CCDA Quick Reference Sheets: Exam 640-863
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Please type your message and try again. Like the continually evolving security policy, the process of securing the network is also continuous. Specifically, designers use the following four steps to continually secure the network, as illustrated in Figure n Secure—Securing the network involves such measures as author- izing and authenticating users, filtering unwanted traffic, encrypting data, and providing secure remote access using virtual private networks VPN.
Download PDF sample. Strategic community Design 2. Modular community Design 3. Exploring simple Campus and information heart community Design 4. IP Addressing and Routing Protocols 6. Rated 4. Implement—This phase integrates equipment into the existing network without disrupting the existing network to meet design requirements.
Operate—This phase entails the day-to-day network operation, while responding to any issues that arise. Optimize—This phase gathers feedback from the Operate phase to potentially make adjustments in the existing network. Changes might be implemented to address ongoing network support issues. Identify customer requirements. To identify customer requirements, obtain the following pieces of information: n Network applications n Network services n Business goals n Constraints imposed by the customer n Technical goals n Constraints imposed by technical limitations 2.
Identify characteristics of the current network. To identify characteristics of the current network, perform the following tasks: n Collect existing network documentation with the understand- ing that the documentation might be somewhat dated and unreliable , and interview organizational representatives to uncover information not available in the documentation.
Design the network topology. Using information collected in Steps 1 and 2, you are ready to begin your network design. The term top-down refers to begin- ning at the top of the OSI reference model that is, the application layer and working your way down through the underlying layers, as shown in Figure For example, when considering the application layer, the designer might determine that voice applications such as the Cisco IP Contact Center and the Cisco Unity converged messaging system are applications needed for the design.
Also, when analyzing the network layer, the designer might need to determine an appropriate IP addressing scheme for the network for example, the use of private versus public IP addresses and subnet masks to be used to provide for future network scalability. Such prototype networks are commonly known as pilot networks. However, to provide for enhanced scalability and flexibility, Cisco later introduced the Cisco Enterprise Architecture, which categorizes enterprise networks into six modules.
Specifically, each module can contain its own network infrastructure, services, and applications. This section explores the design considerations surrounding the modules that comprise the Cisco Enterprise Architecture. Designing the Network Hierarchy Traditionally, Cisco prescribed a three-layer model for network designers. The enterprise edge connects the enterprise campus with the WAN and Internet functional area.
These modules are the areas of the Enterprise Composite Network module not explicitly designed because the service provider modules are designed, owned, and operated by a service provider.
Introduction - CCDA Quick Reference Sheets: Exam [Book]
However, the enterprise network designer can specify the type of connection to use in connecting to the service provider s. Examples of these infrastructure services include the following. Security The security service helps protect a network from both internal and external attacks. These threats might vary depending on the attack target for example, the campus core or the e-commerce module. Therefore, security threats should be evaluated on a module-by-module basis.
Security services in enterprise edge can mitigate many attacks originat- ing outside the enterprise network. However, some attacks might get through, and some attacks might originate internally. Therefore, critical devices in the enterprise campus need to be independently protected.
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Therefore, one of your design goals should be to include a degree of redundancy in a design, such that traffic can continue to flow through the enterprise network even if there is a link or component failure. However, adding redundancy for example, redundant WAN links not only adds to the complexity of the network, but it can also dramatically increase the cost to implement the design. With these factors in mind, consider which specific areas of the network would benefit most from a redundant design.
Each NIC could be connected to a different switch. Therefore, the server maintains network connectivity in the event of a single switch failure. These redundant links can not only improve network availability, but also provide load balancing for increased throughput. Voice Modern enterprise network designs need to support the transmission of voice traffic.
This voice traffic can come from both analog phones much like the phones typically found in homes and IP phones, which are Ethernet devices that transmit voice IP packets. Because the analog phones cannot generate IP packets, they connect to analog gateways such as Cisco routers , which convert the analog waveforms into IP packets.
The term Voice over IP, or VoIP, is used to describe the transmission of voice over a network using voice-enabled routers. Figure shows the basic components of an IP telephony network. A gateway also provides physical access for local analog and digital voice devices, such as tele- phones, fax machines, key sets, and PBXs. The videoconference station contains a video capture device for video input and a microphone for audio input.
The user can view video streams and hear the audio that originates at a remote user station. Cisco targets its VT Advantage product at desktop videoconferencing applications.
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Other components, such as software voice applications, interactive voice response IVR systems, and softphones, provide additional serv- ices to meet the needs of enterprise sites. Wireless Not all devices in an enterprise network are necessarily wired into the network. Today, wireless connectivity is growing in popularity, allow- ing users to roam throughout the enterprise with their wireless device, such as a laptop.
However, because wireless networks send data through radio waves, as opposed to using physical cabling, security becomes a concern. Improper wireless designs might have the radio waves extended out of the building, into neighboring buildings or a parking lot. This type of radio frequency coverage provides an opportunity for attackers to infil- trate the enterprise network. However, for now, under- stand that wireless LANs are made up of four primary components: n End devices—For example, laptops and PCs that have a wireless network adapter n Wireless access points—Devices that act much like a shared hub for wireless clients and serve as an interconnection between the wireless and wired networks n Existing routed and switched wired network—The enterprise network to which wireless access points connect n Wireless LAN controller—A device that adds management and support capabilities to a wireless LAN, in addition to services for example, roaming Application Networking Application Networking Services ANS can use caching and compres- sion technologies to make LAN-like responsiveness available to appli- cation users at remote offices.
For example, when a web page is downloaded to a remote office, the images that make up the web page can be locally cached. Then, if a subsequent request is made for that web page, the initially downloaded graphics can be retrieved from the local cache, providing better response time and less demand on the WAN bandwidth. Also, security services validate application requests and provide confidentiality through encryption.
Specifically, RMON collects and stores infor- mation locally on a device, and this information can be retrieved by an NMS to, for example, provide trend analysis. NetFlow can store information about network flows, which are unidirectional communications paths between two devices. This stored information can then be exported to a network management collector, such as a NetFlow Collection Engine. For example, a Cisco router could discover information about Cisco Catalyst switches connected to that router.
Each of these syslog messages contains a severity level and a facility. The severity level provides a measure of how serious an event is considered to be. For example, the debugging severity level that is, Level 7 causes syslog messages to be sent for all routine oper- ations, which can generate a large amount of output. However, a severity level of emergency that is, Level 0 only generates a syslog message for the most serious events. A syslog facility identifies the service associated with the event. This section examines how the multilayer design approach can be applied to both the enterprise campus and the enter- prise data center.
Understanding Campus Design Considerations As illustrated in Figure , an enterprise campus might be composed of multiple buildings that share centrally located campus resources.
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Three scopes are as follows: n Intrabuilding—An intrabuilding network provides connec- tivity within a building. The network contains both building access and building distribution layers. Typical transmission media includes twisted pair, fiber optics, and wireless technology. Interbuilding networks contain the building distri- bution and campus core layers. Fiber optic cabling is typi- cally used as the transmission media. NOTE The core diameter in a multimode fiber is large enough to permit multiple paths that is, modes for light to travel.
This might cause different photons that is, light particles to take different amounts of time to travel through the fiber. As distance increases, this leads to multimode delay distortion. Therefore, multimode fiber has a distance limitation of approximately 2 km.
NOTE The core diameter in a single-mode fiber is only large enough to permit one path for light to travel. This approach elimi- nates multimode delay distortion, thus increasing the maximum distance supported.
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CCDA Quick Reference Sheets by Kevin Wallace Infrastructure device considerations include the following: n When selecting infrastructure devices, Layer 2 switches are commonly used for access layer devices, whereas multilayer switches are typically found in the distribution and core layers. Understanding the Campus Infrastructure Module When designing the enterprise campus, different areas of the campus that is, building access, building distribution, campus core, and server farm require different device characteristics that is, Layer 2 versus multilayer technology, scalability, availability, performance, and per- port cost.
A VLAN is a single broadcast domain. Consider the potential benefits of implementing routing at the access layer to achieve, for example, faster convergence times. The need for such high performance stems from the roles of a building distribution layer switch: acting as an aggregation point for access layer switches and supporting high-speed connectivity to campus core layer switches.
The key roles of a building distribution layer switch demand redundant connections to the campus core layer. You should design redundancy such that a distribution layer switch could perform equal-cost load balancing to the campus core layer. Building distribution layer switches should support network serv- ices such as high availability, quality of service QoS , and policy enforcement.