Léthique médicale et la bioéthique: « Que sais-je ? » n° 2422 (French Edition)
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM is associated with an increased risk of fractures according to several studies. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear, although small case-control studies indicate poor quality of the cortical bone. We have studied a population-based sample of women aged 75 to 80 years in Gothenburg, randomly invited from the population register. Adjustment for covariates age, body mass index, glucocorticoid treatment, smoking, physical activity, calcium intake, bone-active drugs eliminated the differences in aBMD but not in HR-pQCT bone variables. We investigated the determinants of trajectories of physical symptoms related to lung cancer a quality of life [QOL] aspect and self-efficacy among patients with non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC.
It was hypothesized that gender and family cancer history in first-degree relatives would have synergistic effects on QOL-lung cancer specific symptoms and self-efficacy. Women with family cancer history were expected to be at risk of poorer adjustment. Quantitative, longitudinal design was applied. Participants provided their responses at days after surgery, 1-month follow-up, and 4-month follow-up. Mixed-models analysis indicated that trajectories of physical quality of life symptoms of lung cancer as well as self-efficacy were unfavorable among women with family cancer history.
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The present study examined the moderating role of health status physical , mental, and social health and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking e. Physical examination performed by psychiatrists. Too little, too late? Physical examinations performed by trainee psychiatrists on newly admitted psychiatric patients. To assess the comprehensiveness of the physical examination carried out by psychiatric trainees on acute in-patient units. To quantify delays in undertaking physical examination on psychiatric inpatients. A prospective case note study of 60 consecutive admissions to acute psychiatric wards in North Staffordshire.
Information regarding demography, details of physical examination and routine blood investigations was collected. The case notes of 60 inpatients were studied. Mean age was A delay in performing a physical occurred in 17 No explanation for a delay was given in six The mean time to physical examination from admission was The standard of physical examination was variable. The central nervous system CNS was reported as 'grossly intact' in six Psychiatric patients are not receiving a comprehensive physical examination.
Whilst the patient's ability to co-operate may account for a delay in the examination, it is unlikely to be the reason for the CNS being examined in just half the patients. Opportunities to reduce the physical morbidity associated with mental illness may be being lost. MJ Psych Clin Pract ; 8: Purpose: This cross-sectional, observational study investigated whether physical activity PA levels are associated with motor performance and physical function in children after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia ALL.
Method: Participants aged years who had completed treatment for ALL months post-treatment were tested at their oncology long-term follow-up appointment at the British Columbia Children's Hospital. Results: Thirteen children completed testing. Conclusion: PA was not found to be associated with motor performance and physical function. Participants who were overweight or obese had poorer 6MWT performance , which may indicate the need for closer monitoring of post-treatment weight status and physical function in the oncology follow-up setting. Method: Participants aged 8—13 years who had completed treatment for ALL 3—36 months post-treatment were tested at their oncology long-term follow-up appointment at the British Columbia Children's Hospital.
This article intends to inform physical education teachers about the current research describing the relationship between physical education performance outcomes as identified by the national physical education standards i. Physical Performance , Fitness and Diet. This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed.
Figures and data tables provide information regarding…. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics. Stereotype threat ST , which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST conditions. The conditions included an explicit ST condition, an implicit ST condition, and a nullified condition.
Results indicated that males in all three conditions performed similarly on a set of physics problems. Females in the nullified condition outperformed females in the explicit ST condition and females in the implicit and explicit conditions performed similarly. Males performed better than females in the implicit and explicit ST conditions, but male and female performance on the physics problems was not significantly different in the nullified condition.
The implications of these findings for physics instruction and future research on gender differences in physics and ST in science are discussed. Humans consuming vegetarian-based diets are observed to have reduced relative risk for many chronic diseases. Similarly, regular physical activity has also been shown to assist in preventing, and reducing the severity of these conditions.
Many people, including athletes, acknowledge these findings and are adopting a vegetarian-based diet to improve their health status. Furthermore, athletes are incorporating this approach with the specific aim of optimizing physical performance. To examine the evidence for the relationship between consuming a predominately vegetarian-based diet and improved physical performance , a systematic literature review was performed using the SCOPUS database.
No date parameters were set. Reference lists were hand searched for additional studies. Seven randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study met the inclusion criteria. No distinguished differences between vegetarian-based diets and omnivorous mixed diets were identified when physical performance was compared. Consuming a predominately vegetarian-based diet did not improve nor hinder performance in athletes. However, with only 8 studies identified, with substantial variability among the studies' experimental designs, aims and outcomes, further research is warranted.
Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education PE , free school physical activity PA and school sports. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction.
An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average GPA , and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour.
Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.
Performance Appraisal of Physical Education Teachers. In this study, the aim was to determine views of school principals on how performance appraisal of physical education teachers who worked at primary schools should be done. The research was designed in a screening model. The research group composed of school principals and deputy principals who worked at state primary schools located in…. It currently involves more than physicists from more than institutes and 37 countries. The LHC will provide extraordinary opportunities for particle physics based on its unprecedented collision energy and luminosity when it begins operation in The principal aim of this report is to present the strategy of CMS to explore the rich physics programme offered by the LHC.
This volume demonstrates the physics capability of the CMS experiment. The prime goals of CMS are to explore physics at the TeV scale and to study the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking—through the discovery of the Higgs particle or otherwise. To carry out this task, CMS must be prepared to search for new particles, such as the Higgs boson or supersymmetric partners of the Standard Model particles, from the start-up of the LHC since new physics at the TeV scale may manifest itself with modest data samples of the order of a few fb -1 or less.
The analysis tools that have been developed are applied to study in great detail and with all the methodology of performing an analysis on CMS data specific benchmark processes upon which to gauge the performance of CMS. These processes cover several Higgs boson decay channels, the production and decay of new particles such as Z' and supersymmetric particles, B s production and processes in heavy ion collisions.
The simulation of these benchmark processes includes subtle effects such as possible detector miscalibration and misalignment. Besides these benchmark processes, the physics reach of CMS is studied for a large number of signatures arising in the Standard Model and also in theories beyond the Standard Model for integrated luminosities ranging from 1 fb -1 to 30 fb The Standard Model processes include QCD, B - physics , diffraction, detailed studies of the top quark properties, and electroweak physics.
Physical performance in relation to menopause status and physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine differences in physical performance muscle power, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and walking speed across menopausal stages and potential of leisure physical activity PA to modify the impact of menopause on physical performance. Physical performance was measured by knee extension force, handgrip force, vertical jumping height, maximal walking speed, and 6-minute walking distance. PA level was assessed by self-report and categorized as low, moderate, or high.
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Multivariate linear regression modeling was used for data analysis. After including fat mass, height, PA, and education in the model, the postmenopausal women showed The peri- and postmenopausal women with a high PA, however, showed better performance in the maximal knee extension strength and 6-minute walking test, and showed greater lower body muscle power than those with a low PA.
A high leisure PA level provides more capacity to counteract the potential negative influence of menopausal factors on muscle function. The work cannot be changed in any way or used. Physical fitness and job performance of firefighters. Accurate correlations between a wide range of physical fitness measures and occupational demands are needed in order to identify specific fitness tests and training needs for firefighters. Twenty professional firefighters performed numerous fitness and job-related performance tests. Pearson product moment correlations were performed to identify the relationship between fitness components and job performance.
It is apparent that firefighting taxes virtually all aspects of physical fitness. These data can help the exercise specialist choose appropriate tests and prescribe specific fitness programs for firefighters. Traditional firefighter exercise programs focusing mainly on cardiovascular fitness should be replaced with physical conditioning programs that address all components of fitness. Does respiratory muscle training increase physical performance?
Special force units and military personnel undergo demanding physical exercise and might benefit from high-intensity respiratory muscle training RMT by increasing their endurance performance. Baseline and post-testing included a ramp test, as well as an incremental test on a treadmill, performed to physical exhaustion.
VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were measured breath by breath. Furthermore, maximum running speed V max , 4 mmol x 1 -1 lactate threshold V4 and perception of respiratory effort were determined. During pulmonary testing, sustained maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure PI max and PE max were obtained. No statistical differences were detected between the groups for any parameter after RMT.
High-intensity RMT did not show any benefits on VO2max and endurance performance and are unlikely to be of benefit to military or paramilitary training programs for an increase in endurance performance. Aging and sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects: An EEG study in arithmetic problem solving. This study investigated age-related differences in electrophysiological signatures of sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects. Sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects refer to decreased poorer strategy effects i.
Analyses on electrophysiological EEG data revealed important age-related changes in time, frequency, and coherence of brain activities underlying sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects. More specifically, sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects were associated with earlier and later time windows i. Event-related potentials ERPs also revealed an earlier onset in older adults, together with more anterior and less lateralized activations.
Furthermore, sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects were associated with theta and alpha frequencies in young adults while these modulations were found in delta frequency and theta inter-hemispheric coherence in older adults, consistent with qualitatively distinct patterns of brain activity. These findings have important implications to further our understanding of age-related differences and similarities in sequential modulations of cognitive control processes during arithmetic strategy execution.
Body composition explains sex differential in physical performance among older adults. Older women have higher percent body fat, poorer physical function, lower strength, and higher rates of nonfatal chronic conditions than men. We sought to determine whether these differences explained physical performance differences between men and women. Physical performance was assessed in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study in 2, men and women aged with a composite point score consisting of chair stands, standing balance including one-leg stand, and 6-m usual and narrow walk tests.
Total body composition was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry, thigh composition by computed tomography, and knee extensor strength by isokinetic dynamometer. Analysis of covariance estimated least square mean performance scores for men and women. Men had higher performance scores than women least square means: 2.
Chronic health conditions did not explain the sex difference. In a well-functioning cohort, poorer physical function in women compared with men can be explained predominantly by their higher fat mass, but also by other body composition differences. The higher proportion of body fat in women may put them at significant biomechanical disadvantage for greater disability in old age. Reduced physical fitness secondary to heart failure HF may contribute to poor driving; reduced physical fitness is a known correlate of cognitive impairment and has been associated with decreased independence in driving.
No study has examined the associations among physical fitness, cognition, and driving performance in people with HF. Eighteen people with HF completed a physical fitness assessment, a cognitive test battery, and a validated driving simulator scenario. Partial correlations showed that poorer physical fitness was correlated with more collisions and stop signs missed and lower scores on a composite score of attention, executive function, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive dysfunction predicted reduced driving simulation performance.
Reduced physical fitness in participants with HF was associated with worse simulated driving, possibly because of cognitive dysfunction. Larger studies using on-road testing are needed to confirm our findings and identify clinical interventions to maximize safe driving.
Physical performance and radiographic and clinical vertebral fractures in older men. In men, the association between poor physical performance and likelihood of incident vertebral fractures is unknown. At baseline and follow-up an average of 4. Every 4 months after baseline, participants self-reported fractures; clinical vertebral fractures were confirmed by centralized radiologist review of the baseline study radiograph and community-acquired spine images.
Proportional hazards regression modeled the association between physical performance with incident clinical vertebral fractures. Multivariate models were adjusted for age, bone mineral density BMD, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA] , clinical center, race, smoking, height, weight, history of falls, activity level, and comorbid medical conditions; physical performance was analyzed as quartiles.
Of men with baseline and repeat radiographs, 4. Wrights, Abbie P. Performance -based and self-report instruments of physical function are frequently used and provide complementary information. Identifying older adults with a mismatch between actual and perceived function has utility in clinical settings and in the design of interventions. One-week test—retest reliability of the vSPPB was examined in 30 participants. One-week test-retest reliability of the vSPPB was examined in 30 participants. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.
Aging effects in sequential modulations of poorer -strategy effects during execution of memory strategies. In this study, we asked young adults and older adults to encode pairs of words. For each item, they were told which strategy to use, interactive imagery or rote repetition. Data revealed poorer -strategy effects in both young adults and older adults: Participants obtained better performance when executing better strategies i.
Crucially, we showed that sequential modulations of poorer -strategy effects i. We also found reduced sequential modulations of poorer -strategy effects in older adults relative to young adults. Finally, sequential modulations of poorer -strategy effects correlated with measures of cognitive control processes, suggesting that these processes underlie efficient trial-to-trial modulations during strategy execution. Differences in correlations with cognitive control processes were also found between older adults and young adults.
These findings have important implications regarding mechanisms underlying memory strategy execution and age differences in memory performance. Body composition as a predictor of physical performance in older age: A ten-year follow-up of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. This study assessed how different measures of body composition predict physical performance ten years later among older adults.
The participants were men and women aged 57 to 70 years. Body mass index BMI , waist circumference, and body composition bioelectrical impedance analysis were measured at baseline and physical performance Senior Fitness Test ten years later. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, duration of the follow-up and physical activity.
Lean mass residual after accounting for the effect of height and fat mass was not associated with physical performance. Among older adults, higher measures of adiposity predicted poorer physical performance ten years later whereas lean mass was associated with physical performance in a counterintuitive manner. The results can be used when appraising usefulness of body composition indicators for definition of sarcopenic obesity.
Physical performance measures for predicting outcome in cancer patients: a systematic review. Decision making regarding cancer treatment is challenging and there is a need for clinical parameters that can guide these decisions. As physical performance appears to be a reflection of health status, the aim of this systematic review is to assess whether physical performance tests PPTs are predictive of the clinical outcome and treatment tolerance in cancer patients. A literature search was conducted on 2 April in the electronic databases Medline and Embase to identify studies focusing on the association between objectively measured PPTs and outcome.
No limitations in language or publication dates were applied. The search retrieved articles, 16 publications were included involving patients with various cancer types and different treatments. Reported median or mean age varied from 58 to 78 years. PPTs appear to show a significant correlation with survival and these tests could be used as a prognostic tool, particular for older adult patients.
A less explicit correlation for treatment-related complications and functional decline was also found. To optimize decision making, future research should focus on developing and validating individualized treatment algorithms that incorporate PPTs in addition to cancer- and treatment-related variables. Does physical exposure throughout working life influence chair-rise performance in midlife? A retrospective cohort study of associations between work and physical function in Denmark. Our aim was to study associations between physical exposures throughout working life and physical function measured as chair-rise performance in midlife.
Individual job histories were assigned exposures from a job exposure matrix. Spline regression analyses showed non-linear associations and confirmed the findings. Higher physical exposure throughout working life is associated with slightly poorer chair-rise performance. The associations between exposure and outcome were non-linear.
Objectives Our aim was to study associations between physical exposures throughout working life and physical function measured as chair-rise performance in midlife. Conclusions Higher physical exposure throughout working life is associated with slightly poorer chair-rise performance.
Body image, perceived physical ability, and motor performance in nonoverweight and overweight Italian children. Age-appropriate field-based tests of standing long jump, 1-kg medicine-ball throw, basketball throw, and m and m sprint from a standing position were also administered to gauge motor performance. Univariate analyses of variance [2 group x 2 sex x 3 8, 9, 10 yr.
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In addition, boys had higher mean scores on physical self-efficacy and better performance on all motor tests. The correlation between Body Mass Index and body dissatisfaction was positive for boys and girls. Associations among pain catastrophizing, muscle strength, and physical performance after total knee and hip arthroplasty.
AIM To investigate whether reductions in pain catastrophizing associated with physical performance in the early period after total knee arthroplasty TKA or total hip arthroplasty THA. The participants were evaluated within 7 d before the operation and at 14 d afterwards.
Physical performance was measured by the Timed Up and Go TUG test, and m gait time was measured at comfortable and maximum speeds. They rated their knee or hip pain using a visual analog scale VAS for daily life activities. Physical characteristics were measured by isometric muscle strength of knee extensors and hip abductors on the operated side.
The variables of percent changes between pre- and post-operation were calculated by dividing post-operation score by pre-operation score. The percent change in physical performance showed no correlation with preoperative variables. The percent change of muscle strength showed partial correlation with physical performances.
The percent change of VAS showed no correlation with physical performances. The percent change of knee extensor strength showed partial correlation with physical performances. Background: Public schools provide opportunities for physical activity and fitness surveillance, but are evaluated and funded based on students' academic performance , not their physical fitness. Empirical research evaluating the connections between fitness and academic performance is needed to justify curriculum allocations to physical activity….
The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based….
Epidemiological studies clearly show a connection between physical activity and the occurrence of disabilities in old age. Physical exercise is possible and useful at every age. Numerous intervention trials have shown that training of endurance, strength and coordination has positive effects on the cardiovascular system, the lung, the musculo-skeletal system, metabolism and the immune system in elderly people.
Even very frail elderly people can increase their muscle strength and functional capabilities by strength training. Group sessions may improve social interactions and additionally increase the quality of life. Erickson, Kirk I. Physical activity enhances cognitive performance , yet individual variability in its effectiveness limits its widespread therapeutic application. Genetic differences might be one source of this variation.
BDNF genotype interacted robustly with physical activity to affect working memory, but not other areas of cognitive functioning. In particular, greater levels of physical activity offset a deleterious effect of the Met allele on working memory performance.
These findings suggest that physical activity can modulate domain-specific genetic BDNF effects on cognition. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST…. Physical examination findings and their relationship with performance -based function in adults with knee osteoarthritis. Many physical examination PE maneuvers exist to assess knee function, none of which are specific to knee osteoarthritis KOA.
The Osteoarthritis Research Society International also recommends the use of six functional performance measures to assess function in adults with KOA. While earlier studies have examined the relationship between PE findings and self-reported function or PE findings and select performance tests in adults with knee pain and KOA, few have examined the all three types of measures. This cross-sectional study specifically examines the relationships between results of PE findings, functional performance tests and self-reported function in adults with symptomatic KOA.
The PE performed by three experienced physical therapists included: muscle assessment, function and special tests. Multivariate linear regression identified contributions of PE findings towards functional performance and WOMAC scores, adjusting for age and gender. Participants' mean age was Weakness was present in major hip and knee muscles. Seventy-nine participants had a positive Ely's, 65 a positive Waldron and 49 a positive Grind.
Cold environments are usually. High-Quality Carbohydrates and Physical Performance. While all experts agreed that protein needs for performance are likely greater than believed in past generations, particularly for strength training athletes, and that dietary fat could sustain an active person through lower-intensity training bouts, current research still points to carbohydrate as an indispensable energy source for high-intensity performance. Children's Physical Fitness and Academic Performance.
Background: Childhood obesity is a major public health threat. Increased fitness may have a positive influence on cognitive performance in both adults and children. Purpose: To examine which aspects of children's fitness assessment are associated with their performance on four different academic areas. Physical performance in relation to body composition and bone mineral density in healthy, overweight, and obese postmenopausal women. Diminished physical performance can be detrimental among the older adults, causing falls and subsequent fractures, loss of independence, and increased morbidity and mortality rates.
Therefore, it is important to maintain functional ability from the early onset of aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical performance measures and body composition bone, fat, and lean mass in healthy, overweight and obese, early postmenopausal white women. A total of 97 participants aged Weight and height were recorded and 3 days of dietary records and physical activity were collected.
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements for body composition and bone mineral density were performed. Fasting blood samples were used for serum hydroxy vitamin D 25OHD analysis. Measures of physical performance included handgrip strength, 8-meter walking speed, one-leg-stance time, 8-foot Timed Get-Up-and-Go Test, and chair sit-to-stand test. Results showed that higher lean mass was related to better physical performance on items assessing body strength, including handgrip r ranged from 0. Further investigation may be beneficial for a better understanding of how body.
Practice of a given physical activity is known to improve the motor skills related to this activity. However, whether unrelated skills are also improved is still unclear. To test the impact of physical activity on an unpracticed motor task, 26 young adults completed the international physical activity questionnaire and performed a bimanual coordination task they had never practiced before.
Results showed that higher total physical activity predicted higher performance in the bimanual task, controlling for multiple factors such as age, physical inactivity, music practice, and computer games practice. Linear mixed models allowed this effect of physical activity to be generalized to a large population of bimanual coordination conditions. This finding runs counter to the notion that generalized motor abilities do not exist and supports the existence of a "learning to learn" skill that could be improved through physical activity and that impacts performance in tasks that are not necessarily related to the practiced activity.
Left-behind children in rural China experience higher levels of anxiety and poorer living conditions. The number of rural Chinese parents who leave their children with family members to work in the cities has increased dramatically over the last decade. LBC displayed higher social anxiety scores, more neglect, lower parental educational level, lower quality of life, lower family function and lower prevalence of physical abuse than non-LBC.
Multiple linear regression models showed that higher Social Anxiety Scales for Children SASC scores in LBC were clearly associated with lower quality of life, poorer family function, physical abuse, being female, having more siblings and minorities. In non-LBC, they were associated with lower quality of life, poorer family function, neglect, being female and physical abuse. LBC have a relatively higher level of social anxiety and poorer living conditions than non-LBC, and there are differences in social anxiety, and its relevant factors, between the two groups.
Gender-based performance differences in an introductory physics course. Cognitive research has indicated that the difference between males and females is negligible. Paradoxically, in traditionally-taught college level introductory physics courses, males have outperformed females. UC Davis' Physics 7A the first class of a three-quarter Introduction to Physics sequence for Life-Science students , however, counters this trend since females perform similarly to males. In one experiment, I modified the laboratory activity instructions of the Physics 7C course to encourage further group interaction.
These modifications did not affect the gender-based performance difference. In a later experiment, I compared students' performance on different forms of assessment for certain physics concepts during the Physics 7C course. Over students took weekly quizzes at different times. The students were given different quiz questions on the same topics. Several quiz questions seemed to favor males while others were more gender equitable.
I highlighted comparisons between a few pairs of questions that assessed students' understanding of the same physical concept. Males tended to perform better in responding to questions that seemed to require spatial visualization. Questions that required greater understanding of the physical concept or scientific model were more gender neutral. Jakeman, P. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness. Journal of Strength and Conditioning VO2max, lactate threshold , maximum watts reached, ratings of perceived exertion and pre- and post The attrition of females studying physics after high school has been a continuing concern for the physics education community.
If females are well prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory college physics , they may be inclined to study physics further.
This quantitative study uses HLM to identify factors from high school physics preparation content, pedagogy, and assessment and the affective domain that predict female and male performance in introductory college physics. The study includes controls for student demographic and academic background characteristics, and the final dataset consists of surveys from 54 introductory college physics classes. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially predict female and male performance.
There were also experiences that similarly predict female and male performance. The results paint a dynamic picture of the factors from high school physics and the affective domain that influence the future physics performance of females and males. Genetic influences in sport and physical performance. A vast array of human phenotypes e. This article discusses the role for genetic influences in influencing sporting performance and injury, offering specific exemplars where these are known. Many of these preferable genotypes are uncommon, and their combination even rarer.
Many recently discovered polymorphisms that may affect sports performance have been described in animal or other human based models, and have been included in this review if they may apply to athletic populations. Muscle performance is heavily influenced by basal muscle mass and its dynamic response to training.
Several cytokines such as interleukin-6 and , cilliary neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor IGF have myoanabolic effects. Genotype-associated differences in endocrine function, necessary for normal skeletal muscle growth and function, may also be of significance, with complex interactions existing between thyroxine, growth hormone and the downstream regulators of the anabolic pathways such as IGF-1 and IGF Abstract Chronic kidney disease CKD is increasingly recognized as a cause of worsening physical functioning in older patients.
The Short Physical Performance Battery SPPB is highly reliable in older populations, but no data on older hospitalized patients with different degrees of kidney function are available. We aimed at testing the association between estimated glomerular filtration rate eGFR and SPPB, either global score range 0—12 or its individual components muscle strength, balance, and walking speed, each ranging from 0 to 4 , in a sample of older hospitalized patients.
Our series consisted of patients aged 65 or more consecutively enrolled in 11 acute care medical wards participating to a multicenter observational study. Physical performance was objectively measured by the SPPB. In conclusion, reduced renal function is associated with poorer physical performance in older hospitalized patients. A number of large-scale population studies have provided valuable information about physical performance in aged individuals; however, there is little information about trajectories of function and associations with age across the adult life span.
We developed a mobility-focused physical performance screener designed to be appropriate for the adult life span.
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The physical performance battery includes measures of mobility, strength, endurance, and balance. Physical activity PA was assessed with accelerometry. Physical performance was worse with increasing age decade. Although men performed better than women across all ages, the decrement by age group was similar between genders. Worsening physical performance was observed as early as the fifth decade for chair stands and balance and in the sixth decade for gait speed and aerobic endurance. More PA was associated with better physical function. These results emphasize the importance of a life span approach to studies of function and aging.
This work points to the need for a physical performance screener that spans across adulthood as a clinical tool for identifying functional decline. We estimated perceived difficulty with physical tasks, lifestyle, and physical performance in children and adolescents obese, 54 overweight, and normal-weight subjects and the relationship between perceived physical difficulties and sports participation, sedentary behaviors, or physical performance.
Perceived difficulty with physical tasks and lifestyle habits was assessed by interview using a structured questionnaire, while physical performance was assessed through the six-minute walking test 6MWT. Obese children had higher perceived difficulty with several activities of daily living, were less engaged in sports, and had lower physical performance than normal-weight or overweight children; on the contrary, they did not differ with regard to time spent in sedentary behaviors.
Perceived difficulty in running and hopping negatively predicted sports participation P physical activities negatively predicted the 6MWT, independently of BMI P physical activity in obese children. Exploring both the perception of a task's difficulty level and physical performance may be useful to design exercise programs that allow safe and successful participation.
This paper shows how a group of young people and researchers, through their reading of images, performed "identity work" within discourses of the body and gender in physical education. To explore young people's identity narratives and physicality , the researchers used an ethnographic method using photo-elicitation. Findings in this study showed….
The scarcity of criterion-related validation studies and the difficulty of generalizing validity are considered, and a model of physical performance that builds on Fleishman's …. Studies whether physical attractiveness of singers affects judges' ratings of their vocal performances. Reveals that physical attractiveness does impact evaluation, that male raters were more severe than female raters, and that the rating of undergraduate majors versus graduate students and professors combined were not differently affected by….
Spinal sagittal balance substantially influences locomotive syndrome and physical performance in community-living middle-aged and elderly women. Spinal sagittal imbalance has been well known risk factor of decreased quality of life in the field of adult spinal deformity. However, the impact of spinal sagittal balance on locomotive syndrome and physical performance in community-living elderly has not yet been clarified. The present study investigated the influence of spinal sagittal alignment on locomotive syndrome LS and physical performance in community-living middle-aged and elderly women.
A total of women between the age of years mean Timed-up-and-go test TUG , one-leg standing time with eyes open OLS , and maximum stride, back muscle strength were also measured. Odds ratio to fall in LS of. Physical performance tests after stroke: reliability and validity. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the modified physical performance tests for stroke survivors who live in a community.
The subjects included 40 stroke survivors and 40 apparently healthy independent elderly persons. The physical performance tests for the stroke survivors comprised two physical capacity evaluation tasks that represented physical abilities necessary to perform the main activities of daily living, e. Regarding the reliability of tests, significant correlations were confirmed between test and retest of physical performance tests with both short and long intervals in individuals after stroke.
Regarding the validity of tests, the authors studied the significant correlations between the maximum isometric strength of the quardriceps muscle and the time needed to walk 10 m, centimeters reached while sitting and reaching, and the time needed to stand up from bed rest. The authors confirmed that there were significant correlations between the instrumental activity of daily living and the time needed to stand up from bed rest, along with the time needed to walk 10 m for the stroke survivors.
These physical performance tests are useful guides for evaluating a level of activity of daily living and physical frailty of stroke survivors living in a community. Analysis of Praxis physics subject assessment examinees and performance : Who are our prospective physics teachers? A generally agreed upon tenant of the physics teaching community is the centrality of subject-specific expertise in effective teaching. However, studies which assess the content knowledge of incoming K physics teachers in the U.
Similarly lacking are studies on if or how the demographic makeup of aspiring physics educators is different from previously reported analyses of the actual high school physics teaching workforce. Here we present findings about the demographics and subject knowledge of prospective high school physics teachers using data from Praxis physics subject assessments administered between and Our analysis reveals significant variations in exam participation and performance between men and women, as well as those with different undergraduate majors and academic performance over the past decade.
Findings from this work inform understandings and decisions about the quality, recruitment, and preparation of the high school physics teaching workforce. Tvaryanas1; William P An independent medical standards subject matter expert SME reviewed encounters in the electronic health record. Gonadal status and physical performance in older men. To test the relationship between gonadal status and objective measures and determinants of physical performance in older men and their determinants.
Linear models were used to test the relationship between gonadal status and determinants of physical performance. We found no association between testosterone group assignment and calf muscle mass and 4 m walking speed. In older men, gonadal status is independently associated with some determinants haemoglobin and muscle strength of physical performance. Surface cleaning processes are normally evaluated using visual physical properties such as discolorations, streaking, staining and water-break-free conditions.
There is an assumption that these physical methods will evaluate all surfaces all the time for all subsequent operations. We have found that these physical methods are lacking in sensitivity and selectivity with regard to surface residues and subsequent process performance. We will report several conditions where evaluations using visual physical properties are lacking. We will identify possible alternative methods and future needs for surface evaluations.
Physical activity helps to control music performance anxiety. We evaluated if regular physical activity could influence musical performance anxiety MPA in college music students. The results showed that physically active musicians had lower MPA scores p physical activity and minor MPA, and studies with a longitudinal design should be done to explore this important issue. Personality types and student performance in an introductory physics course. We measured the personality type of the students in a large introductory physics course of mostly life science students using the True Colors instrument.
We found large correlations of personality type with performance on the precourse Force Concept Inventory FCI , both term tests, the postcourse FCI, and the final examination. We also saw correlations with the normalized gain on the FCI. The personality profile of the students in this course is very different from the profile of the physics faculty and graduate students, and also very different from the profile of students taking the introductory physics course intended for physics majors and specialists.
Biological differences between men and women are well known; however, literature-addressing knowledge about the influence of sex to specific and general performance in team handball is almost nonexistent. Consequently, the aim of the study was to assess and compare specific and general physical performance in male and female elite team handball players, to determine if the differences are consequential for general compared to specific physical performance characteristics and the relationship between general and specific physical performance.
Twelve male and ten female elite team handball players performed a game based performance test, upper- und lower-body strength and power tests, a sprinting test, and an incremental treadmill-running test. Significant differences P performance test. The results of the study revealed that male players are heavier, taller, faster, stronger, jump higher and have a better aerobic performance.
However, female players performed relatively better in the team handball specific tests compared to the general tests. Our findings also suggest that female players should focus more on strength training. Actoprotective effect of ginseng: improving mental and physical performance. Actoprotectors are preparations that increase the mental performance and enhance body stability against physical loads without increasing oxygen consumption. Actoprotectors are regarded as a subclass of adaptogens that hold a significant capacity to increase physical performance.
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The focus of this article is studying adaptogen herbs of genus Panax P. Some animal experiments and human studies about actoprotective properties of genus Panax attest that P. Preparations of ginseng can be regarded as potential actoprotectors which give way to further research of its influence on physical and mental work capacity, endurance and restoration after exhaustive physical loads while compared with reference actoprotectors.
Association of plasma hydroxyvitamin D with physical performance in physically active children. Vitamin D is thought to regulate skeletal muscle function and boost physical performance. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D and physical performance in physically active children. This cross-sectional study included children who practice football as a leisure activity. Plasma hydroxyvitamin D OHD was assessed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay method. In conclusion, a low plasma OHD level was associated with decreased muscle strength, agility, and jumping and sprinting abilities in physically active children.
Vitamin D inadequacy may limit exercise performance. Further research should verify whether correction of vitamin D deficiency enhances physical performance. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives. In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults.
In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance , and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults.
Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance , other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults.
Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury.
To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Mass Market Paperback.
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