Lange défiguré (Terroir) (French Edition)
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Agnam, Dieu. Bagnam, des dieux. Anje, ange. Baanje, des anges. Mvi, piquet. Ndem, signe. Mtndem, des signes. Nderk, sourcil. Ngem, queue. Ngana, histoire. Ngon, mois. Gnoul, corps. Sam, graine. Tem, branche. Loi, nombril. Mol, des nombrils. Dem, langue. Voum, endroit. Dzam, chose. Mam, des choses. Dhou, pleur. Mou, des pleurs. Dyong, articulation. Mong, des articulations. Mis, des yeux. Bial, pirogue, l'air mal. Eli, arbre. Efark, jardin. Bifark, des jardins.
Ikond, banane. B ikond, des bananes. Iki, fer. Biki, des fers. Bo, cervelle. Khouma, chef. Ngnoughe, arc-en-ciel.
King, gorge. Kinigi, terre. Mvouma, tomate. Mvoul, antilope. Njeshol, petit oiseau. Nze, tigre. Ndan, rat. Ndji, mangeur. Mokon, pied de bananier. Mour, homme. Ja, chant. Joum, chose. Bokon, des pieds de bananier. Bour, des hommes. Bia, des chants. Bioum, des choses. Mberk, auge. Mimberk, des auges. Mbiim, cadavre. Mimbiim, des cadavres. Mimpiomgom, des poissons. Ainsi que mvior, poil, mimvior des poils. Ndhiiy ou ndhou, couverture. Mindhu, des couvertures. Mindzang, des mouches.
Mais, au pluriel, on dit seulement minlou, minlon, minlo, etc. Les noms en vi font leur pluriel en changeant vi en l. Viong, antilope. Long, des antilopes. Vio, herbe avec racines. Lo, des herbes. Tous les noms en o font leur plueiel en changeant o en a. Onon, oiseau. Anon, des oiseaux. Onou, doigt. Anou, des doigts. La pratique seule peut les faire apprendre. Au pluriel, on ne met rien. Ekaba zam, mon cabri. Emour a jou, l'homme qui vole. Dans la langue fang, il y a trois classes d'adjectifs qualificatifs.
Bihna bibibierk, des fruits doux. MvOUma p. Khouma p. Nnou p. V long p. Nous donnons un tableau qui facilitera le travail. Les lettres q. On comprendra donc q. Ils sont toujours inva- riables. A ne avoul, il est vif. Ntosin bour. I, 1, 5. Mvouma id. Vionq uu. Onon id. Voir le tableau pour les accords. Etlioun cuvera, une demi-heure. Lorsque la chose se compte, on exprime demi par le nombre. Le mot entier s'exprime par ngoura. Ngoura alou, un jour entier. Ngoura ngon, un mois entier. Ashong di, dina, dine, cette dent. Nzali gni, gnina, gnine, ce fusil. Eli ji, jina, jine, cet arbre.
Bili, bi, bina, bine, ces arbres. Kliouma gni, gnine, ce roi. Btkhouma ba, bane, ces rois. Viong yu, yuna, yune, cet anti- Long di, dina, dine, ces antilo- lope. Onon yu, yuna, yune, cet oiseau. Anon di, dina, dine, ces oiseaux. Emou gni, cette personne. Ebou baie, ces personnes. Emo wam, mon enfant. Ebo bam, mes enfants. Les adjectifs possessifs varient au singulier et au pluriel, sui- vant la classe des noms auxquels ils se rapportent. Anou dam, mon. Nzali zam, mon. Eli zam, mon. Bili biam, mes. Wam, mon.
Wuia, ton. Bam, mes. Bia y tes. III, 3,q. Wuia, son. Wa, ivaza, notre. Wewa, votre. Wba, leur. Zam, mon. Zza, son. Bia, ses. Ba, baza, nos Zena, votre. Zoa, leur. Miam, mes. WuiVi, ton. Wa, waza, notre. Ma, miaza, nos VTena, votre. Mina, vos. Woa, leur. Dam, mes. Da, daza, nos. Bina, nos. Boa, leurs. Tout homme, mour mour. Signifiant tout entier, il s'exprime par ngoura. Egnou ngoure mvouri, boire tout une bouteille. Ngoura alou, tout un jour.
Quel est cet homme? Quels sont ces hommes? Anon dina a ne nza onon? Quel est cet oiseau? Quels sont ces oiseaux. Emou gnina a ne nzayong?
Anthologie des poètes français contemporains/Tome troisième
Quel est ce fusil? Ngeng nzing, quelque temps. Ils sont nombreux? Je vous rends votre canot tel quel. Egne ou gne, lui. Bie ou bize, nous. Mine, vous. II bio. IL jo. Ma, je. Wa, tu. A, il. Ba, ils. Ma y ils. Ma, II. Bia, III, 2,4,5,q. Mia, VI. IV, V, VI o. Ma, V, VI.
IV, V, VI. IL Bibien. I, 2, 3, 4. III, 2, 4, 5. I1II, 3. V, VI. Sa bie, ce n'est pas nous, etc. Akobe, Pol : celui qui parle, c'est Paul. Joum ma yen, ou dzam ma yen, ce que je vois. Emam, les miens. Edia, le tien. Emia, les tiens. Edoa, le leur. Ezam, le mien. Ezia, le tien. Ezia, le sien.
Ezoa, le leur. Ewam, le mien. Zfyia, le tien. Ewuia, le sien. Eiooa, le leur. Emoa, les leurs. Ebiam, les miens. Ebioa, les leurs. Ebam, les miens. Emiam, les miens. Emia, les siens. Emioa, les leurs. Edam, les miens. Exemples : Nza a kobe? A yi nza? Qui veut-il? IV, Y.
Ou bien par la forme passive, mais rarement. Quiconque travaille s'enrichit. Eda, d'autrui. IL Ebia. Ces pronoms se placent toujours avant les noms. Ebia bioum, le bien d'autrui. Nous nous aidons l'un l'autre. Ou Verbe. Ma iobe ou tabe, je suis. Wa tobe, tu es. A tobe, il est. Bie a tobe, nous sommes. Ba tobe, ils sont. A ngagha, il est encore.
Bie ngagha, nous sommes encore. A ne, il est. Bie ne, nous sommes. Ma mobe, je suis. Wa mobe, tu es. A mobe, il est. Bie amobe, nous sommes. Ba mobe, ils sont. A nto, il fut. O ne, tu seras. A ne, il sera. Bie ne, nous serons. Mine ne, vous serez. Mana tobe. Mana to. Ma yen, je vois. Wa yen, tu vois. A yen, il voit.
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Bie ayen, nous voyons. Mine ayen, vous voyez. Ba yen, ils voient. Nge ma yen, si je vois. Ma yiyen, je voyais. Wa yiyen, tu voyais. A yiyen, il voyait. Bi ayiyen, nous voyons. Mine ayiyen, vous voyez Ba yiyen, ils voyaient. O vagha yen, tu vis. A vagha yen, il vit. Bie vagha yen. O nga yen, tu vis. A nga yen, il vit. A yen, il a vu. Bie yen, nous avons vu.
Mine yen, vous avez vu. O kagha yen, tu eus vu. A kagha yen, il eut vu. O kagha mane yen, tu eus vu. A kagha mane yen, il eut vu. O bo o nga yen, tu avais vu. A bo a nga yen, il avait vu. Bie bo bie nga yen, nous avions vu. Mine bo mine nga yen, vous aviez vu. FUTUR l re forme. A kagha yen, quand il aura vu. Bie kagha yen, quand nous aurons vu. Mine kagha yen, quand vous aurez vu. PASSE l re forme. Eto o vagha yen, tu aurais vu. Eto q vagha yen, il aurait vu. Eto bie vagha yen, nous aurions vu. Eto mine vagha yen, vous auriez vu. Ma wouwourk, j'entendais.
Wa wourk, tu entends. Wa wouwourk, tu entendais. A wourk, il entend. A wouwourk, il entendait. Bie awourk, nous entendons. Bie awomvourk, nous entendions. Mine awourk, vous entendez. Mine awomvourk, vous entendiez. Ba wourk, ils entendent. Ba wouwourk, ils entendaient. A nga wourk, il entendit. A wougha, — il a entendu. Bie wougha, — nous avons entendu. Mine wougha, — vous avez entendu. A kagha wourk, il eut entendu.
Wougha, entendez. Wa ivoughe, que tu entendes. A ivoughe, qu'il entende. Bie awoughe, que nous entendions. Mine awoughe, que vous entendiez. Ba ivoughe, qu'ils entendent. Nge o nga wourk, que tu aies entendu. Nge a nga wourk, qu'il ait entendu. Nge bie nga ivourk, que nous ayons entendu. Nge mine nga ivourk, que vous ayez entendu. Djagha, mangez. A djark, qu'il mange. Bie adjark, que nous mangions. Mine adjark, que vous mangiez. Ba djark, qu'ils mangent. Voyez eyen pour les autres temps. Ba woughe mine, soyez entendus. Et ainsi pour tous les autres temps.
Il est mort en revenant. Je l'ai vu, je suis venu du village. Il m'aidera en venant ici. Nza akale Nza ajou. Nza dzam. Pourquoi avez-vous fait cela? Est-ce qu'il est fort? Gomment a-t-il fait cela? Ou bien par na. Comment a-t-il fait cela? Nous passons sous silence les autres interrogations.
On les trouvera dans le dictionnaire. Il a du pain. Tu as un couteau; 0 ne n'okeng. A la porte, E mbi. Abaisser, v. Abandon, Alirk ou Aligne. Abandonner, Elighe.
The Political Writings of Jean Jacques Rousseau, vol. 2 - Online Library of Liberty
Abdication, Alighe. Akoure ba koure. Ekoure eyiza khouma. Abdomen, Aboum. Abeille, Mvoufouug. Ablation, Ava ; Avaze. Aboiement, Aboum mvou; Akobe mvou. Abondamment, Abii. Abordage, Alara mal ma lara. Aboyer, Eboum. Abriter, Eshole; Ekam. Abrogation, v. Abroger, v. F comme Faim Le paradoxe: le restaurateur d'aujourd'hui nourrit des gens qui n'ont pas faim. J comme Japon Tout, dans la cuisine japonaise, me passionne. M comme Manies Je grignote. N comme Nature Avant la cuisine, il y a la nature. P comme Passion On ne fait rien de durable sans passion. S comme Survivant Survivre ne suffit pas.
T comme Transmission Il y a du compagnonnage chez les cuisiniers. Alain Ducasse en chiffres En se faisant un nom, le gascon s'est aussi construit un empire. Anne-Charlotte de Langhe. Colette Monsat. Testez vos connaissances! Le meilleur de la presse quotidienne et magazine S'inscrire.
The French had not learnt antiquity in the sixteenth century ; they seemed to recognize what they had known before. XCE antagonistic to rules, the main resistance and the hardest to break came from the pubHc ; a resistance so stubborn that it took more than a hundred years to subdue it. If the success was- decisive, the skir- mishes were hot ; for the independents, Schelandre, Cyrano, Rotrou, soldiers of la Meilleraye or of Turenne, long-sworded and high-feathered, in whom survived the fighting traditions of the Valois, were not men to submit without a word, nor to surrender their fortress without a struggle ; and their fortress was yet to be taken.
Jodelle, Garnier, Grevin, neglecting the general public, had written mainly for a public of " connoisseurs. The inexhaustible Plardy occupied the stage, producing by the hundred inco- herent, irregular, romantic plays wherein " Aristotle's rules " were violated, to say nothing of the rules of decorum, where executions, armies on the march, sieges, battles were still seen as in the old mysteries ; and the scene-shifter's art being in its infancy, recourse had to be had to the curious process of " simultaneous scenery.
DK DooK'l-. Plays being acted now within a small space, inside a closed building, " simultaneous scenery " was used. On the same canvas were painted, in summary fashion and in close juxtaposition, all the places where the events in the play were located : a forest was represented by a tree, the Lybian Mountains by a rock, Athens, Rome, or Jerusalem by a portico, with the name written above, as in the mystery mansions, as in Gozzoli's frescoes at Pisa,- as on the English stage under Elizabeth : " ' Thebes ' written in great letters upon an olde doore," said Sidney.
The public had to content itself with these symbols, which was not more difficult than to accept " foure swords and bucklers" as sufficient representatives for two armies which " flye in. See "Literary History ot the English People," p. For the second day, " you want two palaces, a peasants' house, and a wood " — the palaces of the two princely fathers, far apart though they were in reality, the peasants' hut where Favvie Perdita was brought up, and the wood where she met Doraste Florizel.
Scene-shifter Mahelot is careful to give also the list of movables necessary for the play, and they consist of " a chafing dish, a ewer, a chaplet of flowers, a flask full of wine, a cornet of incense, a thunder, some flames ; at the fourth act you must pro- vide a child, and you want also two candlesticks and some trumpets.
The general title of the MS. Vov the Cid all you want is " a room with four doors," and the list of movables contains one single article, "an armchair for the king. If, however, the English drama was ignored, every one in Paris was familiar with the Spanish drama, and the chief master of that art, Lope de Vega, had made known his views on the question of rules in the most outspoken fashion : " When I have to write a comedy," he had said in his " New Dramatic Art," , "I put all rules under lock and key; I send away from my study Plautus and Terence lest I should hear their cries.
Arber, , pp. As a soldier I speak and write. Know you that strength in the spring, not smoothness in the surface, makes a worthy lock for a good arquebuse. Sec below, p. OllS OlATORZE 77 and hours arc ofttiiiics intermingled with laughter and tears, with contentment and affliction, according as they are moved by good or by evil fortune.
AVERTISSEMENT DU CONTRAT SOCIAL.
There are scarcely any articles of that unknown and uncodified creed that did not then find some defender in France : blank verse, the use of prose in a tragedy, freedom of speech and attitudes, murders on the stage, scenes drawn from national or contemporaneous history, representation of sentiments as exalted and as low as human nature will warrant. D'LJrfe, the author of the famous " Astree," is for blank verse without rhyme. D'Urfe decides, therefore, to " clear that path as yet unexplored by us Frenchmen," and he writes a pastoral drama, where shepherds express their love in French blank verse.
II faut aymer si Ton veut cstre ayme. Other poets were of the same opinion, Chapelain especially, who would admit on the stage only prose or blank verse. Rhymed verse is, according to him, " an absurdity" in a drama, and it "oste toute la vraysemblance. Bring me the heads of his com- panions to show him how I treat his like.
The King. You have seen my cruelty only in painting ; here it is in relief, and this empty charger, to be filled, awaits your head. Thojnas Morus. O precious relics of martyred bodies! Sus, sus, muets, courez, volez, aigrissez vos courages, Aiguisez vos glaives, seigneurs, vos furiantes rages ; Or sus occiez, meurdrissez ce traitre deloial, Hautain qui m'a voulu ravir mon sceptre imperial. He is less scrupulous in his "Edouard," , where the King of England marries the Countess of Salisbury, previously entangled in the folds of this dilemma : — " Madame, c'est assez ; Ou vous estes ma Reyne ou vous m'obeissez.
Superb engravings : see, e. Sidney Lee, who, in his admirable "Life of William Shakespeare" , p. But Cyrano never knew English ; there is no serious proof of his having ever visited England the allusion in the " Etats dc la Lune " affords no such proof ; the passages quoted below recall Hamlet, to be sure, but they are much more in accordance with Seneca, and with the genius of Cyrano himself.
Speeches of this sort were not a rarity with the old French independents ; Cyrano, if he wanted models, could find as many as he pleased in his own compatriots' works. He wrote in One cannot read the lines in which the ghost of Germanicus comes to disturb Agrippina's repose in Cyrano's tragedy without remembering the royal ghost of Elsinore : — " Jgrippine.
Sanglantc ombre qui passe et repasse a mes yeux, Fantome dont le vol me poursuit en tous lieux, Tcs travaux, ton trcpas, ta lamentable histoire Rcviendront-ils sans cesse ofFenser ma mcmoirc? II vient vous consoler de sa cruelle absence. II vient, il vient plutot me demander vengeance. Sejanus remains unmoved, and expresses himself in a way that shows he has long been accustomed to face the awful problem of the dark beyond.
His gaze has been as intense as Prince Hamlet's, but his temper is quite different ; he is not a moody thinker, but a man of action, his doubts have been quickly resolved into certitudes, he is in- sensible alike to spiritual and to physical fear. Why fear? The worst is death, and death is nothing. A, Sophe, mais encor, mais qu'est ce que mourir Sinon, chez les aucuns, un perpetuel dormir r. Cela n'esc que la mort ci ii'a ricii qui m'cmcuvc. Et ccttc incertitude ou mene le trepas? Etais-je malhcureux lorsquc je n'etais pas?
Une hcure apres la mort, notrc amc evanuuie Sera ce qu'cllc ctait une heurc avant la vie. Penscz-vous m'ctonner par ce faible moyen. Par I'horrcur du tableau d'un etrc qui n'est rien r" Many other elements of the Shakespearean drama can be found in the works of those independents who did not know the English master : his graceful fancies, his realistic details in the midst of comedies that re- semble at times lyrical dramas and at other moments fairy tales ; his plots and situations, the very feel- ings of his grandest characters.
Orantee, in Rotrou's "Laure," meeting unexpectedly a "belle inconnue" at a ball, falls in love at first sight. He loves her at once and for ever, as Romeo loved Juliet when he first met her in the hall of the Capulets. Un jour done, en un bal, un seigneur. Fut-ce moi? Que mes vcux cblouis de sa premiere vuc Adorerent d'abord cette belle inconnue. I had been happy It also contains hostelry adventures worthy of Don Quixote. The scene takes place sometimes in Lisbon, sometimes elsewhere ; sometimes on a heap of stones, sometimes in the hall of a roadside inn.
The little details of everyday life are not forgotten ; the characters yawn, laugh, ask the hour, as they do in Shakespeare : — " Jc voudrais bien savoir quelle heure il pourrait etre. Ou'on m'a fait un plaisir et triste et dcplaisant, Et qu'on m'a mis en peine en me desabusant! Ou'on a blesse mon cceur en guerissant ma vue, Car enfin mon errcur me plaisait inconnue ; D'aucun trouble d'esprit je n'etais agitc Et I'abus me servait plus que la veritc. A brother suddenly appears, the lover comes in too, con- fusion is at its height ; but the wisdom of Solomon brings matters to a satisfactory conclusion.
Isabella sacrifices herself, and prefers to abandon Alonce to a rival rather than see him dead ; she is rewarded — it is she who finally marries him. Their adventures end thus " comme au theatre"; but life and the stage are very much alike. Shakespeare has said so in a famous line, "All the world's a stage. In spite of all their valiance and ardour, the inde- pendent " cadets " were not to win the day ; they were made prisoners or vanquished, obliged to dis- appear or to disguise themselves. The spirit of vagabond liberty, the taste for romanticism and picturesqueness shone, from that moment, chiefly in literary genres of lesser impor- tance, in the immense novels of the day, in La Fontaine's fables, in the " Belles au bois dormant " of Perrault, in memoirs, in the letters of Sevigne, in the opera, which had then more literary importance than now.
But the stage, properly speaking, once conquered, became immediately a hallowed place. Tragedy is capable of rules, and the taste for rules is in the air ; tragedy shall, therefore, be regular. The mere fact of being regular almost ensures success ; and this is so true that Scudery, to secure the favour of the public, talks of the rules that he follows in his unruly romances.
The defeat of the independents was inevitable, because the nation was less and less on their side. The hour had come ; the first man who should write for the general public dramas according to rule would be welcome, even if he lacked genius. He did lack genius, and he was welcomed ; he was Jean de Mairet. The critics expected and heralded him. Every one is now awake with that laudable ambition, and relinquishes Gothism after having seen what it is. The general public declared itself ; enthusiasm knew no bounds. The play was poor, but regular ; it was rapturously extolled.
Nothing better shows the real nature and the inward feeHng of that public than this prompt success. A Mairet has spoken, and, behold, all agree : here is the true way, the great art, the crowning art, the art which deserves to have care and expense lavished upon it. Ces entrees et ces sortie y. A large hall in his palace Palais-Cardinal, afterwards Palais-Royal was turned into a theatre of such magnificence that Paris had, at last, little to envy to Vicenza or Parma ; ' and the scenery used in for the performance of the famous " Mirame," a classical tragedy, written by the Cardinal in conjunction with his favourite poet, Desmarets de Saint Sorlin, might well have been designed by Palladio himself.
Toutc la lumicre consistoit d'abord en quelques chandelles dans des plaques de for blanc attachees aux tapisserics, mais. This room was allowed to Moliere's troupe when their "sallc du Petit Bourbon" was demolished in The latter had once been the hall of the hostel of the famous Connetable de Bourbon, and occupied the spot where the Jardin de I'Infante now is.
The States General of had been held there. As for Richelieu's stage, it was in a ruinous condition when Molierc took possession of it, and important repairs had to be undertaken. Mairet caused his ' Sophonisbe ' to be admired on our stage, she still holds her own ; and no more convincing proof of his merit is needed than that longevity, which may be called a forecast or rather foretaste of the immortality she assures to her illustrious author. To him genius had certainly not been denied, nor the love of liberty.
A daring genius was he, if ever such there was, enamoured like Hugo at a much later date of Spanish grandeur, deficient in suppleness and the art of management, stumbling on the threshold of doors too narrow for him. But he was not allowed to obey his inclinations; the public, dazzled though they were by the " Cid," would not have followed him, and he had to bow to their decision.
Neither the Academv, nor the Cardinal, nor Scudery could have dominated Corneille, for after all, even among the fashionable leaders of literature and the elegant refiners of speech, he had found partisans, witty and eloquent defenders of the liberties he had taken. The " Cid " is an irregular play?
But you say that he has dazzled the eyes of the world, and you accuse him of charm and enchantment. I know many people who would be vain of such an accusation. Arnaud attributes chiefly "aux puissances" the sovereignty of rules in France ; but this explanation is scarcely sufficient : in England, too, " les puissances" favoured rules, and vet rules were rejected. The resemblance to " Macbeth " is remarked upon by Voltaire in his " Commentaire " : " Ces puerilites," he says, "ne seraient pas admises aujourd'hui.
The notes in Mahelot's album for the per- formance of Corneille's plays well exemplify the change that came over the poet. The "palais a volonte " is all that is wanted for his great dramas ; for the early ones we find indications such as these : " Au milieu, il faut un palais bien orne. A un costc du theatre, un antre pour un magicien au dessus d'une montaigne ; de I'austre coste du theatre, un pare ; au premier acte une Nuict, une Lune qui marche, des rossignols, un miroir enchantc, une baguette pour le magicien, des carquans ou menottcs, des trompettes, des cornets dc papier, un chapeau de cipres pour le magicien.
See above, p. He adds : " Oue si j'ai enferme cette piece dans la regie d'un jour, ce n'est pas. Schelandre had had rules attacked in earnest by his friend Ogier in Times are changed ; Desmarets de Saint Sorlin, in , gives to the independents, as a defender, his "Visionary," the ridiculous poet Amidor, who jeers at the unities, and is meant to be laughed at by the public. With those rules, he says, the mind can embrace nothing grand ; when we have a hundred fine inventions in one play, then have we also a swarm of fine ideas : — " L'esprit avec ces lois n'embrassc rien de grand.
Dans un meme sujet cent beautes amassees Fournissent un essaim de diverses pensees, Par exemple. L'unite de lieu. Voudrcz vous pcrdrc un seul de ces riches objets? All success was for the regulars, all the " Poetical Arts " protected them. Before Boileau's appeared we have the " Pratique du Theatre" by Abbe d'Aubignac, who proclaims the sacred character of rules, dreams of theatres constructed " after the example of the ancients " - like Palladio's " Olympic Theatre " at Vicenza , and registers in solemn form Corneille's act of submission : " The stage has changed, and has per- fected itself to such a degree that one of our most celebrated authors " — printed in full in the margin, that none may ignore it, " M.
The subject had been suggested to Saint Sorlin by Richelieu ; performed with great applause, ; 2nd ed. E loi Rules and unities must be ; anything rather than violate them ; anything, even subterfuge, trickery, or falsehood. As far back, as changes of scene in a tragedy seemed to most people unsufferable ; Claveret risked some in his " Proserpine," but in fear and trembling. Fear is an evil counsellor, and this is what it induced him to say : " The scene takes place in Heaven, in Sicily and in Hades, where the imagi- nation of the reader can represent to itself a certain unity of place, by conceiving them as on a perpendicular line drawn irom Heaven to Hades.
There is no author's name on the title-page, but the publisher in his epistle to the reader declares that the play is by " M. I'Abbc Hedelin," i. Good God, I am dead; an invisible shaft has just pierced my heart. The Duke. He has no doubt lost his life. Liberty had Corneille on its side ; rules had d'Aubignac on theirs. If d'Aubignac won the day, it was, indeed, because it could not pos- sibly be lost. Mon Dieu, je suis mort, un traict invisible vient de me percer le coeur. Prompts ct merveilleux cffcts do la prediction de la Pucelle. Le 'Due. But what despot ever thinks his subjects are submissive enough?
From year to year the weight increased : so much so that even the regularity of Racine was questioned. Racine, in his turn, found himself in the position of Corneille ; all his prefaces, like Corneille's, are apologies ; even the preface to that model of regularity, " Andromaque," even the preface to a mere comedy like the " Plaideurs," part of his audience being afraid of not having laughed accord- ing to rules : " de n'avoir pas ri selon les regies.
J'avoue qu'il n'est pas assez rcsigne a la volontc de sa maitresse et que Celadon in d'Urfc's " Astree " a mieux connu que lui le parfait amour. II ctait violent de son naturel. Et tous les heros nc sont pas faits pour ctre des Celadons. The more severe they were, the cleverer they thought themselves ; so that a motley crew, in silks and laces, the Marquis Ignorance and Countess Prejudice, met at the first performances of his plays, clamouring for rules, Greek precepts, and Latin examples. The commander com- plained of the liberties taken ; the viscount declared he was shocked, and made a public exit after the second act : — " L'ignorancc ct I'crrcur, a scs naissantcs pieces, En habits do marquis, en robes dc comtesses, Venaient pour diftamer son chef-d'oeuvre nouveau.
Le commandeur voulait la scene plus exacte, Le vicomtc indigne' sortait au second actc. The ideal of his time and of all France : unity, clearness, regularity, selection, logic ; all of them qualities rare and noble, placed above all others in French estimation, but which, carried to excess, like all qualities, even the best in the world, are not without serious inconveniences and drawbacks.
One of those inconveniences consists in the difficulty of 1 Opinions of Saint-Evremond and of Donneau de Vise. Lar- roumet, "Racine," , pp. We must make a point of being exclusive, even at the risk of having it said one day " that the French, who understand the sun, are incapable of understanding the moon" Heine. No matter; moon- worship will be left to hyperborean dreamers. In tragedy, Boileau continues, " pompous verse " shall be used ; the spectator will be filled with a " gentle terror," a " charming pity" ; the poet should imitate the brook running over soft sand, " sur la molle arene," rather than the " overflowing torrent " ; there will be no enjambements or run-on lines ; regu- larity is our ideal, and great will be the enjoyment if our lines imitate the ticking of that most regular of ' On that point all agreed ; the two arch-enemies, Chapelain and Boileau, say the same thing : " Je pose done pour fondc- ment que I'imitation en tous pocmes doit estre si parfaitte qu'il ne paroisse aucune difference entre la chose imitec ct cellc qui imite.
The unities will of course be observed. The first place shall be given to love, that passion being the true way to the heart ; love : — " Est pour allcr au cceur la route la plus sure. What Boileau said the public thought, and it was not slow now to manifest its feeling if any one, great or small, showed signs of an unruly spirit. Antony kills himself on the stage in a play by Jean de la Chapelle of the Academic Francaise.
La Chapelle is of the Academic, and therefore the more guilty : " This catastrophe is new and striking," wrote the author afterwards with compunction, " but it has not been generally liked by the spectators, who cannot bring themselves to accept the sight of blood on the stage," 1 The characters, it is said, are natural ; but according to I It Frcrcs Parfaict," xii. Can anything be more natural? Let your conclusion be abrupt and simple ; resort, when you can, to the effective means of a suddenly revealed secret : — " D'lin secret tout ii coup la vcritc coniuic," will bring about a prompt and interesting ending.
On examining closely this ideal, which was that of all thinking France, one is struck with the real gran- deur that appears amidst so many puerilities. This nature, which should be observed unceasingly, must also be restrained ; at that cost only is she worthy of constant study ; man must overcome himself. The share of picturesqueness in life and art will be diminished : for if we act according to rules our deeds will have nothing unexpected ; but the share of noble- ness will be augmented.
The dresses worn under Louis Quatorze scarcely allow their wearers to roll on the grass, to fall prostrate on carpets, or even, in the agonies of remorse, on the steps of a church. Man is magnified by the ideas of the time ; ' La Bruycrc, " Caractcrcs," " Dcs omragcs dc I'csprit," He must possess himself even in moments of passion, even in his poetical trans- ports ; otherwise he lowers his nature, he approaches to madness, and the beauty of his outbursts can never compensate for the danger of them.
The best minds acquire thus something chastened and austere which greatly surprises the strangers who visit France at that time. Et je croy que cette humeur de faire des vers vient d'une forte agitation des esprits animaux qui pourroit entierement troubler I'imagination de ceux qui n'ont pas le cerveau bien rassis, mais qui ne fait qu'echauffer un peu plus les fermes et les disposer a la poesie. MK Al. Sins of this sort are the more fearful, that they are ever living, because those books do not perish.
Ainsi tout le dessein d'un poete, toute la fin de son travail, c'est qu'on soit commc son hcros epris des belles personnes, qu'on les serve commc des divinitcs ; en un mot qu'on Icur sacrifie tout, si ce n'est peut ctre la gloire dont I'amour est plus dangcrcu. Y que celui de la beautc mcme. Let us, it was said, beware of the dangers of the stage " where everything seems real, where we are shown not lifeless sketches and dry colours, but living personages, real eyes, ardent or tender, steeped in pas- sion ; real tears, that draw tears as real from those who look on ; in a word, real passions which inflame the whole audience, pit and boxes.
Unity, logic, rule, selection. The government tends towards centralisation ; religion " rules even desires and thoughts " ; 2 the possibiUty of two religions could only have been considered in an age of confusion ; the sixteenth century ended with the edict of Nantes, the ' " Maximes et reflexions sur la Comedie," , " CEuvres Completes," Bar-le-Duc, , vol.
Compare the testi- mony of the actor Mondory, who writes to Balzac in a tone of triumph, justifying the apprehensions of Bossuet : " Le Cid est si beau qu'il a donne de I'amour aux dames les plus continentes, dont la passion a meme plusieurs fois delate au theatre public " January 18, ; and with the testimony of Boileau on the subject of Lulli :— " De quel air penses-tu que ta sainte verra D'un spectacle enchanteur la pompe harmonieuse. Et tons ces lieux communs de morale lubrique Que Lulli rechauffa des sons de sa musiquc? Fine, regular, straight avenues are drawn across the parks ; the language, like the parks, is trimmed, cleansed, and chastened ; the Academy prunes it of all those technical terms formerly praised by Ronsard and Malherbe, who wanted a language both rich and strong ; now it is wanted above all noble and dignified.
Old words, " les vieux mots," are excluded from the great national vocabulary ; also new ones, " nouvellement inventes " ; also " terms of art and science " ; also expressions of anger or offensive to modesty — " les termes d'emportement ou qui blessent la pudeur. The word " esso? What place could be found in the favour of a public thus formed, for an author who accepts words of all sorts, old or new, lewd, technical, choleric, or learned ; every sentiment and every idea, and far from attenu- ' " Diciioniiairc dc rAcadcmic.
A place all the smaller from the fact that the subjects of the " Grand roi," particularly at the beginning of his reign, knew scarcely more English than those of his grandfather, Henri IV,, and in the matter of foreign tongues continued to take interest only in Spanish and Italian.! Madame de Sevigne never ceased to cultivate the latter ; she wrote to her daughter : " Et I'italien, I'oubliez - vous?
J'en lis toujours un peu pour entretenir noblesse. You will find in Spanish authors subjects which, treated ac- cording to our tastes by hands like yours, would produce great effects. Learn their language ; it is easy ; I am ready to show you what I know of it, and until you are able to read for yourself, to translate a few passages from Guillem de Castro.
England, and the English, figure occasion- ally in his works ; a land and people convenient, because distant and unknown. In , he bought at auction in Rouen, " un Dante italicn, in folio, i 2 livrcs. Later he is interested in England, but as royal historiographer. The same love of accuracy that made him ask the French Ambassador to Turkey for information on Greece and the fields where Troy had been,' made him seize the opportunity of a meet- ing with " Monsieur Arbert " at the English Ambas- sador's, to acquire knowledge about England.
On coming home he took notes which we still possess, but they bear solely on economic questions and on the militia; "la milice d'Angleterre appelee trainbans. Racine possessed the "Histoire d'Angleterre " of Du Chesne, , a few historical works translated from the English, but none in English. Sec Bonnefon, "Revue d'Hist. E IK Boilc:ui, who corresponded with Hamilton and Gramont, recommends to PVench poets the knowledge of foreign lore : " Des pays etrangers etudiez les mcEurs " ; and he immediately refers his readers to " antique Italy.
Addison visited Boileau in , and found him old and a little deaf, but " talking incomparably well in his own calling ; he heartily hates an ill poet. Howell instructed his " forreine traveller " to learn it first of ' Addison to Bishop Hough, Lyons, December, , "Works," ed. According to Tickcll, he showed Boileau some verses of his own, hut thev were Latin verses.
The translators wondered at their own audacity, and could not conceal their surprise. Monval, , p. This favour continued during the eighteenth century, as is shown by the subject proposed for competition by the Berlin Academy: " De I'Universalite de la Langue Fran9aise," Rivarol, " CEuvres," , vol. See below, p. E The two translators, Baudoin and Genevieve Chappelain, who had departed secretly on their incredible voyage of discovery, meeting on the same shore, looked at each other with stupefaction. Fury seized them ; they loudly " bawled," to use their own expression, and sent each other challenges, persistently renewed as each successive volume of their translations was given to the world.
The unwary traveller could read in ' "Caractcrcs dc vcrtus ct dc vices tires dc I'anglois dc M. The attribution to Tourval is doubtful. No copy of French "Pierce" has vet been found. The translation by Mademoiselle Chap- pelain began to come out in , 3 vols. Cominges, under Louis XIV,, called a street " rue Rose Street," without sus- pecting that "rue" and "street" meant the same thing ; the Comte de Broglie, in the following century, described a curious ceremony at Court which he called a " drerum.
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But because they are mostly written in the English tongue, we have been unable heretofore to give an account of them in this Journal. But we have at last found an English interpreter, by whose means we shall be able in future to enrich it with everything worthy of attention produced in England," It needs must come to that, since the English persist in using their own language, causing thereby real grief ' " Les voyages de M.
OriS Or. E IJ3 to the learned o other countries: ''I'he li,nglish are very clever people," said Ancillon, " their works are nearly all good, and many are excellent. It is a pity that the authors of that country write only in their own language, since by that means foreigners, for want of understanding them, cannot profit by their works, or if they read them it is only in transla- tions, for the most part faulty.
Those who appeared in the island, knowing neither the language nor the manners, generally returned greatly dissatisfied with their venture, and the tales they told of it did not encourage others to repeat the experiment. Boisrobert, the dramatist and the familiar of Richelieu, went there, but quarrelled with Lord Holland ; Voiture went and visited the Tower, but, as became the amiable letter-writer, he scarcely tried to remember anything except the Countess of Carlisle's beauty.
Soon, moreover, all Europe was seized with horror at the sight of the unexampled disorders and catas- trophes of which the country became the scene : a king brought to trial by his people, and beheaded, a republic proclaimed, a new era inaugurated in the midst of royalist Europe, dating from the first " yeare of freedome by Gods blessing restored.
Ancillon," Bale, , 3 vols. XCE who was then very young, and ah-eady thought he could " pnidarise," addressed poetical imprecations to Cromwell. I Perlin's predictions had come to pass ; the English had indeed killed and crucified their king. The author of " Moise," Boileau's future victim, Saint-Amant, whose father held for many years a maritime command in the fleet of Queen Elizabeth,- visited England in , and in This is, however, the first noteworthy attempt made by any French man of letters to describe English manners.
The English he considers to be now republicans to the core. He visited Africa, America, and most countries in Europe. His father, the seaman, was three years a captive in the Black Tower in Constantinople ; one of his brothers fought in Germany, another was killed in the Red Sea. Claim que par quclquc attentat, Ouc par quclquc moycn oblique, Fairfax n'aille du moins rcnverscr son ctat Pour en faire unc Rcpuhliquc. The Englishman is — " Si fait a la pcndaison Ou'au premier mal qu'il se forge, II se pcsc par la gorge Aux poutres de sa maison : " an ever-recurring reproach, repeated by every one, including La Fontaine, who says of the English —.
XCE The food is detestable ; the English are known to brew unpalatable mixtures : — " Marier dans leurs pates La confiture a la graisse. What literature can they have ; or rather, what judgment could be passed upon it by a visitor so ill-disposed, and, moreover, ignorant of the language? To Saint- Amant, as to so many others before and even after him, this language is a patois that no one out of the island will ever speak ; peasants' patois rarely spreads beyond its village. Any Englishman knows as much : — " 11 est bien assez macois Pour jugcr que cc patois, Bourru, vilain et frivole, Est un oiseau qui ne vole Ou'aux environs dc ses toits," The traveller could not, however, help noticing that the English had a stage, that they were very proud of it, that they went in crowds to the play, and that one author in particular carried all before him.
That author was not Shakespeare, of whom Saint-Amant says never a word, but Ben Jonson, still ahve at the time of the French poet's visit, and compared with whom, according to local estimation, Seneca and Euripides were mere babbling poetasters. The Englishman — " Actors come in before their turn, they mistake their words, and do not know what to do with their hands : — Ici I'un trop tot se montre, Et la, I'autre, rebondi, D'un contre-temps ctourdi, Heurte I'autre qu'il rencontre ; L'un disant Goths pour Romains, Ou les dieux pour les humains, Rougit comme unc ccrevisse, Et I'autre simple et novice Ne sait ou mettrc ses mains.
In their interludes they dare —. L'un crie en saignant : Je meurs! Et si Ton n'occit personne. Les feintes, les faux combats Font trembler et haut et bas Le cceur du sexe imbecile, Qui laisse oeuvre et domicile Pour jouir de ces ebats. L'une voyant I'escarmouche, En redoute le progres ; L'autre oyant de beaux regrets, Pleure s'essuye et se mouche ; L'autre. Gabant vainqueur et vaincu, Gruge quelque friandise Mere, fille, tante et niece, Bourgeois, nobles, artisans, Voudraient que de deux cents ans Nc s'achevat une piece.
He did not publish it, but it gives us an idea of the way in which, on his return to Paris, he must have described iMigHsh manners, literature, and drama in his conversations with his lettered friends. In his '' Kidele conducteur pour le voyage d'Angleterre," printed in Paris in ,- Coulon warns the reader that this island " used to be the dwelling-place of angels and saints, and is now the hell of demons and parricides.
But for all that its nature has not changed ; it is still in its place. The land called "Buquhan" in Scotland deserves a visit: "No rat comes to life in this province, and if one is ' "Albion, caprice hcroT - coniiquc " ; " CEuvrcs Completes," cd. Livet, Paris, , 2 vols. He joined the Court at Oxford, a town whose name means, he explained, " le fort des boeufs " the fortress of the oxen , p. Birds also are found in this place called clayks, whose birth is wonderful in this, that they are produced by trees growing by the seashore. They grow like fruits, and they fall into the sea when ripe, so that branches are to be seen loaded with those imperfect produce, some of which have only their beak and head grown into shape, others half their body finished, while some others, ready to swim or fly, hang to the tree only by a little thread, and the same being broken they swim and fly like ducks.
A change began to be seen shortly after the Restora- tion. The Civil War had forced many English writers to make prolonged stays in France ; most of the Cavalier poets had come there ; such men as Waller, Cowley, and Lovelace. Sorbieres had formed in Paris a friendship with the famous Hobbes, and that friend- ship brought about a journey to London, of which we possess the curious narrative.
Charles II. Actors and actresses came in numbers, and were particularly well received. The impressions brought back by travellers were pleasanter ; the land no longer seemed so very " northern," nor the language so barbarous. That literature of which Saint-Amant had spoken so disparagingly, making an exception, as usual, in favour of Bacon alone, began to arouse a certain amount of curiosity. The example came from above ; it was given by the king himself.
I have related elsewhere the anecdote taken from the papers of Cominges. The time for histories of English Literature in five volumes had not yet come.
A comme Aéroport
We must note, however, this new curiosity concerning English letters which begins now, and will spread more and more. Costar, in his " Memoires des gens de lettres des pays etrangers," names, among the poets, only one Englishman, Milton ; and even then he merely remarks that he would doubtless have done better to class him " au nombre des S9avans. Desmolets, , vol. Tsar composed four despatches at once on four different subjects, wrote La P'ontainc to the duchess: "You have nothing to envy him on that score ; and I remember that one morning, while reading some verses to you, I found you at the same time attentive to my reading and to three quarrels of animals.