Critical Thinking. Reasoning and Communicating with Rationale.
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These high order skills are not just necessary for academic studies, but are actively sought by business employers seeking prospective employees with strong reasoning and problem solving skills to ensure continuation of operational productivity. Moreover, educators often demand students to construct cohesive, logically structured expositions to test theoretical knowledge; consequently, this unit aims to explicitly teach components of reasoned argumentation. By scrutinising the anatomy of an argument, students will learn to identify elements of reasoning; distinguish characteristics of varying types of arguments; and recognise elements of faulty reasoning.
Application of this knowledge will enable students to produce reasoned argumentation and possess the ability to critically analyse and evaluate credibility of various arguments in business contexts. Furthermore, within this robust and inquiring environment, students will also develop skills of information processing, problem solving and creative thinking. Finally, the teaching of metacognitive strategies will encourage students to reflect and assess the efficacy of their higher order thinking strategies, a necessary attribute of lifelong learners. For students to learn content, intellectual engagement is crucial.
All students must do their own thinking, their own construction of knowledge. Good teachers recognize this and therefore focus on the questions, readings, activities that stimulate the mind to take ownership of key concepts and principles underlying the subject. Historically, teaching of critical thinking focused only on logical procedures such as formal and informal logic. This emphasized to students that good thinking is equivalent to logical thinking.
However, a second wave of critical thinking, urges educators to value conventional techniques, meanwhile expanding what it means to be a critical thinker. These concepts invite students to incorporate their own perspectives and experiences into their thinking. In the English and Welsh school systems, Critical Thinking is offered as a subject that to year-olds can take as an A-Level.
The A-level tests candidates on their ability to think critically about, and analyze, arguments on their deductive or inductive validity, as well as producing their own arguments. It also tests their ability to analyze certain related topics such as credibility and ethical decision-making. However, due to its comparative lack of subject content, many universities do not accept it as a main A-level for admissions.
OCR exam board have also modified theirs for In Qatar , critical thinking was offered by AL-Bairaq —an outreach, non-traditional educational program that targets high school students and focuses on a curriculum based on STEM fields. Faculty members train and mentor the students and help develop and enhance their critical thinking, problem-solving, and teamwork skills. In , a meta-analysis of the literature on teaching effectiveness in higher education was undertaken. It concluded that although faculty may aspire to develop students' thinking skills, in practice they have tended to aim at facts and concepts utilizing lowest levels of cognition , rather than developing intellect or values.
In a more recent meta-analysis, researchers reviewed quasi- or true-experimental studies, all of which used some form of standardized critical thinking measure to assess the outcome variable. The results emphasized the need for exposing students to real-world problems and the importance in encouraging open dialogue within a supportive environment. Effective strategies for teaching critical thinking are thought to be possible in a wide variety of educational settings. Some success was noted and the researchers emphasized the value of the humanities in providing the skills to evaluate current events and qualitative data in context.
Scott Lilienfeld notes that there is some evidence to suggest that basic critical thinking skills might be successfully taught to children at a younger age than previously thought. Critical thinking is an important element of all professional fields and academic disciplines by referencing their respective sets of permissible questions, evidence sources, criteria, etc.
Within the framework of scientific skepticism , the process of critical thinking involves the careful acquisition and interpretation of information and use of it to reach a well-justified conclusion. The concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application.
Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinking, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc.
In other words, though critical thinking principles are universal, their application to disciplines requires a process of reflective contextualization. Critical thinking is considered important in the academic fields because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure their thinking, thereby decreasing the risk of adopting, acting on, or thinking with, a false belief. However, even with knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, mistakes can happen due to a thinker's inability to apply the methods or because of character traits such as egocentrism.
Critical thinking includes identification of prejudice , bias , propaganda, self-deception, distortion, misinformation , etc.
Critical thinking skills can be used to help nurses during the assessment process. Through the use of critical thinking, nurses can question, evaluate, and reconstruct the nursing care process by challenging the established theory and practice.
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Critical thinking skills can help nurses problem solve, reflect, and make a conclusive decision about the current situation they face. Critical thinking creates "new possibilities for the development of the nursing knowledge. Nurses can also engage their critical thinking skills through the Socratic method of dialogue and reflection. This practice standard is even part of some regulatory organizations such as the College of Nurses of Ontario — Professional Standards for Continuing Competencies Critical thinking is also considered important for human rights education for toleration.
The Declaration of Principles on Tolerance adopted by UNESCO in affirms that "education for tolerance could aim at countering factors that lead to fear and exclusion of others, and could help young people to develop capacities for independent judgement, critical thinking and ethical reasoning. Critical thinking is used as a way of deciding whether a claim is true, partially true, or false.
It is a tool by which one can come about reasoned conclusions based on a reasoned process. The advent and rising popularity of online courses has prompted some to ask if computer-mediated communication CMC promotes, hinders, or has no effect on the amount and quality of critical thinking in a course relative to face-to-face communication. There is some evidence to suggest a fourth, more nuanced possibility: that CMC may promote some aspects of critical thinking but hinder others.
For example, Guiller et al. Newman et al. They found that while CMC boasted more important statements and linking of ideas, it lacked novelty. The authors suggest that this may be due to difficulties participating in a brainstorming-style activity in an asynchronous environment. Researchers assessing critical thinking in online discussion forums often employ a technique called Content Analysis,   where the text of online discourse or the transcription of face-to-face discourse is systematically coded for different kinds of statements relating to critical thinking.
Searching for evidence of critical thinking in discourse has roots in a definition of critical thinking put forth by Kuhn ,  which emphasizes the social nature of discussion and knowledge construction. There is limited research on the role of social experience in critical thinking development, but there is some evidence to suggest it is an important factor. For example, research has shown that 3- to 4-year-old children can discern, to some extent, the differential creditability  and expertise  of individuals. Further evidence for the impact of social experience on the development of critical thinking skills comes from work that found that 6- to 7-year-olds from China have similar levels of skepticism to and year-olds in the United States.
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Critical Thinking Skills
The analysis of facts to form a judgment. Main article: Logic and rationality. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
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