember together with his wife and son and they lived in Osaka.

His missionary life has been characterized by a ceaseless activity in various fields of missionary work. He and his brother John B. Hail were the leading spirits in founding of Wilmina Girls' School which was opened as mission school on January 17, This school was later united with the Naniwa Girls' School see also below under P. Besides teaching he spent much time to evangelistic work of his Mission. In the time of the Foreign Concessions he represented the foreign community on the Osaka Municipal Council for several years. Both the childs became missionaries in Japan, too.

He died in and was buried in the foreign graveyard of Abeno in Osaka, but later was reinterred in the Hattori Cemetery of Toyonaka. Since their mission statements were similar, they combined them and they decided to keep the name as Wilmina Girls School and move the school to the site of Naniwa Girls School, in it became the predecessor of today's Osaka Jogakuin. Vom Waynesburgh College erhielt er den Titel des M.

Er mietete ein Haus in Osaka, sein Bruder A. Hail lebte auch hier ab und arbeitete als Missionar. Sie sind beide auf dem Wakayama Imafuku Shiei Bochi beigesetzt. John Baxter Hail was educated at Waynesburgh College, graduating therefrom in , and later taking his theological course at Western Theological Seminary, Pittsburgh. From Waynesburgh College he received the degrees of M. On January 3, he arrived in Japan together with his wife, commissioned by the Cumberland Presbyterian Board. He rented a house in Osaka, his brother A. Hail also lived there from on and engaged in missionary work.

He and his brother were the leading spirits in founding of Wilmina Girls' School which opened as mission school on January 17, This school was later united with the Naniwa Girls' School. For fifteen years he labored continuously in Osaka, going home for his first furlough in On his return to Japan in , he was stationed in Wakayama. His missionary activity was almost wholly preaching work. He had translated many religious books into the Japanese language and was also the author of a number of books.

She was a member of his class in Waynesburgh College. He died in due to pneumonia, his wife preceded him on March 27, They are buried in the Wakayama Imafuku Shiei Bochi. John Eugen Hail wuchs in Osaka, Japan auf. Er wirkte als Pfarrer in Khedive, Penn. Wyckoff , geb. Sie hatten eine Tochter Lindsey, geb. Seine Frau lebte weiter in Japan, sie starb am John Eugen Hail was brought up in Osaka, Japan. In he graduated from his theological studies with the degree of B.

He served as pastor at Khedive, Penn. After his arrival he stayed in Osaka, at first for the language study and he passed his language examination after only six months. He then labored for several months in the Kawaguchi district near Osaka, after which in he was transferred to Tsu, in the province of Ise. He was treading in the footsteps of his father and his uncle , besides initiating new kinds of work as new needs sprang up.

Special mention must be made of his work at Tsu in connection with the "Miller Kindergarten", the upbuilding of a church, supporting the Exposition held in , etc. On July 12, , he married Harriet J. Wyckoff , born on August 22, in Yokohama and daughter of M. Wyckoff of Tokyo, who had been up to the time of her marriage a missionary in Japan in connection with the Reformed Church in America. Both therefore had some years of experience in Mission work and were fitted for a life of great usefulness in this field.

They had a daughter Lindsey, born on July 2, A tragic accident happened on top of Mount Asama, near Karuizawa, Japan, and John Eugen Hail died on August 15, resulting from the wounds received early that morning by an eruption from the volcano. Postkarte von L. Er gibt als seine Adresse H. Die beiden Firmen hatten sich getrennt. In he left Japan again. Postcard from L. Hailer posted on He gives as his address H. The two companies had separated in ; the separation seems but more to have been carried out for economic reasons.

Ab arbeitete er in der Filiale in Yokohama Als H. Theodor Hake war immer bei H. Bereits am Already at the beginning of his activities in Japan he was anxious to be integrated into the German community. He became a member of the OAG on November 8, As of he worked in the branch office in Yokohama In and he stayed in the Kobe branch and when the Club Concordia was founded in Kobe in , he belonged to the founder members.

In H. Ahrens went to London to manage the company from there and Theodor Hake was appointed responsible for the import to Japan, he then was in Yokohama 29 again. Theodor Hake had always been employed with H. Ahrens offered for three of his employees - Theodor Hake, Emil Wismer, and Georg Rudolph Mosle - after his death in in his last will to continue the company, however, at their own charges. These three decided to take over the company and renamed it to H. Already on March 6, , Theodor Hake had to leave the group of partners for health reasons as the first and returned to Germany.

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Sein Vertrag mit der japanischen Regierung begann am Klasse verliehen. Hall in Betracht. He arrived in Yokohama in and was employed in the repairing shop of the railways in Yokohama. His contract with the Japanese government commenced on April 24, and he was the first motorman who ran the train linking Tokyo-Shinbashi and Yokohama in He lived in Tokyo and Yokohama for several years and in addition to his work in the railways, conducted a general provision store in Tsukiji.

Additionally he also trained many Japanese motormen and acted as motorman himself on the Kyoto-Kobe-Line. When he retired on pension from the Railway Department in , he was granted a free pass on railways for life and also the fifth class Order of Rising Sun. After his retirement from the railways he was recorded as employee of A. He was an esteemed member of the foreign Kobe community. He served for many years on the committee of K. His home at Suma, Ichinotani, known as the "Doon Villa", was built some time in the 's and was surrounded with a fine garden.

The house was built before the railroad was extended to Suma and it was still a very popular destination and one of the most hospitable houses in Kobe. He was the first foreigner to live there and can therefore be called the founder of this foreign settlement in Kobe which became more and more popular. It is said, he was supported by his brother in building his villa but no relationship could be found to anybdy. Thus, his possible brother can only be supposed by the process of elimination as J.

He was buried in the former Kasugano Foreign Cemetery and his remains were moved to Shuhogahara in following the closure of the former. Der erste Schritt zur Abschaffung des Feudalsystems war die Umwandlung der alten daimyos zu Gouverneuren in ihren ehemaligen Lehen han. Kurz nachdem Abel A. Von bis zu seiner Pensionierung wurde er zum Generalkonsul in Yokohama berufen. Sie wurde am John Carew Hall starb am On January 24, he was appointed interpreter probationer to the British legation to Japan. When the Japanese Government dispatched an investigating group to Hong Kong and Singapore for prison system inspection by the advice of British Minister Sir Parkes in , he guided the actual place and did much by his advice to bring about a more humane system of prison treatment.

Apart from the ordinary office routine his first piece of serious work with which he was entrusted was the preparation for the Legation of a statement of what were known as the Han claims. In the new Government was steadily settling down to the business of administration in the provinces, and the first step towards the abolition of the feudal system was the conversion of the old daimyos into governors of their former fiefs han. There were over 30 cases of such debts owed to British merchants in Kobel, and a statement of all such claims against the Japanese Government had been called for by the Legation.

John Carey Hall had to examine and report upon each case of such debt on the understanding that it was to be settled between the Central Government and the British Legation. Shortly after Abel A. Gower retired in , John Carey became the tenant of his beautiful little Japanese house, long afterwards still known as Gower's bungalow. During all these appointments he also acted as the assistant judge of the consul court. From until his retirement was appointed Consul-General in Yokohama at He retired from his post in and returned to London, but contributed to the Japanese-English friendship as Chairman of the Japanese Asian Society.

She was born on April 10, and died on July 5, John Carew Hall died on October 21, in London, aged 77 years. His ashes were buried besides his wife in Yokohama by his last will. Bereits hatte er die Firma wieder verlassen und leitete die Oriental Telegram Agency, Yokohama Seine Firma befand sich in Yokohama Ab ist er auch als Direktor der Eastern Whaling Co. Seine Firma befand sich nun in Yokohama Karte vom Postcard from September 25, to G. As of , his economic situation changed positively, possibly influenced by the inclusion of insurance services.

His company was located in Yokohama As of he is also listed as a director of the Eastern Whaling Co. Also the auction and commission business began to bear fruits. From the notes of Karl Flaig we know that he had been the owner of the Hotels Metropol located in the foreigners' quarters Tokyo Tsukiji and he was also mentioned as Director of the Club Hotels. His company was now located in Yokohama At the age of 56 years, John William Hall died in at Kowakidani.

The former managing director of John William Hall, Tom Abbey , took over the trading company, which remained henceforth in possesion of the Abbey's. The last auction was held in April After 70 years, the Yokohama Auction Hall closed its doors - it had been in all the years a popular place for Japanese and foreigners. Danach ist er nicht mehr in den JD gelistet. So ist es nicht verwunderlich, dass auch ihr Sohn Hans Theodor Maler wurde.

Seine Mutter gab Mal- und Zeichenunterricht, u. Brief von Prof. Hallier aus Tokyo, Koishikawa, vom Unter dem Namen "Buchhandlung an der Thomaskirche" existiert sie heute noch. According to the Japan Directories, Prof. Emil Hallier still taught in at this school. Afterwards he is no longer listed in the JD. His further employment is unknown, although we know that he continued to live in Tokyo, because on July 26, his eldest son Hans Theodor was born in Tokyo. So it is not surprising that their son Hans Theodor also became a painter.

The German community in Kobe grew steadily and in another class level had to be set up. At first, for this new class neither means nor a class-room, but especially no appropriately trained teacher were available. The situation only changed, when Emil Hallier from Tokyo could be engaged and he even brought six children of his own. Letter of Prof. The bookstore was founded in and acquired in by Paul Eger.

Under the name "Bookstore at St. Thomas Church," it still exists today. Die Abbildung zeigt eine Einladungskarte vom Er kam nach Japan und spielte eine bedeutende Rolle bei der Errichtung des Telefondienstes zwischen Tokyo und Nagasaki. Er ruht jetzt auf dem Yanghajin Friedhof von Seoul. Merry College by his father and later was trained in telecommunication. In he worked at a small town in Cuba as a telegraphic wire serviceman. He came to Japan in and played an important role in establishing telegraphic services between Tokyo and Nagasaki.

He had a contract as FE with the Japanese government to work as assistant superintendent, Railways and Telegraphs Department, Telegraphs Section, the contract ran from May 16, for three years until July 2, After that he was employed in Tokyo to teach English and English literature at various private schools from until In he went to Korea and taught English in Seoul at the Tongmunhak school, he trained a number of official interpreters for diplomatic service and trading.

In he was appointed a foreman at the telegraphic wire services between Seoul and Pusan. In he left Japan for Korea and taught English again there. He retired from teaching profession in but passed away in Seoul in He rests now in Yanghajin Cemetery of Seoul. Sein Studium schloss er ab, fand eine Anstellung in einer Anwaltskanzlei, die er aber gleich wieder beendete und noch im Herbst begann, am Wycliffe Theological College zu studieren.

Spence an der St. Andrews Church von Tokyo. Mori, der sein Augenlicht auch verloren hatte, geleitet wurde. Im Jahr wurde er zum Bischof des zentralen Teils Japans berufen. In seiner Jugend war er ein begeisterter Bergsteiger. Seine Frau starb und er folgte ihr im Jahr Sie sind beide auf dem St.

James Friedhof von Totonto begraben. Hamilton aus Gifu vom Hamilton from Gifu, posted March 24, to his brother, who was on a visit to Japan. He graduated from the university in and found a job in a law office, but soon after he resigned from his job and entered the Wycliffe Theological College in the autumn of the same year. In he became a priest at Port Hope, St. John Church. He worked here for about three years and in November he visited Japan as a member of the Wycliffe College Mission of Toronto, belonging to the Canadian Church Mission.

He took office in Nagoya and was in charge of Christian missionary work, staying in Nagoya until Andrews Church of Tokyo. As of he was stationed with his wife in Gifu and he was especially involved in the Gifu Blind School. This school had its foundation in work begun by Reverend A. Chappell soon after the great earthquake of A building was first erected and lent free of charge to a committee of blind men, who used it as a school, clubroom, etc. In the institution was changed into a blind school pure and simple, under the principalship of J.

Mori who had also lost his own sight. The buildings were remodelled in and extended during the year These changes, together with the wiping out of the debt incurred in the enlargement of the premises, were due to the exertions of Reverend Heber J. He was in charge of the Canadian Missionary Society work in Gifu-ken until After a short stay of about one year in Tokyo he was again transferred to Nagoya where he established a kindergarten teacher training institution Yamashiro Junior College. In he was appointed Bishop of the central part district of Japan.

He was always endeavored to raise funds for the benefit of the poor and in he was able to establish a tuberculosis sanatorium in Nagano. In his youth, he was an enthusiastic mountaineer. He was a friend to Walter Weston and they also performed Japanese Alpine mountain climbing together. His wife died in and he followed her in They are both buried in the Saint James Cemetery of Totonto. Marie geb. Man musste aber feststellen, dass diese Entscheidung falsch war. Hansen arbeitete jetzt in der Niederlassung in Yokohama Ab wurde er in der deutschen Niederlassung in Hamburg eingesetzt.

Die damit eingetretenen neuen Strukturen schienen H. Hansen nicht zu passen. Nach der Heirat lebten sie in Japan.

Meiji-Portraits - Bernd Lepach - H

Ihr Sohn Kurt wurde am Weltkrieges weilte die Familie Hansen in Japan. Ihr Mann blieb in Japan. Sylvia Hansen starb am Hans Hansen had been delegated to Bakan at the end of in order to establish a branch there. But they had to realize that this decision was wrong. In , the branch of Bakan was again closed and moved to the opposite Moji. As of , Hansen worked in the branch in Yokohama From on he was incorporated in the German office in Hamburg.

It seems, H. Sylvia managed to come to Hong Kong mainly by the position of Robert Becker. Possibly also Ernst Becker had a decisive influence in this connection, because surely they knew each other. After the marriage they lived in Japan. Their son Kurt was born on January 11, in Yokohama.

Due to an illness, Sylvia Hansen and son Kurt returned to Hamburg in Her husband remained in Japan. Sylvia Hansen died on September 1, in Hamburg. Son Kurt grew up in the home of Robert and Marie Becker in Bergedorf and experienced there a happy childhood and school years. This is also reflected in his future life - he studied chemistry, acquired the title of doctor and had been for many years Chairman of the Board of Directors, then Chairman of the Board and later Honorary Chairman of the Bayer AG, Leverkusen.

Further information on Hans Hansen and the Becker family you find here. New York in Kobe 56, wo er bis blieb. Er und Christian Holstein und vermutlich A. In he changed his job and became Manager of the Standard Oil Co. In he was transferred to the London office of the Standard Oil Co. He, Christian Holstein and presumably A. Greppi were the three promotors of the Tor-Hotel in Kobe and when it was opened, he took office as director. In he married Mabel Bacon and moved to Tokyo. His wife taught English in Waseda University. He died from cardioplegy in his living place in Tokyo, Shibuya. Following the Tokyo-city replanning programmes they were moved to Ikomaenuma, Adachi-ku.

The photo was taken in July when Emperor Meiji visited Nagasaki. Dock Nr. Dock No 1, as it looked towards the end of the Meiji Era. Das Paar hatte zehn Kinder: Anna wurde , geboren, Leendert starb , kurz nach der Geburt; ein zweiter Sohn, geboren , erhielt abermals den Namen Leendert; er starb Jacobus, geboren , starb im folgenden Jahr. Daraus ging der Marine-Dampffahrtdienst hervor. Die Besatzung bestand aus 72 Offizieren und Mannschaften.

Hendrik Hardes erhielt die Auszeichnung, der verantwortliche technische Offizier des Schiffes zu werden. Die Japan erreichte Nagasaki am Chef der Mission wurde Kattendijke selbst; er ersetzte jetzt G. Alcock konnte sich nicht mehr an den Namen dieses Ingenieurs erinnern, aber es war Hardes.

Als Kaiser Mutsuhito von Trotz dieser Erfolge der bereits in Nagasaki vorhandenen Infrastruktur beschloss die japanische Regierung, den staatlichen Schiffbau auf die Regionen Kobe und Yokosuka zu konzentrieren. Privater Unternehmergeist verwandelte jedoch die bereits vorhandenen Anlagen in Akunoura, Tategami und Kosuge, zu einem der bedeutendsten Schiffbaustandorte der Welt. He took part in the delivery of the later Kanrin-maru to Japan, which at the same time brought the "Second Dutch Mission" to Japan.

As a member of this mission, Hardes established at Nagasaki an iron foundry which became the first predecessor of the later world-famous Mitsubishi shipyard. The couple had ten children: Anna was born in , Leendert died in shortly after his birth; a second son, born in , was again called Leendert; he died in Jacobus, born in , died the following year.

Thereafter two more daughters were born, Gijsberta and Mathilda in The last child, Jacobus, got again his grandfather's and his deceased brother's name. At the time of Jacobus' birth, Hendrik Hardes was already staying in Japan. Hendrik Hardes was among the first Dutchmen trained by the navy to a "steam officer". The traditional "engineers" of the Dutch Navy were further on concerned with the virtual construction of the ships as such, whereas the new "steam officers" had to design, procure, operate and maintain the new steam engines and their boilers.

Hence the "Naval Steam Service" arose in In Hardes was machinist on the frigate Zr. She was driven by a 40 HP Cockerill steam engine and was the second steamship serving in the Dutch navy. In August of , she was at Flushing Vlissingen decommissioned for repair, her engine was partly transferred to the newly constructed side wheel steamer Cerberus. Probably Hardes was also engaged in this reconstruction as a specialist for steam propulsion. One of the first Dutch shipyards which had already adopted steam propulsion and iron construction was the small yard of Fop Smit in Kinderdijk.

At this yard two screw corvettes had been laid down for the navy in , the Bali and a sister ship named Japan. The ship was manned by a crew of 72 officers and seamen. Hendrik Hardes had the distinction to become the ship's responsible technical officer. The Japan arrived at Nagasaki on April 21, As head of this mission Kattendijke himself was appointed, replacing now G. At this establishment, members of the Dutch mission gave instructions in naval and military tactics, navigation, mathematics, naval architecture, gunnery, political economy, medical sciences and in the Dutch language.

Hendrik Hardes had the task to assemble at Akunoura, at the opposite side of Nagasaki bay, a new factory. Under the supervision of Hardes, the construction of the foundry started on July 19, An American physician, whose name is not reported, had the occasion to visit the site in and he wrote: "Dutch engineers are erecting a large machine shop for a steam hammer, and further appliances needed for keeping the steam navy in repair.

A steam engine is already at work moving lathes, at which apprentices, sons of men of rank, are turning, whilst others are moulding, forging, and filing. He saw "one of the most extraordinary" testimonies of the ingenuity of the Japanese: a steam-engine, "produced by themselves solely from the plans in a Dutch work under the able hands of the head engineer". Alcock could not recall this engineer's name, but it was Hardes.

By the sixteenth century, the Electorate of Saxony was an influential territory for the Holy Roman Empire in other key ways; it was one of its richest regions known for its support of mining initiatives, interest in science and technology, as well as internal reforms in the domains of administration and justice.

I argue that in their startling combination of nature and artistry, in which nature is improved upon through artifice, the artefacts articulate transformative material possibilities that are also expressed in their political iconography. The gifts thus engender connections through their status as Kunstkammer artefacts that reflect and embody contemporary knowledge and knowledge making—practices that ultimately sought ways to control and to understand the volatile existence of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries in central Europe.

In what follows, I first explain the knowledge seeking material practices that inform our understanding of courtly gift exchange within the early modern period, paying particular attention to collecting and how its relationship to the social, the political, and the religious contexts of the period. Drawing attention to the fact that in the second half of the sixteenth century the connection between the courts of Prague and Dresden was initiated, maintained, and expressed though active gift exchange of Kunstkammer works of art, the historical relationship between Saxony and the Imperial court is addressed.

In order to elucidate why such gifts would have been particularly potent things for Christian who sought to portray himself as a cultivated collector of the world, in what follows, the function of collecting as it was written about in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries by three early modern authors is expounded. Samuel Quiccheberg , Gabriel Kaltermarckt? While their proposal of what a collection should contain varies, they share in common the emphasis upon the informative, epistemological, and didactic purpose of the collection. In Samuel Quiccheberg published the first known treatise on collecting titled Inscriptiones vel tituli theatri amplissimi Munich, [Inscriptions or Titles of the 39 Most Ample Theater].

Quiccheberg also elaborates upon the architecture he sees as appropriate for such a project, a building in the form of an architectural theater that facilitates easy viewing and study. Autore Samuele a Qviccheberg Belga. It is recommended that these things be brought together here in the theater so that by their frequent viewing and handling one might quickly, easily, and confidently be able to acquire a unique knowledge and admirable understanding of things. Mark A. Meadow, trans.

Throughout the Inscriptiones Quiccheberg elaborates how knowledge is generated from a thorough collection of things taken from nature and of things that had been created by people. Quiccheberg recommends that objects in the collection are organized into five classes of objects: First Class: things that pertain to the founder and creator of the collection, concerned with representation of the prince and founder; Second Class: examples of human artifice and artistry; Third Class: things of nature, or naturalia; Fourth Class: tools of artifice that allow the means of acting on nature; Fifth Class: objects that enact knowledge, or representations, including things that may be studied or aesthetically contemplated.

Each class is further subdivided into further inscriptions or titles that group related objects. For while books are the other common equipment of all disciplines, here—through the observation of paintings, the examination of objects, and the display of the world of instruments, assisted by the tables of divisions and reliable synopses—everything becomes clearer and more comprehensible.

In an earlier section where Quiccheberg offers more detailed recommendations and advice, he elaborates how such knowledge is necessary for the rule of state. This knowledge is in turn necessary for the administering of state, a notion that derives from medieval concepts of the divine emperor, who rules over the secular and the ecclesiastical.

The original manuscript, MS Loc. First, sculptures. Secondly, paintings. Thirdly, curious items from home and abroad made of metals, stone, wood, herbs—whether from above the ground, from within the ground or from the waters and sea. In order to prove himself a worthy candidate, Kaltermarckt goes to significant lengths, demonstrating his expertise and knowledge about the most important artists of antiquity and of the Renaissance—from Italy, the Netherlands, and Germany—including a ranked list of contemporary European artists.

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Kaltermarckt concedes that since highly prized originals of antique sculpture are too expensive or impossible to obtain, he devotes a significant portion of his text to explaining why casts of famous sculptures are appropriate alternatives. Kaltermarckt also posits that an art collection is imperative in order to bring rulers to greatness and to record their memory for posterity. He states that …although many serene and powerful emperors, kings, princes and sovereigns have made their memory immortal through famous wars, through seizures and conquests of many countries, cities and fortresses, through founding and supporting good policies and a peaceful regime for the protection of their subjects, and through other praise worthy activities, it surely is clear and certain that it is rather through writings and paintings, more than through any other means, that their names and deeds remain preserved to our present time—as the works of history clearly show… In other words, while all the activities in which rulers typical engage that bring them acclaim in the realm of politics—such as wars and battles—it is above all through the patronage of the arts that memory of them may endure.

Another contemporary text that advises rulers on the necessity and merits of collecting and of the uncovering of secrets of nature is the Gesta Grayorum: Or the History of the Prince of Purpoole Anno Domini Including All His Occasional Works. Greg London: Oxford University Press, , 34— Greg London: Oxford University Press, This garden to be built about with Rooms, to stable in all rare Beasts, and to cage in all rare Birds; with two Lakes adjoining, the one of fresh Water and the other of salt, for like variety of Fishes: And so you may have, in a small compass of Cabinet, wherein whatsoever the Hand of Man, by exquisite Art or Engine, hath made rare in Stuff, Form, or Motion, whatsoever Singularity, Chance and the Shufle of things hath produced, whatsoever nature hath wrought in things that want life, and may be kept, shall be sorted and included.

Thus when your excellency shall have added depth of Knowledge to the fineness of Spirits and greatness of your Power, then indeed shall you lay as Trismegistus; and then, when all other Miracles and Wonders shall cease, by reason that you shall have discovered their natural Causes, your self shall be left the only Miracle and Wonder of the World. It was also believed that it held the solution to human existence and that whoever possessed it would obtain eternal life.

In turn, this wisdom uncovers natural causes and allows one to acquire a thorough understanding of the world, gaining power, greatness, and even omniscience in the process. As the three written works by Quiccheberg, Kaltermarckt, and Bacon demonstrate, the practice of collecting created opportunities for scholars to find a Ibid. The assembling and acquiring of knowledge through active engagement with the material world by aristocrats who had the means to assemble extensive collections, was an activity that promoted power, prestige, and the advancement of knowledge.

The discussion of collecting in written works produced at different locations points to the ubiquitous interest and importance of this occupation. Therefore, such artefacts—as exemplified by the allegorical painting on jasper-agate and its coat of arms of commesso di pietre dure—given between collectors who shared similar interests in the procurement, organization, and manipulation of things were very potent gifts that not only appealed to shared interests and tastes of the men who exchange them, but held the potential to transform relations between people and courts.

In fact, Rudolf II had already initiated a personal connection with Christian through an exchange of Kunstkammer objects in , before the latter was even old enough to assume the Electorship, and seven years before they met in person in Prague. Furthermore, the connection between Dresden and Prague was also strengthened due to an exchange of artists and engineers who travelled between the two courts. Traditionally, the Elector of Saxony, the Grand Marshall of the Holy Roman Empire, whose title was hereditary, was one of the two most important Electors.

He and the Elector Palatine, vicars Reichvikare , shared power if the Emperor was ever incapacitated, was under age, or died without leaving an heir. The series of paintings functioned as imperial allegories, alluding to eternal Habsburg reign and domination.

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As Kaufmann points out, in the versions given to the Elector, the arms of Meissen and Saxony on the shoulder of the personification of Winter take the place of the letter M which in the original series stood for Maximilian. In this way the iconography of the paintings is transferred to Duke Augustus.

Italia e Sassonia attorno , ed. Rome, , Mai and J. It also included a chiming clock with seven planets and twelve drawers filled with various fine writing instruments. For example, as I discuss in the Chapter to follow, commesso di pietre dure or Florentine mosaic tabletops and desks were often given as gifts by the Medici Grand dukes and by Rudolf after he established a commesso workshop at his court in Prague. After succeeding his father Maximilian II on the imperial throne in , Rudolf gave an especially valued gift to the Elector Augustus II: an emerald cluster containing sixteen uncut emeralds.

Furthermore, being given by Rudolf, a very enthusiastic collector of precious and semi-precious stones, the ore was held in extremely high esteem. Indeed, in the Dresden Kunstkammer the precious ore was placed in a cabinet that contained fifty-five other ore matrices, or handstones in their natural state, that had been found locally. Also see G. It was then declared a possession of the noble house of Wettin that could never be sold. Clearly this particular gift was valued through several generations.

In King Maximilian II then future emperor gave Augustus a rapier garniture with enameled gold hilts, made by a Spanish goldsmith. Gifts also flowed in the opposite direction, although they are not as well documented. For example, sometime before , a rolling-ball clock with an automaton in the shape of a tower was given to the Emperor Rudolf. The clock was worth Thalers, and was considered a masterpiece of artistic and technological accomplishments, coming equipped with highly advanced technical features and an organ movement.

Its iconography alluded to the continuity of imperial majesty from antiquity to Rudolf II. The above-mentioned gifts that were given to the Saxon dukes were placed on display in the Dresden Kunstkammer where they facilitated an important demonstrative function. Due to their status as gifts from important individuals, most of the artefacts were kept in a room of their own, displayed in such a manner as to testify to their importance as originating from a particularly noteworthy donor. The movement of gifts of things discussed above demonstrates that for nearly half a century the Saxon and imperial court established and sustained positive ties through an Ibid.

However, as I have been suggesting, the appeal of the given artefacts was ensured through their entanglement in the shared interests in the material world, as exemplified by the ubiquitous practice of collecting of things that displayed a virtuosic treatment of materials and their transformation. The iconography of two Kunstkammer gifts The gifts given over several decades between the Dresden and the imperial court in Prague functioned to establish and to promote connections over a long period of time, thereby paving the way for the relationship and the gift-giving that occurred when Christian II visited Emperor Rudolf II in Two of these objects—a painting on jasper-agate and the Saxon coat of arms of commesso di pietre dure and a bronze bust of Christian II fashioned after his actual likeness—are particularly noteworthy.

They were both made specifically for the young Elector on the occasion of his visit to the imperial court in Prague, and performed the double function of demonstrating friendship and participating in diplomacy. Both of the gifts combine the subject matter, theme, and materials in a manner that flatters Christian and reminds him of the longstanding closeness between the house of Habsburg and the House of Wettin, while at the same time implying superiority of the Emperor.

Their iconographic message exalts the Elector, aligning him with victory, peace, and loyalty to the Emperor. In particular, the allegorical image of Christian painted in oil on jasper-agate may be interpreted as a message of peace from the imperial court to Dresden.

However, it is important to note that compositionally it also resembles a bust of Rudolf made in the same year by de Vries Fig. Nude female figures are represented below each shoulder: on the left is a winged figure blowing a horn, symbolizing victorious peace, and on the right is Nike holding a palm branch and laurel wreath. The figural base that supports the portrait is composed of figures of Jupiter, Mercury, and an eagle. Whereas Charles is portrayed gazing wisely and calmly into the space in front of him, Rudolf seems more erect, jutting out his chin and gazing majestically into the distance.

The copying of the bust of Charles V reflects the claim on the part of Rudolf II that he is to be compared with the greatest of his predecessors, Charles V. Both armour breastplates are decorated with scrolling vines, both bases are held up by allegorical figures, and both busts portray their sitter gazing confidently into the distance.

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Additionally, both portraits are distinguished by powerful, picturesque modeling. I Freren: Luca Verlag, , The beardless Christian is shown proud and regal, gazing victoriously into the distance. Around his neck, suspended on a ribbon, is a medallion with the depiction of the Emperor Rudolf Fig. It seems to echo the sash that the Emperor wears in his own portrait bust, draped diagonally across his chest. The portrait medallion is centrally located, framed by the wings of the two-headed Habsburg eagle, and accentuated by the clasping hands of the two female figures below.

Recent examination of the object has demonstrated that great care was taken in the execution of the medallion, especially the attention dedicated to achieving intricate detail and the high degree of polish on the face. Both gifts attempt to surpass nature in their attempt to perfect the material from which they are made, thus improving upon nature itself, something that is very much on par with the courtly pursuits and interests of the time, especially the art of alchemy, the imitator of nature par excellence. In the bust of Christian, nature is improved because it presents an idealized portrait of the Elector.

The material from which the bust is made is perfected and refined through human intervention by the hands and tools of the artists who, through knowledge and familiarity with the material, molded it to present a purified image of the Elector. In the second gift, which on one side pictures the coat of arms of the Saxony of pietre dure, nature is perfected and brought to a more complete and refined state through the cutting and polishing of stone, and through the addition of an ebony frame. In this stone inlay, circled by Bohemian garnets, the natural colours of semi-precious stone, cut into precise and fine shapes, are refined in order to create a lasting symbol of the Electorate of Saxony.

The ebony frame accentuates the picture-like quality of the stone and brings it to a new state of refined importance. Finally and especially , through the application of oil paint that interferes and seems to mix with the colours of the translucent jasper-agate stone and works to depict an imagined scene that exalts the Elector, nature is brought to the level of otherworldly allegory. Both objects thus evince concepts of transformation and improvement of materials, ideas that are very much on par with the courtly pursuits of the period. As discussed above, during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the significance of human art and engagement with the material world was given a new emphasis, and alchemy in particular became part of an official court philosophy.

Its doctrine of transformation made itself manifest in other material practices, such as industry, commerce, religion and fine art. Its effects—transformation, refinement, and Syndram, Princely Splendour, It is important to note that the bust of Rudolf, on which the bronze sculpture of Christian is based, provides a literal alchemical reference. The conjuntio, symbolized by the griffin, refers to alignment or resolution of conflict between dualities and the lion symbolizes the sun.

Various interpretations may be gleaned from this, one of which may be that through the pursuit of alchemy, which leads to wisdom, the many problems of the world may be resolved. By pursuing knowledge through alchemy, the most polymathic of fields that sought to refine base metals and convert them into gold, so too could human relationships be improved. The potential of alchemical knowledge is further suggested in the jasper-agate painting and the coat of arms of Saxony of pietre dure, as explained below. In this artefact, the making of art and its relation to the workings of nature is called into question, beckoning the observer to contemplate the artificiality of paint and its relation to the natural markings of the stone.

The natural colours of the jasper-agate reds, yellows, greens, and browns provide the background, Prag um This is especially the case in the area of the cloud that surrounds Nike as well as the foreground that presents the spoils of war. As a result, our imagination leads us to interpret these areas as a landscape or sky that work to assist the narrative of the scene. Through the application of oil paint that simultaneously interferes yet harmonizes with the colours and textures of the translucent jasper-agate stone, and in particular through the continuous visual oscillation between the artificial and the natural, an image that we understand as alchemical is created—one that converts the art of nature.

In the case of the coat of arms of Saxony, the natural colours of semi-precious stone mined in Bohemia , cut into precise and fine shapes, have also been refined in order to create a lasting representation of the Electorate of Saxony, encircled by garnets. However, it is also possible that the artistry of the picture was valued less than the stone coat of arms of Florentine mosaic.

Perhaps the painting was too political in its propaganda of Habsburg politics with Christian II who is presented as working under the guise of Habsburg and Catholic interests. Nevertheless, I should add that the manner in which this double-sided artefact demands to be viewed and handled—to be flipped back and forth between recto and verso, between allegory and a symbol of Saxony—mirrors the conversion and oscillation between artifice and nature mentioned above. The two gifts, made and tailored especially to the tastes of Christian II, addressed the Elector directly, speaking in an iconographic language that was readily understood by members of high society.

Even though both objects formally represent Christian as the protagonist, the Emperor maintains center stage, not only because he is represented directly and indirectly within the objects but also because he is the giver of these artefacts. The gifts thus worked to legitimate the mutually supportive relationship between the two regents. As I have argued, the transformative possibilities as represented through the metaphor of alchemy, which seek to improve and purify materials, are imbued within the objects that were given by Rudolf to Christian.

In both gifts, natural materials are transformed and nature is challenged and improved upon through artificial means. Their physical nature thus coincides with contemporary material pursuits, which sought knowledge about the world in order to bring stability to the very volatile and chaotic world of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries in central Europe.

As I have argued, the language of iconography of the Kunstkammer gifts worked to legitimate the mutually supportive relationship between the Elector and his Emperor. However it was also the transformative possibilities of materials, which reverberated through and with the meanings of these works of art that activated their potential as gifts. Like alchemy, that 67 seeks to transform and refine materials, this potency is materialized in the effect on relationships between the Electorate of Saxony and the imperial court through time and across generations.

The power of the Kunstkammer gifts was not limited to their iconography: the people giving and receiving the artefacts would have also apprehended what is shown through the alteration of matter and the excess of materiality that gives that iconography its power. This transformation of matter is something that escapes representation and is not made apparent merely though craftsmanship but comes from the transformed material both to animate and to activate the iconographic language.

In this way, the agency of the gifts within social and material relations is made manifest. Little is known about this now lost tabletop made in the early Florentine commesso technique that relied mainly on geometric designs. In Prague the commesso technique was then transformed to depict idealized landscapes. This Chapter centers on the transformation from raw stone into an image of a landscape, addressing the interrelated social and material factors that made this conversion possible. In what follows I examine the material reverberations of the initial gift of a tabletop from Ferdinando that over a short period of time functioned to bring an artistic technology from one center to another, producing something entirely new in the process—landscapes created from commesso di pietre dure.

The giving of extravagant gifts on the part of the Medici Grand Dukes to the Holy Roman Emperor was not a rare occurrence. It has roots in the antique and medieval technology of opus sectile, a practice that used polished and trimmed pieces of marble at times also mother of pearl and glass arranged into complex designs on floors and cladding for walls. The technique had continued to be used for church interiors—particularly in Byzantium and Rome throughout the Middle Ages—and it was in Rome that a new interest on the part of patrons transformed the technique of opus sectile into a practice for tabletop decoration during the sixteenth century.

John Bostock and H. As Giusti explains, terms such as lavori di Firenze, mocaico fiorentino, opera di Firenze began to appear in seventeenth century documents. A famous example is the Farnese Table made for the Cardinal Alessandro Farnesse by the above mentioned Il Franciosino, who became renowned for his skill and typology of tables that boast complex non-figural compositions of polychrome marble.

Florentine mosaic became especially famous under the patronage of the Medici grand dukes, particularly Cosimo I, Francesco I, and Ferdinando. In order to facilitate commesso di pietre dure decoration of the Medici Mausoleum in the Capella dei Principi at San Lorenzo, in Ferdinando united the Grand Ducal workshops located at the Casino di San Marco into the first state-run workshop at the Uffizi, the aforementioned Galleria dei Lavori.

Artefacts made of hard stone were ostentatious gifts. This is because of the symbolic association of stones, their medicinal and aesthetic properties, and the expertise required to turn them into works of art. In many cases the value of a pietre dure work far exceeded the price of artwork by even the most famous masters. For example, the tabletop with which I began was valued at 5, Gulden in As the authors explain, this commesso portrait may have been a nuptial gift for Henri IV.

According to Giusti, when the Galleria dei Lavori was founded in , Ferdinando I requested that experimentation be undertaken in the commesso technique in the area of portraiture. In a letter to his ambassador in Rome, Ferdinando described this art of commesso portraiture as his invention. There was still more to be gained by the Grand Duke from a successful gift to the Emperor.

Having just recently consolidated the many workshops at the Casino di San Marco into the state-run Galleria dei Lavori in , the giving of a sumptuous sample of a Florentine commesso work produced for such worthy recipient as the Emperor was well calculated. Not only would Ferdinando satisfy the interests and wants of the most illustrious collector of Europe, and hopefully repair any negative feelings that may have existed on the part of the Emperor, the gift of the tabletop would establish the prestige of Florentine artistic wealth and the splendours of Florentine commesso artistry.

Also see Katherine M. In this way the Florentine workshop could take over imperial commissions, which would in turn spread the fame of the new state-run workshop. The inaugural study by Erwin Neumann carried out in traced a number of landscape commessi held by the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna to the workshop in Prague before and shortly after the year Annamaria Giusti has produced several catalogues on commessi di pietre dure, which also trace the development of the art form in antique Rome through to the eighteenth century.

While the previous contributions have made important strides in laying the groundwork for research pertaining to commessi di pietre dure and its elaboration in Prague, my input focuses upon the material potential of a gift of this art form and its resonances within specific sociohistorical networks. In this way I draw attention to the important interplay between the social and political practice of diplomatic gift-giving and the material practice of hard stone inlay. Its resonance as a particularly potent gift had lasting effects.

The gift also incited the commission of another grander commesso tabletop ordered by Rudolf for which he assumed all expense and supplied Bohemian stones. I then discuss the tabletop made of Bohemian stones that Rudolf had commissioned in Florence and its contemporary descriptions. I argue that the development of the commesso landscape should be seen in relation to the aesthetic, natural, and transformative potential of Bohemian stones as worked upon by glyptic artists in the particular environment of the imperial court. Compositionally and in terms of subject matter, the transformation of stone into landscape commessi mimicked the pictures being produced by landscape artists, but it 79 also pushed against the boundaries of both the stone medium and landscape painting.

The Chapter concludes with discussion that emphasizes the association between the possibilities and creative potentials of stone, and the magic of the gift that activated the commesso developments in Prague. During his reign he commissioned several important architectural and artistic projects. He too engaged the material possibilities of stone, using agates, jaspers, and amethysts to incrust the walls of the Holy Cross Chapel and the Chapel of St.

Proceedings from the International Symposium, Convent of St. Agnes of Bohemia, Commenting on the symbolism of stones in the sixteenth century, Giorgio Vasari celebrates their durable and hard qualities. The capacity of stone to convey such attributes can best be seen in the Medici mausoleum, the Capella dei Principi at San Lorenzo—a chapel entirely lined with commesso di pietre dure. However, all throughout Christian history, gems and semi-precious stones have been associated with special qualities and virtues.

In the Middle Ages, stones embodied a symbolic spiritual character and were associated Vasari, Ragionamenti del sig. Milanese, Vol. Vasari worked for Cosimo I and often travelled to Rome to investigate their uses of hard stones. See also Suzanne B. Medieval authors, such as Isidore of Seville, Marbode the bishop of Rennes emphasized the medicinal value of stones and minerals.

On related uses see L. Jill Franklin, T. De Boodt then goes on to say that just as the Emperor surpasses all of these rulers in dignity, grandeur, talent and multifaceted knowledge of all things, the Emperor also surpasses them in his appetite for gems. In order to meet his own demand for stones, shortly after moving the imperial court to Prague in , Rudolf mobilized resources in the s, which involved extensive mining in Bohemia, a territory that was rich in precious and semi-precious stones, particularly jasper, chalcedony, agate, amethyst, and garnet.

Schramm, L. Schwarte, and J. Lazardzig Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, , ; Ibid. Prague: Artefactum, It should be mentioned that some of the more precious stones, such as emeralds, were sent to Rudolf as gifts from his Spanish relations and important diplomats. According to the Bavarian agent Whilhelm Bodenius, Heinrich Julius wore the blue emerald on a ribbon suspended around his neck. While showing the Duke his yet unfinished house crown, Rudolf remarked on the emerald. The Duke then immediately offered it to the Emperor, who then had it mounted on the top of the house crown where it may be seen today.

These lists provide useful information about the quantities and types of stone artefacts, in some cases specifying their perceived worth. This is how it happened: when his grace [the duke] was in audience with the Emperor, he wore on his chest, suspended on a silk ribbon, a precious sapphire, which greatly appealed to his Majesty [the Emperor]. Therefore, the purpose of the inventory taken in was to appraise the artefacts in the Kunstkammer that could be readily sold for a high price.

However not all the entries are matched with a corresponding value. For example, artefacts of agate fol. However, precious and semi-precious stones form the most significant portion of the appraised artefacts. The fact that commesso works are less numerous, but the most expensive, also indicates they were the most time consuming to make. Als, fol. I Prague: K. Tieftrunk, , The realization of a glyptic imperial workshop was accelerated when in Count Claudio Trivulzio presented Rudolf with an introduction piece by Giovanni Ambrogio Miseroni, consisting of a ruby the size of a fingernail engraved with the coat of arms of Rudolf, surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

The delicate handling of the stone material must have impressed Rudolf, who received the work with pleasure and the Miseroni brothers, Giovanni Ambrogio and Ottavio, established a glyptic workshop in the capital in The objects produced by the workshop, particularly by Giovanni Ambrogio, display a stunning aesthetic treatment of the brilliantly colored stone material, which gives the impression of softness and malleability.

What is remarkable is that the artist would have had to adjust his sculpture as he incised into the stone, allowing the natural markings and coloring of the stone to guide his choices in determining the composition; in other words he could not impose a preconceived design onto the stone. Terraroli Ginevra-Milano: Skira, , Another equally striking work is a pitcher of chalcedony and gold made by Ottavio Miseroni who carved the vessel between and Paulus van Vianen who added the gold mounting in Fig.

In this work Ottavio turned a block of yellowish red chalcedony into a hybrid form: a pitcher transforming into a dragon whose wings seem to wrap around the vessel and whose body forms the handle of the pitcher. Below the spout is a grimacing face of a gorgon. The figure of a nereid made from gold, added later by van Vianaen, stands above the spout and pulls the creature by the neck using a chain that is attached to a decorative collar around its neck.

The gold cover of the pitcher is complemented by a gold base composed of alternating rams and reclining nudes. This pitcher, also made of a single piece of chalcedony, is a prime example of the integration of different materials, in this case gold with chalcedony, and speaks to the frequent collaboration between artists that took place at the court of Rudolf II.

The glyptic works of art described above both demonstrate the mastery of their material by the skilled hands of the artist who created them. In each work the medium of stone has been transformed through cutting, forming, and polishing into an artefact in which the naturally occurring material properties of chalcedony and jasper are in harmonious dialogue with its newly given form.

While nature is being transformed into an aesthetically pleasing work of art, its surface qualities—the natural markings and colorings, its polished sheen, and its seeming malleability—continually remind us that it is stone that we are admiring; at no point in our viewing of the work is the truth of the material obscured. The commissioned tabletop In his dedication to Rudolf II in the aforementioned book, Gemmarum et lapidum historia, de Boodt elaborates upon the qualities and properties of stones which, if we recall, are said to increase the dignity and majesty of rulers.

He emphasizes that Rudolf surpasses them all in his quest and desire for gems and stones. As he explains, the source of light is the Sun—the essence of light—and since God is the originator of the sun, de Boodt likens light to the essence of God. Stones acquire the resemblance of light, and in so doing reflect the divinity of God, which is why when we admire gems and stones we are admiring the beauty and perfection of God.

Also the imperial crown, which your Sacred Imperial Majesty had made from diamonds, pearls, rubies and pure gold in For Abbot Suger earthly materials, such as gold and gems guided the mind towards a higher contemplation of God as stated on the inscription on the bronze doors made by Suger for the Abbey of St. Bright is the noble work; but, being nobly bright, the work should brighten the minds so that they may travel, through the true lights, to the True Light where Christ is the true door.

In what manner it be inherent in this world the golden door defines: The dull mind rises to truth through that which is material and, in seeing this light, is resurrected from its former submersion,. He states that it is worthy of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. From inventories and other contemporary descriptions we learn that the tabletop measured two braccia on either side about cm x cm , and was made of jasper, agate, and other semi-precious stones.

Florentine documents mention four coats of arms, likely the arms of the four Habsburg brothers of the Emperor: Matthias, Ernst, Albert, and Maximilian. The entire surface was surrounded by a floral frieze. Indeed, under the supervision of Jacques Bijlivert the tabletop took six and a half years to complete. In these paintings the table stands in a picture gallery belonging to the Archduke Leopold. The table is depicted laden with papers and objects, obstructing its surface of pietre dure from view.

Its depiction in the paintings by Teniers showcases how the table may have been used in its original location in the Kunstkammer of Rudolf II. Fock further elaborates that the painter Ludovico Butti provided designs in for the encircling frieze, three coats of arms, and two smaller 94 and decorated by Ludovico Butti—the tabletop finally arrived in Prague in August of under the care of one of its makers, Ambrogio Caroni, who accompanied the shipment from Florence to Prague over a period of four months.

In a chapter on jasper in the same book de Boodt again mentions the tabletop and elaborates on the type of jaspers used for its creation. However, the most serious recognition of his scholarship came to hirn when Professor H. Turnbull ER. Andrews University arranged for Robin to join hirn in the Isaac Newton Committee that was publishing Newton's full correspondence.

He remained on the committee, with frequent trips to London, until Turnbull's death. Halfway towards Born's retirement, in , the very heavy duties expected of Robin were lightened by the recruitment of a student of Robin's, Andrew Drew Nisbet to a second lectureship in Applied Mathematics. As I had the honour of succeeding Born, the duties in my new post were measurably eased for me - there was much in a Scottish Department that was unfamiliar to me as it was for Born, and my gratitude to Robin and Drew is difficuIt to express.

But things started off very smoothly and I must admit that I was not even aware ofwhat additional loads Robin was constantly ready to bear. In it was Britain's turn to welcome the huge International Congress of Mathematicians. Edinburgh was chosen and the mathematical world knew that the man to turn to was Robin Schlapp.

But Robin had not let me know that the Congress was giving hirn the enormous added load of work just when Paul Rosbaud, whom 1 knew very weIl,was looking for a translatorfrom the German ofa collection ofessaysby Wolfgang Pauli, my own old teacher. I was sure that Robin was ideal for the job. As 1can confirm, he got on very weIlwith Pauli, who could sometimes be difficult to satisfy, but just before he was completing the translation Pauli died.

Robin's work, soon completed was sent to several eminent referees, who hardly differed in returning favourable reports that Robin had tackled an extremely difficuIt task. This one phrase was enough for Pauli's widow to exercise her right to veto the publishing of the translation. Robert Schlapp 11 A number offriends tried very earnestly to convince Mrs Pauli to change her mind; we did not succeed. Despite much effort, wewere unable to induce Robin to accept more than a trifiing sum from the publisher.

The affair was left to rest for 29 years, until Pauli's widow's death. Then, when Robin's horne in Edinburgh wasjust being emptied and Robin had settled in ahorne in the south near his daughters, I had the good fortune to discover one of the typist's fiimsy copies of the entire translation from which the work done so long ago can be reconstructed. I cannot describe the many obstacles that had to be overcome.

I had hoped that all could be completed while Robin stilllived. But that was not to be; he died on 31 May Nicholas Kemmer.

seodkhy.tk Ebooks and Manuals

Enz 1. Pascheies had inherited from his father Wolf a bookshop in Prague which he operated with considerable success so that he was able to acquire a house on the Old Town Square. Interestingly, in the past this house had been a convent ofthe congregation ofthe Paulans. Jacob Pascheies was a respected member ofthe Jewish community ofPrague. As elder of the congregation of the well-known 'Gipsy's Synagogue' he had presided over the "confirrnation" bar mitzwah ofFranz Kafka whose family also lived on the Old Town Square.

There he obtained his doctor's degree in [1]. Ernst Mach was professor ofexperimental physics at Charles University until when he moved to the University of Vienna. Wolfgang Joseph Pascheies had come to Vienna already in where he was offered an assistantship at the Medical Faculty. There he later became a professor and a well-known expert in the physical chemistry ofproteins [2]. Vienna became his horne; there he joined the catholic faith and chose the new name Pauli see the speculation in Ref.

On 25th April his only son Wolfgang was born and on 31st May the newborn was baptized with the names Wolfgang Ernst Friedrich. The second of these names was chosen in honour of Ernst Mach who had agreed to be the godfather. Much later Pauli describes this relationship in a letter to C. Jung Ref. There one reads: "It so happened that my father was very friendly with his family, and at that time was intellectually entirely under his infiuence. He Mach had thus graciously agreed to assurne the role of my godfather He evidently was a stronger personality than the catholic priest, and the result seems to be that in this way I am baptized.

In any case, the card remains in the cup and in spite of my larger spiritual transformations in later years it still remains a label which I myself carry, namely: 'ofantimetaphysical descent'. Young "Wolfi" loved this grandmother who was a singer at the Imperial Opera in Vienna and spent hours with hirn playing the piano and singing.

Between her and his mother Bertha who was a correspondent ofthe Neue Freie Presse he lived a well-protected childhood which was only disturbed when in Pauli's sister Hertha was born who, much like her mother, became a writer and, in fact, made herselfa name with some of her novels. He soon became an infant prodigy in mathematics and physics but he also took a vivid interest in the history of classical antiquity. His father regularly consulted with godfather Mach concerning the mathematics and physics literature to be recommended to young Wolfgang.

It was clear that Pauli was going to study theoretical physics, and his choicewas Sommerfeld in Munich where Pauli wentin autumn Arnold Sommerfeld, together with Niels Bohr in Copenhagen, was one of the authorities in the quantum theory of the atom and an accomplished teacher.

And although Pauli could afford not to follow Sommerfeld's lectures regularly he later considered the stimulation received from Sommerfeld and his circ1e ofpupils as essential for his scientific development see Pauli's Autobiographie reproduced in Ref. X ; see also essay 5 in this volume. He even retained a life-long almost submissive devotion to his teacher.

Sommerfeld had suggested that the year old Pauli write in his place the encyclopedia artic1eon relativity theory. Published in this artic1eestablished Pauli's farne and evoked the admiration of Einstein hirnself. Wolfgang Pauli 15 from supplements in English written by Pauli in his last year of life to complement the English translation of the encyclopedia article, this work has survived to this day as a still valid account on the subject [8]. Surprisingly, Pauli's later contributions to the theory of relativity are rather modest as compared to his other achievements.

The same year of his encyclopedia article Pauli received his doctor diploma "summa cum laude" from the University of Munich. A short account ofthis work, written in the sophisticated and precise German typical for Pauli is reproduced in Ref. From this time in Munich also dates Pauli's life-long friendship with Werner Heisenbergwho, one year younger,was also a student of Sommerfeld. Exclusion Principle and Spin Pauli's work on problems of the old quantum theory begun with his thesis led hirn to the principal research centers in this field in Europe. Bohr, to Pauli's great surprise, invited hirn to his institute for one year see Ref.

Thus, after a summer spent in Hamburg as assistant of Wilhelm Lenz, whom he had met in Munich among Sommerfeld's pupils, Pauli went to Copenhagen. This was the beginning ofhis occupation with the irregularities induced by a magnetic field in the atomic spectra, the so-called anomalous Zeeman effect. Pauli comments on this activity as follows [12]: "A colleague who met me strolling rather aimlessly in the beautiful streets ofCopenhagen said to me in a friendly manner, 'you look very unhappy'; whereupon I answered fiercly, 'How can one look happy when he is thinking about the anomalous Zeeman efTect?

This research culminated at the end ofthe year in the formulation of the exclusion principle [13] for which Pauli received the Nobel Prize of While this exclusion principle left none of Pauli's colleagues indiffer. I, reprinted in Ref 7. This letter, however, is a no-nonsense description of all of Pau1i's arguments that 1edhirn to the working hypothesis that my translation "The doublet structure ofthe alkalis essentially is a property ofthe outer electron alone.

Thus the state of an electron is described by 4 instead of the well-known 3 quantum numbers of energy, orbital angular momentum and its projection along the quantization axis, This "classically non-describable two-valuedness" ofthe electronic state seethe first part oftheessay 18in this volume ofcourse isnothing other than the direction of the electron's spin projected on the quantization axis.

The reason for Pau1i's cautious formulation was the conviction he had arrived at that, in the present state of the theory, intuition Anschaulichkeit had to be renounced, and in particular "that energy and momentum values of the stationary states are something much more real than 'orbits' " see the mentioned letter to Bohr of 12December This was one ofthe reasons why Pauli had on1y hesitantly accepted the idea of an e1ectronspin, the other being the Thomas factor of 2 in the doublet splitting for more details see the essay 18 in this volume.

It is interesting that, even before the exclusion principle, Pauli had postulated the existence ofa nuc1earspin in order to interpret certain "satellites of some spectral Iines", a situation which later became known as hyperfine structure [15]. Goudsmit, who became an expert in this problem, had for a long time been unaware of this paper and could not understand why Pau1i always greeted hirn with the remark that he could afford not to be quoted.

As may be seen from the second part of the essay 18 in this volume, Pauli took his revenge in mentioning only Zeeman but not Goudsmit when he talks about the experimental confirrnation of his idea for more details see Ref. TheNew Quantum Mechanics Pauli's conviction expressed in his letter to Bohr of 12December quoted above "that energy and momentum values of the stationary states are something much more real than 'orbits' " became Heisenberg's guiding principle when he invented matrix mechanics in the summer of Although history has assigned a somewhat off-center role to Pauli in the creation of the new quantum mechanics he really was the critical analytica1mind behind this endeavour.

As may be seen from the correspondence of this period in Ref. Wolfgang Pauli 17 Vol. I both Bohr and Heisenberg considered hirn as the supreme judge; he was "the living conscience of theoretical physics" Ref. Pauli's own contribution of course was his brilliant matrix-mechanical solution of the hydrogen atom [17].

And with respect to spin he made good for his original hesitation by introducing the famous Pauli matrices [18]and by showing that the electron spin together with Fermi-Dirac statistics, which is based on the exclusion principle, gives rise to the paramagnetism of the electrons in a metal which bears his name [19].

In Pauli reviewed the state of the new theory in his fundamental article Die allgemeinen Prinzipien der Wellenmechanik, which even today competes in farne and durability with his relativity article of In fact, the Wellenmechanik had two new German editions and an English translation [20]. This review gives in concentrated form the physical and mathematical foundations of the new theory without being axiomatic. It may weIl be the clearest exposition of the necessity for the introduction of probability distributions in quantum mechanics, a question which Pauli discussed in great detail in his response to questions raised by Paul Ehrenfest [21].

After the year with Bohr in Copenhagen, Pauli returned to Hamburg, where he became Privatdozent and Titularprofessor and where many lifelong friendships originated, for example, with the experimental physicist Otto Stern, the astrophysicist Walter Baade and the mathematician Erich Hecke. In Hamburg also originated the legendary "Pauli effect" which Fierz describes as foIlows my translation : " It was believed, e.

This was the 'Pauli effect'. For this reason, his friend Otto Stern, the famous artist of molecular beams never let hirnenter hislaboratory. This isnot a legend, I knew Pauli and Stern both very weIl!

Pauli hirnself thoroughly believed in his effect. He once told me that he sensed the mischief already before as a disagreeable tension, and when the suspected misfortune then actually hit - another one! It is quite legitimate to understand the 'Pauli effect' as a synchronistic phenomenon as conceived by Jung. Pauli succeeded Peter Debye, while his experimental colleague Paul Scherrer took over the direction of the. It is at this moment also that Pauli drops the "jun. The first years in Zurich turned out to be very difficult for Pauli; not that anything transpired in his scientific life, as will be seen shortly.

The year before, on 15November his evangelical mother died from poisoning at the age of 48 years. His father who had separated from her, 1ater married the much younger scu1ptor Maria Rottler [2]. However, this marriage seems to have been rather unstab1e from the start since Pauli writes to his friend Oskar Klein on 10 February rny translation : "In case my wife should run away one day you as well as all my other friends will receive a printed notice. The divorce took p1acein Vienna on 26 November Pauli commented later: "Had she taken a bullfighter I wou1dhave understood but an ordinary chemist.

In his despair Pau1i started to drink and to smoke. His father recommended hirn to see the psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung in Zurich. Jung, realizing that he had to do with an extraordinary personality, assigned the young analyst Erna Rosenbaum to Pauli and stayed in the background see the footnote on p. However, he kept supervising the treatment, being particularly interested in Pauli's abundant dreams. This was the beginning of the life-long association between the two men which led to a deeply fascinating correspondence [3]. In the analysis was successfully terminated, and already on 4 April Pauli married Franca Bertram, born in Munich on 16December ,who was a devoted and caring spouse for the rest ofhis life.

During this time of crisis came Pauli's proposal of the neutrino. This letter is reproduced in essay 20 in this volume which contains all the essential points ofthe early history ofthe neutrino. The content ofthis letter, however, was so revolutionary that Pauli waited to give a written report on it until the situation had cleared. This was at the 7th Solvay Congress in October [23]. To appreciate the boldness of the neutrino idea one has to realize that before the only known elementary particles apart from the photon were the proton and the electron.

The problem had been an energy deficit. Wolfgang Pauli 19 in the beta-decay of Radon Radium Emanation. While Bohr, taking up an earlier speculation, was prepared to sacrifice energy conservation in the sub-atomic domain, this conservation law was for Pauli one of the pillars of modern physics.

However, as is particularly lucidly described in Pauli's conference paper on The conservation laws in the theory of relativity and in nuclearphysics given in Moscow on 27 October reprinted in Ref. Since violation ofcharge conservation has never been observed, violation ofenergy conservation is unacceptable. Proof of the existence of the neutrino was slow to come. The first news ofits detection reached Zurich late in To celebrate the event Pauli and a group of faithfuls climbed Uetliberg above Zurich.

On the way down late that evening, recounts William Barker, "Pauli was a little wobbly from the red wine we had at dinner. He had graciously responded to many individual toasts. The news of the definitive detection, however, reached Pauli only on 15 June The telegram from Los Alarnos where, during the war, the atomic bomb had been developed , announced: "We are happy to inform you that we have definitely detected neutrinos from fission fragments by observing inverse beta decay of protons. Observed cross section agrees well with expected six times ten to minus forty-four square centimeters.

Everything comes to hirn who knows how to wait. Less than six months later several experiments discovered a birth defect: the neutrino was lefthanded see essay 20 in this volume. Again later in it was the neutrino that motivated Pauli to collaborate with Heisenberg on his nonlinear spinor equation for details see C. Enz, Paulis Schaffen der letzten Lebensjahre, Ref.

Towards the end ofthe year this collaboration developed into areal euphoria, which ended when Pauli met severe criticism at a special meeting convened at the end ofJanuary at Columbia University, New York for details see Ref. The result ofthis collaboration was a manuscript entitled On the Isospin Group in the Theory ofthe Elementary Particles which, however, was not published until recently [26]. In Hamburg he had already written a paper together with Jordan on the relativistically covariant quantization of the electromagnetic field [27].

However, in this form, quantization did not seem at that time to be generalizable to other fields and interactions. Thus the two fundamental papers by Heisenberg and Pauli were based on the canonical formalism [28]. Although the lack ofexplicit covariance in this work turned out to be a handicap some 20 years later, the general quantization prescriptions formulated in the first of these papers were of great use. An important application of this work was the second quantization of massive charged particles of spin 0 obeying Bose-Einstein statistics and the relativistic waveequation or Klein-Gordon equation.

Pauli analysed this system in collaboration with his assistant Victor Weisskopfin [29]. The surprising result was the existence of antipartieles with the same mass but opposite charge. Thus the theory achieved exactly the same thing as the second-quantized Dirac equation but "without introducing a vacuum full of particles", a feature which had strongly displeased Pauli who therefore called their work the "anti-Dirac paper" [30].

At the time this work seemed to be an academic exercisewithout physical meaning. Weisskopf comments: "We had no idea that the world of particles would abound with spin-zero entities a quarter of a century later. This was the reason why we published it in the venerable but not widely read Helvetica Physica Acta. But the most important consequence of the Pauli-Weisskopf paper certainly was that it "led Pauli to formulate the famous relation between spin and statistics. In its most general form this relation was proven by Pauli in his first paper submitted from Princeton in August , shortly after his arrival at the Institute for Advanced Study [31].

The relation says that particles with integer or half-integer spin must be quantized according to Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics, respectively. In a footnote to this paper Pauli writes: "This paper is part of areport which was prepared by the author for the Solvay Congress and in which slight improvements have since been made. In view of the unfavorable times, the Congress did not take place, and the publication of the reports has been postponed for an indefinite length of time. Wolfgang Pauli 21 bitrary anomalous magnetic moments. These "Pauli terms" were later found to exist for all elementary particles with non-zero spin.

In July Pauli and his wife had left Zurich under difficult circumstances, travelling by train through southern France to Lisbon and by boat to New York and finally to Princeton where Pauli had accepted an invited professorship offered by the Institute for Advanced Study. Switzerland had become increasingly isolated and insecure due to the German occupation of Austria and France. To his regret Pauli had not been able to obtain Swiss citizenship. He left behind the new house in Zollikon on the lake of Zurich and his dog Dixi for more details see the introduction to Vol.

III ofRef. But otherwise Pauli did not have any particular attachment to ahorne. As may be seen from the correspondence of this period Ref. III physics continued for Pauli without respite. However, a definite change of focus is easily noticeable: Instead of general field-theoretic questions, it is the more concrete problem of meson physics that commands his attention.

As Pauli says hirnself, this change was mainly due to the influence ofRobert Oppenheimer see the introduction to Vol. These efforts published in several papers with his collaborators in Princeton were discussed by Pauli in aseries oflectures given at MIT in Boston in autumn [33].

At the beginning, Pauli encountered a very active scientific atmosphere in the USoHowever, when the atomic bomb project got organized in Los Alarnos at the beginning of , Pauli started to feel somewhat lonesome. Ofcourse, he had good contacts with his colleagues at the Institute, above all with the art historian Erwin Panofsky see the Prefatory Note in essay 21 in this volume and with Albert Einstein in essay 13in this volume, Pauli mentions his discussions with Einstein speaking of Einstein's work with Rosen and Podolsky. Although very suspicious of any political interference with science, Pauli had asked Oppenheimer's opinion concerning the propriety of Pauli's association with the war-related research.

But Oppenheimer thought it more important that Pauli assured the continuity of basic research in the US see Oppenheimer's letter [] of20 May and Pauli's answer [] in Ref. His lack of a valid passport rendered the preparations to travel to Stockholm quite complicated, and finally Pauli decided not to go. Instead, a splendid dinner party was organized at the Institute for Advanced Study on 10December ;Ref.

To everybody's surprise,Einstein rose and offered a toast in which he designated Pauli as his successor at the Institute and as his spiritual son see the footnote on page ofRef. Pauli has described this scene in a letter to Max Born on. It was like a king who abdicates and installs me, as sort of 'son ofchoice', as successor.

Unfortunately, no records of this speech of Einstein exist it was improvised, and a manuscript does not exist either. Pauli was about to become a permanent member of the Institute for Advanced Study and received American citizenship in ; he also had an ofTer from Columbia University. However, in spring he decided to return to his chair at ETH in Zurich and to his house in Zollikon where on 25 July he also became a Swiss citizen.

Physis and Psyche Back in Zurich Pauli's enormous reputation soon attracted the most brillant young theorists so that his institute became a world center offield theory and the problems of renormalization. In a course given at ETH in the academic year Pauli critically reviewed the new covariant methods developed by Tomonaga, Schwinger, Feynman, Dyson and others [35].

However, the "larger spiritual transformations" mentioned in Pauli's letter exhibited at CERN and quoted at the beginning of this introduction are visible in the increasingly philosophical aspect ofPauli's work during this last period of his life. This aspect is manifest in the content of the present volume. Back from Princeton he resumed his discussions and exchange of letters with Carl Gustav Jung [3]. A similarly fascinating exchange also developed with Pauli's former assistant Markus Fierz who had become a professor at the University ofBasel and regularly participated in the Monday-afternoon theory seminars in Zurich the first part ofthis correspondence is published in Ref.

A deep and very personal correspondence linked Pauli and Marie-Louise von Franz, one of the principal collaborators of Jung who had translated most of the texts in Latin of Pauli's Kepler artic1e see the Prefatory Note in essay 21 in this volume. Pauli also renewed his regular meetings with his friend C. Meier who had been assistant ofJung and later became president ofthe Curatorium ofthe C. Repetedly Pauli discussed in his essays the meaning of the measuring process in quantum mechanics and, in particular, the role ofthe observer in this theory.

Wolfgang Pauli 23 microphysics the observer is different in an essential way from the "detached observer" of classical physics and compares the effect of an observation of a quantum system the "reduction of the wave packet" with a transformation Wandlung in the alchemist sense. This alchemist transformation is described in Science and Western Thought essay 16 as follows: "According to the alchemist conception, the deliverance of substance by the man who transforms it, which culminates in the production of the stone, is, in consequence of a mystic correspondence between macroscosm and microcosm, identical with the redeeming transformation Wandlung ofthe man through the opus, which comes about only 'Deo concedente'.

More astonishing is Pauli's conjecture in Phenomenon and Physical Reality essay 15 "that the observer in presentday physics is still too completely detached, and that physics will depart still further from the classical example. This opinion is vibrantly expressed in the concluding remarks of Albert Einstein and the Development 01Physics essay 13, see also the essays 1,15, l7and Pauli repeatedly stressed that progress in quantum field theory was linked to an understanding of this number see the essays 9, 10, 15, 18, also Ref.

But the number also had an irrational, magic meaning for Pauli; it was the room number in the Red Cross Hospital in Zurich where he died on 15December see Ref. The enigmatic conjecture "that the observer in present-day physics is still too completely detached" also has a meaning beyond physics. Indeed, in his article for Jung's 80th birthday essay 17 , Pauli compares the observational situation in physics with that in psychology: "Since the unconscious is not quantitatively measurable, and therefore not capable ofmathematical description and since every extension of consciousness 'bringing into consciousness' must by reaction alter the unconscious, wemay expect a 'problem ofobservation' in relation to the unconscious, which, while it presents analogies with that in atomic physics, nevertheless involves considerably greater difficulties.

On the other hand, he thought that in physics the remedy for the too complete detachement of the observer may lie in the integration of the subjective, psychic. Indeed, in Science and Western Thought essay 16 Pauli asks the question: "Shall we be able to realise, on a higher plane, alchemy's old dream of psycho-physical unity, by the creation of a unified conceptual foundation for the scientific comprehension of the physical as well as the psychical?

It was also a motivation for his Kepler article essay 21 in which he describes the polemic between the rational Kepler representing the new scientific attitude and the irrational Fludd who defends the old alchemist world view. Kepler, like Newton after hirn, firmly believed in the Trinity of the Christian God while Fludd got his inspiration from the Pythagorean quaternity which for hirn was a symbol for the unity of the world.

Pauli admits that his sympathy is not only on Kepler's side, remembering that the discovery of the exclusion principle had been possible only after realizing that the electron's state depends on afourth quantum number. Towards the end of Section 6 of his Kepler article Pauli characterizes Fludd's vision of unity as folIows: "Even though at the cost of consciousness of the quantitative side of nature and its laws, Fludd's 'hieroglyphic' figures do try to preserve a unity of the inner experience of the 'observer' as we should say today and the external processes of nature, and thus a wholeness in its contemplation - a wholeness formerly contained in the idea of the analogy between microscosm and macrocosm but apparently already lacking in Kepler and lost in the world view of classical natural sciences.

Enz References [1] F. Jahrgang, Heft 9, , p. Ein Briefwechsel , Springer, Berlin, Mehra Reidel, Dordrecht-Holland, Wolfgang Pauli 25 [5] W. Pauli, Physikalische Zeitschrift 20, 25 a , b ; Verhandlungen der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft 21, e Pauli, Collected Scientific Papers, Vol. Weisskopf Wiley, New York, Das Gewissen der Physik Vieweg, Braunschweig, Field Pergamon, London, Pauli, Helv.

Acta, Supplement IV, ; reprinted in Ref. Pauli, Annalen der Physik 68, Born und W. Pauli, Science , ; reprinted in Ref. I: , eds. Hermann, K. Weisskopf Springer, New York, ; Vol. IlI: , ed. Pauli, Naturwissenschaften 12, Geiger and K. Scheel, 2nd ed. Achuthan and K. Venkatesan Springer, Berlin, ; reprinted second edition with B, Ziff.

Straumann Springer, Berlin, Discussions, Bruxelles , p. Barker, letter to Physics Today, February , p. The Copenhagen Interpretation and Wolfgang Pauli, p. Laurikainen and C. Montonen World Scientific, Singapore, Heisenberg, Collected Works, eds. Blum, H. Jordan and W. Heisenberg and W. Pauli and V. Weisskopf, Helvetica Physica Acta 7, ; reprinted in Ref. Pauli, Physical Review 58, Lahti and P. Mittelstaedt World Scientific, Singapore, , p. Hochstrasser und M. Margulis and H. Lewis, in Pauli Lectures on Physics, ed.

Enz, Vol. The sculptor Haller in Zurich has made a bust which makes me look rather introspective - i. Matter Matter has always been and willalways be one ofthe main objects ofphysics. By speaking on "matter as an aspect of the nature of things," I intend therefore to give you an impression of how laws of nature concerning matter and belonging to physics can be found and how they gradually develop.

It is true that these laws and our ideas of reality which they presuppose are getting more and more abstract. But also, for a professional, it is useful to be reminded that behind the technical and mathematical form of the thoughts underlying the laws ofnature, there remains always the layer of everyday life with its ordinary language. Science is a systematic refinement ofthe concepts of everyday life revealing a deeper and, as we shall see, not directly visible reality behind the everyday reality of colored, noisy things.

But it should not be forgotten either that this deeper reality would cease to be an object of physics,different from the objects ofpure mathematics and pure speculation, if its links with the realities ofeveryday life were entirely disconnected.