School Resources and Performance in Developing Countries; A Resources-Based Perspective

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Certainly, there is plenty of overlap between the concept of distinctive competency, on the one hand, and capabilities, on the other. So is resource-based theory in fact old wine in a new bottle? Not really. Resource-based theory builds on past ideas about resources, but it represents a big improvement on past ideas in at least two ways. First, resource-based theory offers a more complete framework for analyzing organizations, not just snippets of valuable wisdom like Aesop and Selznick provided.


Second, the ideas offered by resource-based theory have been tested and refined through scores of research studies involving thousands of organizations. In other words, there is solid evidence backing it up.

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Leveraging resources and capabilities to create desirable products and services is important, but customers must still be convinced to purchase these goods and services. The marketing mix —also known as the four Ps of marketing—provides important insights into how to make this happen. One early master of the marketing mix was circus impresario P. WestJet sells, of course, airplane flights.

The airline tries to set its flights apart from those of other airlines by making flying fun. Southwest has generally operated in cities that are not served by many airlines, and WestJet often uses secondary airports in major cities. Southwest is known for its clever advertising.

In a television advertising campaign, for example, Southwest lampooned the baggage fees charged by most other airlines while highlighting its more customer-friendly approach to checked luggage.

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Given the consistent theme of providing a good value plus an element of fun to passengers that is developed across the elements of the marketing mix, it is no surprise that Southwest and WestJet have been so successful within a very challenging industry. Barney, J. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Box Office Mojo. Pixar Total Grosses.

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Chi, T. Trading in strategic resources: Necessary conditions, transaction cost problems, and choice of exchange structure.

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Lee, A. Disney and Pixar — Synergy Strategies. Selznick, P. TVA and the grass roots. Shaughnessy, H.

Natural resource economics

Szalai, G. Figure 4. Instead, a resource is strategic to the extent that it is valuable, rare, difficult to imitate, and nonsubstitutable. Resources and capabilities are the basic building blocks that organizations use to create strategies. While resources refer to what an organization owns, capabilities refer to what the organization can do. Skip to content Increase Font Size. The majority of these children are in regions of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia and within these countries, girls are at the greatest disadvantage in receiving access to education at the primary school age.

In certain areas of the world, it is more difficult for children to get to school. For example, in high-altitude areas of India, severe weather conditions for more than seven months of the year make school attendance erratic and force children to remain at home.

Although it may not be as an obvious a problem today, gender equality in education has been an issue for a long time. Currently, there is a gender discrepancy in education. High opportunity costs are often influential in the decision to attend school.

For example, according to UNICEF, an estimated million primary-school-age children are being kept out of school to work in the fields or at home. For many families in developing countries the economic benefits of no primary schooling are enough to offset the opportunity cost of attending. Education is becoming increasingly international. The most represented case is the spread of mass schooling. The system has also promoted the global rules and norms of how the school should operate and what is education.

In Europe, for example, the Socrates-Erasmus Program stimulates exchanges across European universities.

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Programs, such as the International Baccalaureate, have contributed to the internationalization of education. Some scholars argue that, regardless of whether one system is considered better or worse than another, experiencing a different way of education can often be considered to be the most important, enriching element of an international learning experience.

Education Index : Countries fall into three broad categories based on their Education Index: high, medium, and low human development. Skip to main content. Search for:. Learning Objectives Discuss recent worldwide trends in education, including mass schooling, the emergence of secondary education in the U.

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Key Takeaways Key Points Education is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people are passed from one generation to the next. In certain areas of the world, children have difficulty getting to school. A lack of access to education is one of the primary barriers to human development. Key Terms Mass Schooling : The phenomenon that describes the rise in school attendance worldwide. Internationalization of Education : The increased emphasis on international cultural exchange in the course of education.

Education and Industrialization It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth. Learning Objectives Define education economics, human capital, human capital flight, and educational technology.

Key Takeaways Key Points In the developing world, there is economic pressure from those parents who prioritize sending their children to work to make money in the short term over any long-term benefits of education. The central idea of human capital is that undertaking education is investment in the acquisition of skills and knowledge which will increase earnings. Key Terms human capital : The stock of competencies, knowledge, social, and personality attributes, including creativity, embodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value.

Education Economics : The study of economic issues relating to education, including the demand for education and the financing and provision of education. Education and Liberty in the Developing World A lack of access to education is one of the primary limits on human development. Moreover, the authors find that aligning export channel choice with firm-level market orientation capabilities and institutional distance yields better export performance. Library Services. Land use.