Constitución Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (1824) (Spanish Edition)
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This image may not be in the public domain in these countries, which moreover do not implement the rule of the shorter term. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. File information. Structured data. Captions English Add a one-line explanation of what this file represents. Summary [ edit ] Description Articulos 1 al 3 Constitucion The following page uses this file: Constitution of Mexico.
Since that body was perceived as subservient to the legislature, neither the provinces nor the Second Constituent Congress bothered to appoint a new executive. The authors of the Acta Constitutiva, however, proposed in Article 16 that executive power be conferred "on an individual with the title of president of the Mexican Federation, who must be a citizen by birth of said federation and have attained at least thirty-five years of age".
Ramos Arizpe proposed that the president govern with the aid of a council of government. But that was not sufficient to mollify the opposition, which had the majority in congress. The opponents of a single executive presented several counter-proposals. Demetrio Castillo of Oaxaca suggested that a president, a vice-president and an alternate, called designee, should govern. Each would have a vote, but the president would cast the deciding one.
Guridi y Alcocer proposed that the executive power be conferred on two persons. He argued that the best solution was to merge the experiences of ancient Rome, Spain, and the United States. Therefore, he urged that the two members of the executive power be backed by two alternates, who might resolve any differences that arose between the two members of the executive.
Article 16 of the Acta Constitutiva was put to a vote on 2 January at an extraordinary session. It was defeated by a vote of 42 to As a result, the congress did not address Article 17, which dealt with the vice-president. The proposal to establish a president and a vice-president was one of the few instances in which the second constitution of the United States served as a model. The majority did not agree with the proposal because it feared the possibility of one individual dominating Congress through military or popular forces, as Iturbide had done. The commission on the constitution revised the articles on the executive a number of times, but could not obtain support for its proposals.
The fear of provincial disorder also influenced the debate. After Articles 5 and 6 of the Acta Constitutiva had been approved, several provinces decided to implement their right to form their own government. The national administration viewed their actions with concern, particularly because some movements were also anti-European Spaniards.
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A similar uprising occurred later in Cuernavaca. In both instances, the national government sent forces to restore order. Then, on 23 December, Puebla declared itself a sovereign, free, and independent state. The forces of the national government approached the capital city of Puebla at the end of December The Poblanos agreed. The convocatoria was received in Puebla on 12 January Elections were held throughout the province and a new state government was inaugurated on 22 March The rebels demanded the dismissal of Spaniards from government jobs and their expulsion from the country.
Lobato managed to win support of the garrisons in the capital and the government seemed on the verge of capitulation when the Supreme Executive Power convinced Congress to declare Lobato an outlaw and to grant the executive sufficient power to quell the rebellion.
As a result of the crisis, the majority in Congress eventually decided to establish an executive branch composed of a president and a vice-president. The creation of a single executive, however, did not mean that Congress had accepted a strong presidency. Most Mexicans continued to favour legislative supremacy. The Mexican charter, like the Hispanic constitution, severely restricted the power of the chief executive. The Constitution of created a quasi-parliamentary system in which the ministers of state answered to the congress. Consequently, the minister of interior and foreign relations acted as a quasi-prime minister.
Constitución de 1824
The creation of a national government did not end the tensions between the provinces and Mexico City. The debate over the location of the country's capital sparked a new conflict. The national elite favoured making the "Imperial City of Mexico" the capital of the republic. The regional elites were divided. During , while discussing the importance of local control, they also emphasised the need to maintain a "centre of unity", that is, a capital.
However, a significant number pointedly refused to bestow that honour upon Mexico City. After a heated debate, Congress rejected the proposal to move the capital from Mexico City. Thereafter, the discussion centred on whether or not a federal district should be created. The ayuntamiento and the provincial deputation of Mexico were vehemently against such action. Indeed, the provincial legislature threatened secession and civil war if Mexico City were federalised. After months of debate, Congress ratified the constitution, on 4 October The new charter affirmed that:.
Article 3: The religion of the Mexican nation is and will permanently be the Roman, Catholic , Apostolic [religion].
The nation protects her with wise and just laws and prohibits the exercise of any other [religion]. Article 4. The Mexican nation adopts for its government a representative, popular, federal republic. Article 5. A constitutional law will determine the status of Tlaxcala. Article The supreme executive power of the federation is deposited in only one individual who shall be called President of the United States of Mexico Estados Unidos Mexicanos. There will also be a vice president who, in case of the physical or moral incapacity of the president, will receive all his authority and prerogatives.
Like the Acta Constitutiva, the Constitution of was modelled on the Hispanic Constitution of , not, as is often asserted, on the U. Constitution of Although superficially similar to the second U. Charter, and although it adopted a few practical applications from the U.
Beyond the restrictive consensus: elections in Mexico ()
Constitution, such as the executive, the Mexican document was based primarily on Hispanic constitutional and legal precedents. For example, although the Constitution of created a president, in Mexico the office was subordinate to the legislature. Since the Mexican republic was essentially confederalist rather than federalist, the Mexican Charter was closer in spirit to the U. Both the Hispanic Constitution of and the Mexican Constitution of established powerful legislatures and weak executives. But it would be an error to consider the Constitution of a mere copy of the document.
The principal innovations—republicanism, federalism, and a presidency—were adopted to address Mexico's new reality. Federalism arose naturally from Mexico's earlier political experience. However, unlike the document, the Mexican charter gave the states significant taxing power. Although modelled on the Hispanic Constitution of , the new charter did not address a number of issues included in the earlier document because the new Mexican federation shared sovereignty between the national government and the states.
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