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I hope that explained it better. Just forget "time yoked. Our maze is black, and I have problem to find non-toxic black paint for it in Turkey. Technic team recomended powder wall paint, but I am sure it can be toxical for the animals and interfere with our results.
I would appreciate any help. I used non-toxic white paint.
There is no need for the color of the paint to match the color of the water maze. Just make sure your tracker only measures the actual filled area. The best option is to use powdered milk. It will stink after a few days, but it is cheap and definitely not toxic. I would definitely not use powdered wall paint. It can dry and coat the animals eyes. The tempera paint we use is basically paint for kids - as not toxic as can be.
I have also seen people Bryan Kolb, most notably use tiny poly styrene beads. So just have a layer of that cover the pool. I hope that information helped. Please let me know if I can be of more assistance. Thing is, our tracking system detector is designed to see contrast in colors Noldus, Ethovision , that's why I assumed water should be black as we are planning to use Sprague Dawley rats for experiments. Paint for kids is good idea and should be easy to find.
Thank you for now, will come with more questions soon.
In our labs, we used space cues around the pool, in this video, is there any space cues? Reason being is that the room is already filled with many distinctive cues, and rats do not see colors all that well because they are dichromatic. I have always made sure to have enough cues in the room distinctive features that enable the establishment of a spatial map. If space cues refers to something else, please let me know. I may just not be familiar with your terminology. But if you mean perform the water maze in the dark, then no - definitely not.
Rats have a pretty average to poor sense of vision as it is. Take away lights and they would not be able to effectively make the spatial map of the room. Many stress tests employ a bright light that animals tend to stay away from. And some social interaction and sex behavior paradigms are performed in the dark. But not the water maze. Hi Prof.
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Nupez video is very under standing. I have one small basic question. Can we use this test on P14 mice. If not from how many months of mice born I can apply this test. Thanking you in anticipation Ramesh. I have used the test on PN 15 rats. While a little bigger than PN 14 mice, I made a few modifications. I did the testing in a kiddie pool as opposed to my big water maze. I dried them over very, very well between all trials. And the maximum trial length I changed to 30 seconds. They do not learn so well, but it did work. I have had good success with 30 day old rats. But my protocol will work with PN 14 mice.
Have a great day Ramesh. If using two rats species the Long-Evans which are white and black and Sprague-Dawley which are white what is the best color to use for the water maze? Has anyone tried something like a pastel color? What would be a good choice? We have done both, just not at the same time.
Our LE colony got pinworn so we worked with SD for a bit. Most tracking programs work off of contrast - between the animal and the water. So when we worked with SD, we put a rather big spot of black tempera paint on their backs or heads on the first day of testing. It is water soluble so it would come off by the end of the week of testing. I have never heard of anyone doing pastel colored water. Styrene beads. The magnetic field. Many impedance measures have spatial structure of the water molecule is of tetra- been realized, while a little attention has been giv- hedral geometry, with the O atom at the center of en to the potential, perhaps due to the scarce relia- the tetrahedron Fig.
Our idea is to exploit the high resolving power of APEC to test not only aqueous solutions im- pedance, but also the potential; not only when aqueous solutions are submitted to an external magnetic field, but under the influence of a specific drug at a very low concentration.
В Киеве ливень затопил музей памяти жертв Голодомора
The further step would be to detect, in a collaboration with Physi- cians, the impedance response of a patient who has been given that drug at that concentration level, to be compared with the same response in absence of the drug assumption. A not negligible part of the article regards "water tests" linked to "water memory" experi- Figure 1: Spatial structure of water ments.
Starting just from a comparison be- erties that are still termed "abnormal" because of tween tap water and stimulated tap water, the pos- the inability to fully explain them even today. In theory, would exist. Fortu- Within the range of environmental tempera- nately for living beings is not so. Instead, when water gels, its specific heat Most of the models proposed to explain the drops to a value equal to half that of liquid water, peculiar properties of water start from the study of therefore, by supplying energy to liquid water, only an isolated water molecule, then extend its charac- half of this energy is spent to raise the temperature, teristics and behaviors to the water molecules the remainder is stored in the mass of the liquid.
Each model aims to predict the be- This property causes the water to absorb and havior of water in its three aggregation states and give heat very slowly, and this peculiarity is also subsequently verify its compatibility with experi- crucial for life on Earth. In fact, living beings are mental chemical-physical properties. None of the water models slowly from the tropical regions towards the cold proposed to date, based on short-range forces, is ones of the poles. All these mechanisms have made able to describe satisfactorily the "abnormal" chemi- possible the development of life on Earth and con- cal-physical behavior of water.
It has been observed experimentally Dielectric constant. It gives a measure of the force that vent and also a dissociating agent. In the water, obstructs the sliding of the molecules with respect due to the high dielectric constant, there is a loos- to each other, is linked to intermolecular forces ening of the bonds between the molecules dis- and depends on temperature and pressure: general- solved therein and therefore thermal agitation is ly decreases as temperature rises and decreases in sufficient to ionize them; by this way, liquid water pressure.
The viscosity of the water decreases as the is richer in electrolytes, thus enabling all vital pro- temperature rises, as expected, but increases as the cesses. Eventually, tissues and organs with high pressure decreases. In more detail: for liquid water water content are in a state of ionization.
Magnetic properties and the "memory" of pressure the abnormal trend ceases and the viscosi- water ty begins to increase. This is one of the characteristics of water We below list a set of properties, on which that allows life on Earth; let's just think of surfac- there is a debate and are not recognized by a great es of frozen water, where the ice is above and be- part of academic scientists: low the biological activities in the liquid water are Water flowing in a pipe, sited in the magnetic continuing.
Generally, the smaller the molecules nisms. Encouraged by the public support of ly the magnetic memory of water. Brian Josephson, a physicist Nobel laureate, Ben- It may be useful to recall a very brief story veniste continued his experiments along the same about the scientific path that preceded that con- basic lines, culminating with a paper claiming the troversy, starting from the pioneering works of effect could be transmitted over phone lines ; Giorgio Piccardi at the end of the Thirties.
After this was followed by another paper on electronical- studying the precipitation of various substances in ly remote-transmission . By virtue of this action, water becomes elaborated theories about the peculiar structures of "activated" in two different configurations: "T", water, which are supposed to be capable of retain- less viscous than normal water; "R", more viscous, ing information on its conformation in a stable with different precipitation effects [1—3].
Activa- manner. Their model and theories have already tion modifies also biological properties of water been directly presented by one of us, or in any case and, in this way, biological processes in living sys- reported, in "Cosmos and Biosphere" Conferences tems . In successive experiments, aimed to see [15—18]. Water in the cells from external environment, mainly from solar fluctuations, were able to induce a change of state The cell consists mainly of water, as well as the in solutions [5, 6].
In late Fifties Piccardi docu- interstitial fluid, the electrolytic solution in direct mented with a series of experiments the action of contact with cells that is responsible for their nour- low frequency electromagnetic fields on water. He ishment and purification.
The charges at the two sur- noted that water treated with electromagnetic faces delimiting the cell membrane are not balanced, fields of 10 kHz frequency was activated and thus generating a difference in potential.
Within a cell showed a clear decrease in surface tension [7, 8]. Since Benveniste was a recognized immunolo- was exactly the special structure supposed for the gist and head of the INSERM Unit immu- biologic water micro-trabecular structure. He nology, allergy, and inflammation , the French Na- thought that endogenous electromagnetic fields tional Institute of Health and Medical Research, exist in all living systems and they are responsible the results of that paper gave rise to an interna- for long-range cell communication .
Living tional controversy. A journalist coined the term systems are open, nonlinear, far from the thermo- "water memory" because in the Benveniste's exper- dynamic equilibrium and very highly organized. Thus, a conclusion to draw out was contribute to maintain all these characteristics.
Time later, in the nineties, after latter, filaments that make up the cytoskeleton, studying further biological effects in presence of a are dipolar structures subjected to oscillations and magnetic field , Benveniste asserted that this are aligned with mitochondria during the inter- "memory" could be digitized, transmitted, and re- phase. As a result of the hypothesized nonlinear be postulated in all living systems. Biological and clinical implication of water base of many current hypotheses on the nature and dynamics changes behavior of cellular water, hereafter shortly re- called.
The question is actually "bulk water", or as ordinary water. Ordinary water without a clear answer while the main part of sci- is located in the aqueous compartments of the entific and medical Community thinks and wrote cell, then in the cytosol, in the nucleus, and within that water dynamics is no stable and is dominated the cytoplasmic organelles.
Generally, Philip Ball perhaps also a greater percentage than that held wrote: "Water molecules associate by means of weak up to now — is called "bound water" or primary chemical bonds called hydrogen bonds. Although in hydration, primary hydration water, ordered wa- the main they form and break on timescales of about ter. Bound water is near the surface of free ions, a trillionth of a second, nonetheless they seem to offer metabolites, macromolecules and structural com- a vague possibility that water might form clusters of ponents of the cell and shows different properties molecules with specific shapes and behaviors" .
In the "ordered water" there is a charge sepa- tem of humans is somewhat intuitive. Billions of ration — let's recall the peculiar properties due to cell work together simultaneously and it couldn't the electronegativity difference between hydrogen possible without a structure of coordination and a and oxygen — and this separation generates layers great order inside of human body.
If a somewhat of coherence domains, explainable with quantum mechanistic comparison is allowed, the ferromag- mechanics. The coherence domains are formed netic materials would not be such if they did not around structures with hydrophilic surfaces, in- have highly ordered domains inside them, the Weiss regions.
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We can look at diseases as a factor cluding microtubules and mitochondria, and, out- introducing a certain degree of disorder into the side the cell, they can have macroscopic dimen- human body, in this sense they cause increase in sions and properties similar to a gel. In a cell, co- entropy in biological systems, and in their pre- herence domains are formed because of electro- dominant medium, the water. We can conjecture static field of mitochondria and are subjected to that a good method to detect a disease, and how electromagnetic fields produced by microtubules.
The energy of a molecule in a co- In fact, it is well known and the whole Voll's herent state is lower than in the incoherent state, practice witnesses that Chinese medicine corre- and this "energy gap" can be seen as generating a lates those points of skin with internal organs of coherent state. The plausibility of this framework is such that In fact, correspondingly to those points — we often refer to it even if we don't know any ex- about two thousand and half, of which only few on perimental measure that directly shows the existence the hands — the cutaneous resistance is lower than of those domains.
EAV is a diagnosis sistance up to , Ohm . Each of these persons Over last sixty years, Voll and many other sci- was individually subjected to three measures in entists hypothesized that human body could be sunny weather and three measures in cloudy seen as an electrical system, endowed with electric weather; all the obtained values for the two circuitry, and that the values of the Skin Electric weather conditions were reported in a table, or- Parameters SEP could be connected with the dered following a non decreasing trend, that is, at health status performance and pathophysiological the first places 1,2 persons with the smaller val- processes, as inflammations, pain, allergy, gastroin- ues of SU, in the second places 3, General measurements on with greater SU values and so on.
The three meridians have highlighted in subjects, mainly af- groups of measures for each of the two weather fected by meteoropathies but also by other pathol- conditions, represented by dotted lines blue, red ogies, that the electrical resistance was averagely and yellow, exhibited an interesting homogeneity increasing up to 43 Scale Units SU of SEP, cor- of behavior  see Fig. In Fig. In ordinates is to 50 SU, corresponding to 95, Ohm. This level represented the Scale Units, from 0 to , that was presented as an equilibrium value for human are correlated to the resistance in Ohm on the health, so that many efforts by doctors using EAV right of the table.
Increasing of conductivity in human bioelectrical system, an objective that can be achieved by means of many therapeutic tools as drugs all kind , magnetotherapy, SPA therapy, climatotherapy etc. The latter papers will be men- sistance, gives rise to electric impedance. In In this linear approximation, aimed at not to this latter way one partially loses the completeness burden understanding with technicality, it is possi- of information linked to acupuncture in Chinese ble to give a role to a very simple but fundamental points, but gains in the reliability of diagnosis when law of electricity, the Ohm's law, that linearly links one is not expert in Chinese medicine.
By virtue of a software installed in- where V is the difference of potential or tension side the device, it can be immediately provided an at the ends of a conductor; R is a characteristic of analysis in frequency — the spectrum associated to the material the conductor is made of, the re- the skin potential curve — that, in the region of sistance, and i is the current intensity that flows in the conductor by virtue of the applied V. In the ]0. This kind of measure is a mere increased, where V is the tension applied to those registration of signals emitted by our body, like an two points, like is usual when EAV measurements, ECG or EEG, and not a response to an electric for a small value of the stimulating tension V, are stimulation, as happens in all measurements of performed.
To a greater current intensity corre- impedance, with applications obviously easier sponds a greater value of bioelectric power W, than those measures that request specific approval that, in this simplified scheme, is given by or protocol. On the apy. Hence, the paradigm: It's the dose that makes other hand, bioelectric power in the body districts, the drug, may not be universal.
In the experi- power, pain, inflammation, allergy, dyspnea, etc. Only Today we prefer to speak of impedance, be- one Nimesulide was able to improve clinical cause a pure resistance is one of the limit concepts condition, in particular reduction of pain. This kind of comparison izing the wave propagation of electromagnetic could be used for the choice of FANS, gastropro- fields. Many theoretical Physicists — Bohm, Aha- tector, antistaminic etc. It is an intriguing possibility, we are work- tance 1.
How is it possible a kind of drug ing on it, that the vector potential A be the "di- action that is not an exaggeration to define as an rector" of non chemical drug action at distance; it "action at distance"? An analysis of this fact im- could theoretically explain many problems, like plies a lot of caution, it was the hitch that obliged that represented in Fig. Physics, that led to the field equations of General All this reasoning underlines that we are in a Relativity.
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Among other important things, the lat- kind of "excess" of theory and models with respect ter theory gives the right answer to why Earth to available experimental data. It is one of our goes around the Sun; in fact, this astronomical goals to begin balancing this situation, that could motion cannot be explained in terms of Newton's provoke some justified criticism, with a program of universal gravitation law precisely because this experimental measurements, some of whose are kind of immediate action, at distance, should have briefly sketched in the following section. Thinking about it, the nimesulide of or food without chemical interactions could be our experiment is sited at a distance like that of able to induce change in cells is to investigate if Earth-Sun, with respect to the scale of the cells some of those effects can be interpreted in terms on which it acts.
The context of this re- concerned the same criticism of Einstein versus search approach is the so-called quantum chemis- gravitation law, there is another function, besides try, in which we are trying to move a few steps. This is a recurring problem in scientific researches and is the case of A two-fold possibility of research is open mentioning again Giorgio Piccardi, because he was ahead of us: clinical tests, "water tests". Let's sketch afraid that many his experiments on the activation a draft. This device experiment. A witness of this concern is the subject is equipped with a high resolving power, able to of the last paper he wrote with Carmen Capel— record the smallest variations of the measured Boute .
Our idea is to test biological or or- ble results than the traditional ones such as those ganic aqueous solutions at a very low level of reported in references, but also to perform preco- concentration, measuring their electric properties cious diagnoses through the applications of ordi- like potential and impedance, not only when nary electrodes to the skin areas sensible to detect: submitted to an external magnetic field; better, gastrointestinal diseases , premonitory signals under the influence of a specific drug at a very of breast cancers  or female genital disturbs .
Further experimental measures could confirm these To this aim, we remember that the potential results and extend EC analysis to other patholo- and impedance measures by APEC maintain gies. These researches need of a collaboration with a rigorous sense also when not applied to the EC clinical structures and doctors interested and willing parameters, as, i. Thus, we are aqueous solutions; besides the device has an op- not able, now, to schedule time and steps of re- erational range that allows analyzing the micro search.
A compari- Another kind of clinical application is to son between a not exposed cell culture with the measure the quantity and the characteristics of the treated one with a specific pharmaceutical at a overall water contained in the body, as it is possi- very low concentration is achievable, almost ble to do by APEC , as a test of health status; immediately, in terms of the change of color of and to remark the variations of body water under the culture through a gamma extending to the the assumption of a specific drug.
This test has, color of the cell apoptosis. The further step is to detect the im- reliability of experimental results. Moreover, EIS pedance response of a patient who has been giv- "philosophy" doesn't take in account a significant en that drug at that concentration level, to be parameter, the potential, on whose measure can compared with the same response in absence of base reliable comparisons between stimulated and the drug assumption. This kind of research postulates a partnership Thus, it appears to us useful to integrate the among bio-physicists and clinicians.
Benveniste's biology exper- rectly measuring their potential and analyzing the iments have suggested the existence of molecular- corresponding frequency spectrum. Despite its high like effects without molecules "memory of water" resolving power, APEC is relatively easy to be , . The authors assert that the need for more at the hand. Another experiment, led by Livio Giuliani, ner, between water and water that has been stimu- seems to confirm, at a first step, the Montagnier's lated — we have carried out a first set of measure- results, thus supporting a new diagnostic perspec- ments of potential of tap water and treated tap wa- tive to the development of highly sensitive detec- ter by an alternating magnetic field at 50 Hz and tion system for chronic bacterial infections in hu- The comparison between man and animal diseases, since in the genomic the frequency spectrum for the two cases exhibits a DNA of most pathogenic bacteria are contained high reduction of the maxima of potential for the sequences which are able to generate such EMS magnetized water, as one can see in the figures of .
In a subsequent paper, it has been shown that the Annex, where, besides, the other experimental the recorded EMS and nanostructures induced in parameters are given. Beyond 0. A particular the same frequency band. We can re- mark, softly, that these latter measurements are not This experimental project can be realized by only complex but also that they need a lot of cau- the BEM Section of CIRPS in its laboratory and tion to avoid interferences of device on the speci- we hope to report some first results in next men under measure; for instance, measurement on months.
Sopra un nuovo fenomeno di natura elettrica e sopra un nuovo effetto presentato dai metalli. Gazzetta Chimica Italiana. Sulla precipitazione del carbonato di calcio da acqua dura attivata "T" od "R" e normale. Sulla tensione superficiale dell'acqua attivata "T". Nuovi effetti chimici e biologici dell'acqua attivata "T" ed "R". La Chimica e l'Industria. Sulla disincrostazione fisica delle caldaie e su di una relazione fra fenomeni ambientali ed alcuni fenomeni chimico fisici.
Tecnica Italiana. Sui rapporti fra fenomeni ambientali e fenomeni chimico-fisici: primi risultati delle esperienze condotte a Bruxelles. Geofisica e Meteorologia. Azione di un campo elettromagnetico della frequenza di 10 KHz sul test chimico: il problema dell'in- flusso degli atmosferici.