Notes on the Hebrew text of the Books of Kings

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Offering direct interpretation through semantics, Geneste seeks to convey the spiritual state of Israel and Judah during this period of time. Volume one covers the text from the reign of Rehoboam until the fall of Jerusalem. Geneste died on July 27, Volume two covers the fall of Jerusalem until the Lamentations of Jeremiah.

Focusing on providing exegetical commentary on the books of Kings, C. Burney's Notes on the Hebrew Test of the Books of Kings offers textual criticism, hermeneutic and presuppositional interpretation, and semantic analysis of the text. Looking at the Old Testament parallels throughout the text, Burney delineates the importance of idiomatic and colloquial use of language throughout the books.

Burney — was educated at Merchant Taylors' School and at St. John's College, Oxford. He was also Canon of Rochester and Fellow of St.


  1. Background.
  2. Easy Learning Pictures. Die Lebensmittel (Easy Learning Pictures. Deutsch. 2) (German Edition).
  3. (1-1) Introduction.
  4. A Marked Heart.

John Baptist's College in Oxford. Fully illustrating the books of Kings, John Cumming's Expository Readings on the Books of Kings offers easy to understand commentary within an exegetical framework. Cumming provides textual criticism, hermeneutics, and exposition of the text, while focusing on practical application of key themes. He published approximately books in his lifetime. Originally delivered as a series of lectures on the books of Samuel and Kings, Andrew J.

Jukes offers valuable exegesis, while focusing on the difficult transition from theocracy to monarchy. Jukes distinguishes between use of literal and figurative language within the text, and seeks to elucidate the inherent meaning within the passages. Andrew J. Jukes — was a prolific author and clergyman educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. The Kings contains succinct explanation and clarification on textual arrangement, parallel motifs and figurative language, chronological sequence, and the scope of the text. Intended as an aid for historical interpretation, Richard G. Moulton's commentary provides useful clarity for clergy and laymen alike.

Richard G. Moulton was born in England and educated at Cambridge as a lawyer before immigrating to America—later receiving a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania. Stating that the books of First and Second Kings were originally compiled together and should be viewed as a single narrative, James Davies' Notes on 1 Kings provides explication of the purpose, composition, authorship, and the reiteration of theocratic themes throughout the text. Davies utilizes the Septuagint, Latin Vulgate, and Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia for clarification on textual arrangement, semantic variation, and historical context.

James Davies is also author of St. Davies was educated at the University of London. Stating that the books of First and Second Kings were originally compiled together and should be viewed as a single narrative, James Davies' Notes on 2 Kings provides explication of the purpose, composition, authorship, and the reiteration of theocratic themes throughout the text. Looking at purpose, authorship, date of composition, and chronology of the text, James Robertson offers practical explication of the text, while giving special regard to the didactic themes.

Robertson provides extensive notes for clarification of key parts of the text, as well as further reading. He played a large part in founding the University of Manitoba, as well as hundreds of churches.

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Chronologically moving through the Books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles, William Day Crockett provides thorough exegesis that is systematically divided between the reigns of Saul, David, and Solomon. Discoursing on Israel's want for a monarchy, Crockett inculcates the reoccurring sin and redemption cycles that Israel initiates—regardless of admonition and warning.

Intended as an aid for teaching, Samuel G. Green's The Kingdom of Israel and Judah After the Disruption renders concise explication of the text within historical context. Green examines the composition, milieu, and key themes within the text. In addition, there were originally some 9, scriptural cross-references, in which one text was related to another.

Such cross-references had long been common in Latin Bibles, and most of those in the Authorized Version were copied unaltered from this Latin tradition. Consequently the early editions of the KJV retain many Vulgate verse references — e. Also in obedience to their instructions, the translators indicated 'supplied' words in a different typeface; but there was no attempt to regularise the instances where this practice had been applied across the different companies; and especially in the New Testament, it was used much less frequently in the edition than would later be the case. Psalm , etc.

Otherwise, however, the Authorized Version is closer to the Hebrew tradition than any previous English translation — especially in making use of the rabbinic commentaries, such as Kimhi , in elucidating obscure passages in the Masoretic Text ; [] earlier versions had been more likely to adopt LXX or Vulgate readings in such places. Both of these versions were extensively referred to, as the translators conducted all discussions amongst themselves in Latin.

Scrivener identifies readings where the Authorized Version translators depart from Beza's Greek text, generally in maintaining the wording of the Bishop's Bible and other earlier English translations.


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  • For the other half, Scrivener was usually able to find corresponding Greek readings in the editions of Erasmus , or in the Complutensian Polyglot. However, in several dozen readings he notes that no printed Greek text corresponds to the English of the Authorized Version, which in these places derives directly from the Vulgate. Unlike the rest of the Bible, the translators of the Apocrypha identified their source texts in their marginal notes. The translators record references to the Sixtine Septuagint of , which is substantially a printing of the Old Testament text from the Codex Vaticanus Graecus , and also to the Greek Septuagint edition of Aldus Manutius.

    They had, however, no Greek texts for 2 Esdras , or for the Prayer of Manasses , and Scrivener found that they here used an unidentified Latin manuscript. The translators appear to have otherwise made no first-hand study of ancient manuscript sources, even those that — like the Codex Bezae — would have been readily available to them. The translators took the Bishop's Bible as their source text, and where they departed from that in favour of another translation, this was most commonly the Geneva Bible. However, the degree to which readings from the Bishop's Bible survived into final text of the King James Bible varies greatly from company to company, as did the propensity of the King James translators to coin phrases of their own.

    John Bois's notes of the General Committee of Review show that they discussed readings derived from a wide variety of versions and patristic sources; including explicitly both Henry Savile 's edition of the works of John Chrysostom and the Rheims New Testament, [] which was the primary source for many of the literal alternative readings provided for the marginal notes.

    A number of Bible verses in the King James Version of the New Testament are not found in more recent Bible translations, where these are based on modern critical texts. In the early seventeenth century, the source Greek texts of the New Testament used for the production of Protestant Bible versions depended mainly on manuscripts of the late Byzantine text-type , and with minor variations contained what became known as the Textus Receptus. A primary concern of the translators was to produce an appropriate Bible, dignified and resonant in public reading.

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    Although the Authorized Version's written style is an important part of its influence on English, research has found only one verse — Hebrews — for which translators debated the wording's literary merits. While they stated in the preface that they used stylistic variation, finding multiple English words or verbal forms in places where the original language employed repetition, in practice they also did the opposite; for example, 14 different Hebrew words were translated into the single English word "prince".

    In a period of rapid linguistic change the translators avoided contemporary idioms, tending instead towards forms that were already slightly archaic, like verily and it came to pass. The rival ending - e s , as found in present-day English, was already widely used by this time for example, it predominates over -eth in the plays of Shakespeare and Marlowe. This results in part from the academic stylistic preferences of a number of the translators — several of whom admitted to being more comfortable writing in Latin than in English — but was also, in part, a consequence of the royal proscription against explanatory notes.

    Consequently, although the King had instructed the translators to use the Bishops' Bible as a base text, the New Testament in particular owes much stylistically to the Catholic Rheims New Testament, whose translators had also been concerned to find English equivalents for Latin terminology.

    While the Authorized Version remains among the most widely sold, modern critical New Testament translations differ substantially from it in a number of passages, primarily because they rely on source manuscripts not then accessible to or not then highly regarded by early 17th-century Biblical scholarship. For example, in modern translations it is clear that Job —11 is referring throughout to mining operations, which is not at all apparent from the text of the Authorized Version. The King James version contains several mistranslations; especially in the Old Testament where the knowledge of Hebrew and cognate languages was uncertain at the time.

    Most of these are minor and do not significantly change the meaning compared to the source material. The translators of the KJV note the alternative rendering, "rhinocerots" [ sic ] in the margin at Isaiah Despite royal patronage and encouragement, there was never any overt mandate to use the new translation. It was not until that the Authorized Version replaced the Bishops Bible in the Epistle and Gospel lessons of the Book of Common Prayer , and it never did replace the older translation in the Psalter.

    In The Critical Review complained that "many false interpretations, ambiguous phrases, obsolete words and indelicate expressions Blayney's version, with its revised spelling and punctuation, helped change the public perception of the Authorized Version to a masterpiece of the English language. Faber could say of the translation, "It lives on the ear, like music that can never be forgotten, like the sound of church bells, which the convert hardly knows how he can forego.

    The Authorized Version has been called "the most influential version of the most influential book in the world, in what is now its most influential language", "the most important book in English religion and culture", and "the most celebrated book in the English-speaking world ". David Crystal has estimated that it is responsible for idioms in English, examples include feet of clay and reap the whirlwind. Furthermore, prominent atheist figures such as the late Christopher Hitchens and Richard Dawkins have praised the King James Version as being "a giant step in the maturing of English literature" and "a great work of literature", respectively, with Dawkins then adding, "A native speaker of English who has never read a word of the King James Bible is verging on the barbarian".

    Although the Authorized Version's former monopoly in the English-speaking world has diminished — for example, the Church of England recommends six other versions in addition to it — it is still the most used translation in the United States, especially as the Scofield Reference Bible for Evangelicals.

    The Authorized Version is in the public domain in most of the world. However, in the United Kingdom, the right to print, publish and distribute it is a Royal prerogative and the Crown licenses publishers to reproduce it under letters patent. The office of Queen's Printer has been associated with the right to reproduce the Bible for centuries, the earliest known reference coming in In the 18th century all surviving interests in the monopoly were bought out by John Baskett.

    The terms of the letters patent prohibit any other than the holders, or those authorized by the holders, from printing, publishing or importing the Authorized Version into the United Kingdom. The protection that the Authorized Version, and also the Book of Common Prayer , enjoy is the last remnant of the time when the Crown held a monopoly over all printing and publishing in the United Kingdom.

    Translations of the books of the Biblical apocrypha were necessary for the King James version, as readings from these books were included in the daily Old Testament lectionary of the Book of Common Prayer. Protestant Bibles in the 16th century included the books of the Apocrypha — generally, following the Luther Bible , in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments to indicate they were not considered part of the Old Testament text — and there is evidence that these were widely read as popular literature, especially in Puritan circles; [] [] The Apocrypha of the King James Version has the same 14 books as had been found in the Apocrypha of the Bishop's Bible ; however, following the practice of the Geneva Bible , the first two books of the Apocrypha were renamed 1 Esdras and 2 Esdras , as compared to the names in the Thirty-nine Articles , with the corresponding Old Testament books being renamed Ezra and Nehemiah.

    Starting in , volumes of the Geneva Bible were occasionally bound with the pages of the Apocrypha section excluded. In the Long Parliament forbade the reading of the Apocrypha in Church and in the first editions of the King James Bible without the Apocrypha were bound. The standardization of the text of the Authorized Version after together with the technological development of stereotype printing made it possible to produce Bibles in large print-runs at very low unit prices.

    For commercial and charitable publishers, editions of the Authorized Version without the Apocrypha reduced the cost, while having increased market appeal to non-Anglican Protestant readers. With the rise of the Bible societies , most editions have omitted the whole section of Apocryphal books. That the funds of the Society be applied to the printing and circulation of the Canonical Books of Scripture, to the exclusion of those Books and parts of Books usually termed Apocryphal; [].

    The American Bible Society adopted a similar policy. Both societies eventually reversed these policies in light of 20th-century ecumenical efforts on translations, the ABS doing so in and the BFBS in Most adherents of the movement believe that the Textus Receptus is very close, if not identical, to the original autographs thereby making it the ideal Greek source for the translation. They argue that most modern English translations are based on a corrupted New Testament text that relies primarily on the Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus manuscripts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    An English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in and completed as well as published in The title page to the first edition of the Authorized Version of the Bible by Cornelis Boel shows the Apostles Peter and Paul seated centrally above the central text, which is flanked by Moses and Aaron. In the four corners sit Matthew , Mark , Luke and John , authors of the four gospels , with their symbolic animals. The rest of the Apostles with Judas facing away stand around Peter and Paul.

    Genesis —3. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

    Genesis in other translations. John For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. John in other translations. Main category: Bible translations into English. See also: English translations of the Bible. Main article: List of major textual variants in the New Testament. See also: List of Bible verses not included in modern translations. Further information on the Apocrypha: Biblical canon. Main article: King James Only movement. Anglicanism portal. The correct style is therefore "James VI and I".

    According to J. Dore, [] the edition "so far as it goes, represents the edition of so completely that it may be consulted with as much confidence as an original. The spelling, punctuation, italics, capitals, and distribution into lines and pages are all followed with the most scrupulous care. It is, however, printed in Roman instead of black letter type. Matthew : "great was the fall of it. Leviticus is changed to its in many modern printings.

    How the King James Bible Came to Be

    It has a long and honorable tradition in our Church in America. Professor Orloff used it for his translations at the end of the last century, and Isabel Hapgood's Service Book of and made it the "official" translation for a whole generation of American Orthodox. Unfortunately, both Orloff and Hapgood used a different version for the Psalms that of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer , thereby giving us two translations in the same services.

    This was rectified in by the Service Book of the Antiochian Archdiocese, which replaced the Prayer Book psalms with those from the King James Version and made some other corrections. This beautiful translation, reproducing the stately prose of , was the work of Fathers Upson and Nicholas. It is still in widespread use to this day, and has familiarized thousands of believers with the KJV. See CDPA s The Times Literary Supplement. Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 8 March Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed.

    Oxford University Press. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 8 April Retrieved 13 July Quarterly Record. Trinitarian Bible Society. Archived from the original PDF on 16 April Retrieved 7 February Historical and Literary Studies. Combs" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 23 September Retrieved 25 April Vanity Fair.

    SAMUEL, BOOKS OF.

    Retrieved 10 August The Guardian. Retrieved 28 April Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 11 December Archived from the original on 14 April We grant permission to use the text, and license printing or the importation for sale within the UK, as long as we are assured of acceptable quality and accuracy. Bible Baptist Bookstore. Retrieved 25 September The Monthly Anthology, and Boston Review. Munroe and Francis. Anon A call to the Jews.

    The Anti-Jacobin Review and Magazine.

    Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Book of Kings by C.F. Burney | Biblical Studies

    Missionary Register. The Original Secession Magazine. Edinburgh: Moodie and Lothian. Bridwell Library. Barber, Charles Laurence Early modern English second ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Bobrick, Benson Wide as the waters: the story of the English Bible and the revolution it inspired. Taken by John Bois Here translated and edited by Ward Allen. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.

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    Browne, George History of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Bruce, Frederick Fyvie History of the Bible in English. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press. Butler, Charles Horae Biblicae. Vol 1 fourth ed. London: J. Chadwick, Owen Chapman, James L. Americanism versus Romanism: or the cis-Atlantic battle between Sam and the pope. Nashville, TN: the author. Daiches, David Hamden, Conn: Archon Books. Daniell, David The Bible in English: its history and influence.

    DeCoursey, Matthew Edward A. Malone ed. British Rhetoricians and Logicians, Second series. Gale Group. Dore, John Read Eyre and Spottiswoode. Douglas, James Dixon, ed. New International Dictionary of the Christian Church. Melton, J. Gordon Encyclopedia of Protestantism. Infobase Publishing. Hacket, John Hague, Dyson Through the Prayer Book. Church Book Room Press.

    Hall, Isaac Hollister Hubbard Bros. Herbert, A. British and Foreign Bible Society. Hill, Christopher The English Bible and the seventeenth-century revolution. London: Allen Lane. Society and Puritanism in pre-revolutionary England. New York: St. Martin's Press. Hobbes, Thomas Broadview Press. Holmes, A. In Worcester, Noah ed.

    The Christian Disciple. Horne, Thomas Hartwell An introduction to the critical study and knowledge of the holy Scriptures, Volume 2. London: T. Cadell and A Davies. Kenyon, Sir Frederic G. In James Hastings ed. Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

    Kimber, Isaac Metzger, Bruce M. The Text of the New Testament. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Procter, Francis; Frere, Walter Howard Newcome, William Historical View of the English Biblical Translations. Norton, David Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.