On NY Entend Rien Repetitions Essai Sur la Musicalite Dans la Peinture (French Edition)
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Reading Liliane Giraudon's short stories, one is immediately struck by the refinement and precision of language in its depiction of scenes of sexuality and violence. To be a writer of prose or especially poetry signals one's remove from the conventional concerns of pulp literature. The combination of stylistic and linguistic refinement with a shocking content follows a tradition that goes back at least to Diderot's Bijoux indiscrets or Restif de La Bretonne's Paysan perverti It should thus. How did this value added to thematics come about? My first hypothesis centers on a student's entry into the French language through the shaping of letters in the small squares found on schoolbook pages.
This inaugural practice—a sort of lay "religious" discipline—places stress on form. Schoolchildren before were not expected to have a thorough understanding of the word or when they had, it was of little consequence , nor were they encouraged to think about what they were doing. It was taken as an exercise. Writing was first of all watching over one's penmanship. For the children trained under such a regimen, letters and words were a preparation for what would later be defined as the chain of signifiers by linguists and stylists who insisted on the primacy of literariness, that is, on what actually makes a text literary, rather than on the time-honored analyses that privilege the ideas in a given work.
Skip over the signifier rope: earn your badges much as Cub Scouts do when they learn to master the art of tying knots. At no time under this system was a child encouraged to propose variants to this mechanistic introduction to the world of the alphabet. Legible handwriting, correct spelling, neat presentation: these were the major concerns, when I went to primary school in France, when all those I interviewed went to school.
All of us were told to hand in our cahiers so that the teacher could grade them not for content but for how well the letters had been shaped, the paragraphs ordered. My second hypothesis points to that entrenched French pedagogical practice called l'explication de texte. Severely criticized by Barthes and others in the sixties as a reductionist operation that forces all texts, whatever their specificity, into a singular quadratic mold, it obliges the student to provide first a brief bio-bibliographical statement, then an.
The result is a near-servile admiration of the instructor's knowledge as well as of the method itself, firmly imprinted by innumerable hours of application. In the long run, to explicate a text is to render homage not only to the virtues of a given classical French text but also, by implication, to the analytical method at play. Here beauty of language is prized, and the student must, through mimetic application, duplicate what had always been done and had gained an almost ahistorical status, thereby achieving the very definition of classicism.
Such training establishes in the minds of schoolchildren an enduring sensibility to form and an acute awareness of the particularities of writing. My third hypothesis turns to essay writing. Students were encouraged to do what had always been done: write with clarity, economy, and elegance. Brevity was imposed by the restrictive nature of the topics offered by the teacher: let us say, the description of a spoon or a window, or the evocation of a particular character trait in The Song of Roland. If Francis Ponge developed a keen talent in translating from Latin into French, it may have been, as he remembers it, because he had already discovered his own penchant for Latin, a language that refused to overflow.
In speaking of these Loyola-like spiritual exercises, the presence of rhetoric cannot be overestimated. How else does one come to resemble classical poets and writers? By what other means can one learn the ropes, if not by mimicking the tropes and structures of classical eloquence?
Poetry, wrote Denis Roche, is no longer admissible. His personal answer, at least for an extended period of time, has been to turn to photography. One of his photography books contains pictures of himself, his wife, and the places they have visited Egypt and Mexico , as well as of his parents and his grandparents, the latter taken from family archives. These photographs illustrate a less arcane artist, one in fact focusing on images of himself, either directly or indirectly, and, through genealogy, suggesting that a chastened form of lyricism has made a comeback, one marked by the scripting of self in the present.
This development, as seen in the poets and writers here included, sheds light on the emergence of a new poetics. It is a quiet revolution: there are no apparent schools involved and therefore no identifiable "isms. At least on the surface, and in contradistinction to their predecessors, today's poets and writers are not working in a polemical atmosphere.
If in a French context it is nearly unthinkable that micropolitical concerns disappear, these concerns have not, in any way that I can observe, affected lyricism's re turn. When Emmanuel Hocquard invents his poetic situations and crowds them with individuals who respond to the world much as would characters in a TV soap opera, he allows a choice to filter through as well as a presence of self that had not been evident before in avant-garde prose or poetry.
Perhaps most typical in this preference accorded lyricism is the reactivation of the first-person singular, now no longer a mere grammatical unit as it was in the sixties. Hocquard's novels, essays, and poetry confirm this direction. For the informed reader, the autobiographical content is. Not only does Hocquard obviously enjoy this inscription of self, he also takes the opportunity to allude to close friends, though only, as the intimate convention dictates, by initials.
This practice has almost become a topos in his work. To speak of oneself—that seems a fair indication of a lyrical bent. Maurice Roche most deftly reveals this connection in his maxims, entitled "Moi," which, however caustic, humorous, and ironic, however given to verbal gymnastics, nonetheless center on a man's haunting preoccupation with his own life and foreshadowed death.
These reflections had already found their place in his Testament In both instances, although the writing and the point of departure may be different, there is a shift away from past poetics and a new investment in the description of events in one's daily existence. However formalistic Roubaud may be in the composition of the poems in Quelque chose noir , the result makes a deep and moving impression—not because of the constraints he imposed on the composition but because of the theme: mourning the death of his wife. Here we are at the height of descriptive intimacy.
If indeed there are markers of lyricism, they would certainly partake of all these elements. The insistence on the everyday also warrants comment. It must be considered as an antithesis to autobiography, in which the individual emphasizes memorable events in his or her life, ones to be preserved for posterity.
The recapitulation of daily experience comes closer to journal writing, which has quite the opposite concerns. For the journal writer, what counts is repetition itself. In fact, what is written down can. The notation of daily events is not intended to supplement memory. On the contrary, it translates a sort of epiphanic moment that passes as quickly as it was felt. In these fictions and poems what clearly emerges, on the surface at least, are the folds and simultaneities of life itself, stripped of literary pretensions.
This inscription of the daily event is one facet of the new poetics. Such a gaze on one's life excludes both the metaphorical excess of surrealism and the topicalized rhetoric of Tel Quel. Metaphors are out, as Claude Royet-Journoud states in his interview. Similarly excluded are the illustrative functions accorded to poetry as an exemplar of poetics circa the sixties. Thus, they introduce a formal elegance to balance enthusiastic lyrical topics. To be revived as an antidote to the theoretical aggressivity of the sixties, lyricism had to reject the self-centeredness that had typified the caricatural author whose indelible sufferings filled books of poems and autobiographical novels.
Moreover, the alexandrine had to be dismissed once more! If lyricism was to be relegitimized, at the very least it had to be stripped of its classical versification. By now it must be clear that there are no connections between a Lamartinian lyrical expression or for that matter a Wordsworthian one, typified by his Lyrical Ballads and what poets of the avant-garde are doing today, perhaps because theory in France remains inseparable from the practice of poetry.
Theory is the metadiscourse that allows poetry to speak about itself with intelligence, at a certain remove, in order to comment on its verbal inventions and intentions. Theory then acts as a supplement to poetry, facilitating the verbalization of the condensed material that poetry claims to be while constituting a discourse in itself.
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In this setting formalism inescapably resurfaces; it figures not simply as technique but more as a means of justifying expression. Two avant-garde movements were founded in Tel Quel and Oulipo. Perhaps the latter group's most identifiable trait was its playfully serious manner of reining in invention by imposing formal restrictions on literary practice. Raymond Queneau, one of the founders of Oulipo, took satisfaction in composing his novels as if they were sonnets, attending to details like syllable count and vowel alternation while constructing, in the larger scheme, geometrical games involving spirals and circles Queneau was, by his own admission, a failed mathematician.
The same might be said of some of the Oulipian experiments, which are saved only by their humor, their inventiveness, or, in Georges Perec's W, or The Memory of. Childhood ,  by a quest for Jewish identity that is deeply felt, for all the stylistic and linguistic juggling. With the exception of Jacques Roubaud, an Oulipian and a professor of mathematics at the University of Paris, the poets and novelists in this volume do not experiment so extensively with form, but I would argue that they all share Emmanuel Hocquard's observation that what assures the value of any given text is not its content but its form.
Roland Barthes observed that what appeared to be the zero degree of writing was actually a rhetoric in counterpoint to classicism. One of the doors leading to a diminished investment in classical rhetoric is the subject matter of what I have called the everyday. Another door is the rejection of versification on the part of contemporary poets. In it Deguy delights in literary and historical allusions, as well as the incontrovertible mechanics of the French language itself. There is no escape from internal rhyme or rhythm, however much contemporary poetics might have.
Of all the poets here, Joseph Guglielmi is perhaps the most openly concerned with formalism, going so far as to establish an ironclad octosyllabic line in Fins de vers , while otherwise defying all the usual restrictions of French poetic language. Guglielmi is at home in languages: a translator of contemporary American poetry, his ancestry is Italian, and he has affinities to both German and Latin.
All testify to his textual identity as a postmodern poetician, one whose work might have been translated into a musical score or an artistic installation. In trying to assign a definition to this formalist preoccupation, Liliane Giraudon recalls one of Hocquard's formulas: poetry is a little language within language. Meaning is to be found in line with poetry, in poetry's indivisible trajectory. Although some of the demands of poetry remain unchanged, today's poetry is dramatically at variance with the cerebral, conceptual efforts of the sixties.
An unabashedly intelligent poetry, it is also moving, humorous, meaningful, and. Furthermore, as in Guglielmi's case, the re current formalist trend is marked by a concurrent change in language. Poetic expression no longer borrows heavily from linguistics; it no longer insists on issues pertaining to grammar or syntax; finally, it certainly doesn't see itself as existing solely on a metapoetic level though all of the above may at times still be present. The languages within the French language that. But even in the manifestations of these so-called ordinary languages laid bare of their most visible rhetorical effects , neologisms, for example, are difficult to spot, since the French language steadfastly refuses such incursions into its expressive field.
From the time of Ciceronian poetics, the body has played a fundamental part in justifying eloquence. Cicero may have been the first master rhetorician to accord importance to emotions, pathos, gestural language—to all the elements dependent on the body that philosophy had, ever since Plato, prudently avoided. Roland Barthes put it the most succinctly: Writing passes through the body. The body's presence is closely associated with vocalization, if the body is to be more than a distanced representation, a textualized body, something to be described rather than heard.
Marcelin Pleynet is clear on this subject, both in his novels and in some of his erotic poems which are reminiscent of the eighteenth-century Venetian poet Baffo and, closer to the present, to Apollinaire or to Aragon's calendar in In the new poetics being expounded today, however, the presence of the body through orality must be taken seriously. When Maurice Roche declares, in "The Body's Design" translated in the appendix to his interview , that "we write with our bodies"—Nietzsche went farther, saying that we.
Of all the writers selected here, with the possible exception of Marcelin Pleynet, Maurice Roche is the most concerned with the body—his own body, specifically. When Roche insists on corporality rather than on the body itself as a figure of speech, a geometry of the mind, he does so in Villonesque terms, showing life being eaten away by death, which will unavoidably claim it. Roche's accompanying drawings, of a charmingly macabre bent, highlight this preoccupation with the disintegration of the body and, as a consequence, of the text itself, for one belongs to the other, and it is impossible—as Cicero understood it—to separate corporal truth from literary eloquence.
Roche then joins the company of those writers who have, often in a most un-French manner, worked over the body in their texts. For them the body is not merely an image; it is a form of discourse, with its own terms of expression. This discourse is indeed far removed from Ronsard's lyrical declarations of love to his idolized ladies.
In Pleynet's work the body is more explicitly socialized than in Roche's. Erotic themes such as homosexuality, which up to now have rarely been the direct topic of literary works, find their way into his prose and poetry. For Pleynet it is the voice—in absolute distinction from the written word—that permits rules of decorum to be violated. In his most recent novel.
Emotions are back. The body speaks. Writing orality allows both to reenter the matter of poetics. Narration is making a comeback, thanks to a lyrical reinvestment in an authorial I —however tempered by structural and linguistic concerns—inherited from the recent past. The clearest indication of this development is a shift from the nearly impenetrable writings of Sollers in the sixties to Leslie Kaplan's novels, Liliane Giraudon's short stories, and Maurice Roche's interest in telling "good story.
But the prevalence of narration is not limited to fiction. Claude Royet-Journoud may surprise some of his readers by insisting that his poetry reflects the structure of the detective story. What is surprising, in fact, is his vision of narration, which defies the usual principles as these are currently understood in the United States, especially by writers of narrative poetry. Royet-Journoud's allusion to the detective story incorporates both the notion of obstacle and that of discovery. Whereas the phrase "to turn a new leaf" is used metaphorically in English, in Royet-Journoud's vision of the physical nature of the book it is taken literally.
A new leaf: the lefthand page becomes a sign of the past; it is also the site of memory, from which a continuum is established. It thus becomes the necessary base for all other pages to come. The difference of this vision becomes only too apparent in a bilingual anthology in which the English figures on the left and the French on the right, a strategy that immediately vitiates the concept of narration in its deeper sense. That is why, given the blank verso that is integral to Royet-Journoud's "Port de voix," the. French and English texts are not placed en face in this anthology.
This narration is explicit, visible, and tactile: it is the continuum of the book as a thing unto itself. On this conceptual level a narration unravels that coexists with the theme of any particular book. In Royet-Journoud's scriptural universe, to turn the page is not a mechanical operation; quite the contrary, it is tantamount to overcoming an obstacle, thereby also founding the possibility of discovery.
Thus, movement itself has meaning, movement that is not limited to the verbal procession of words, though the text is clear on its "mission. Although plot and characters have reappeared, an identifiable distance remains between French and American interpretations of such terms, particularly to the extent that the French believe the American model to have been influenced largely by the poetry of Walt Whitman as opposed to the more elusive poetry of Emily Dickinson.
The contrasts between the American model and the French avant-garde would then be located in the way narration has been rethought and considerably modified in France. When reading Jacqueline Risset's Sept passages de la vie d'une femme or the more recent L'Amour de loin , one is struck not only by the performative I in these two collections but also by a narrative insistence in both. The first alludes to Stefan Zweig's Twenty-four Hours in the Life of a Woman , which inspires the telling of the events that define the concept of passage.
These "passages" range from micronarratives to the larger context of writers and thinkers that inform the text. Freud, Dante, and Gertrude Stein figure among the latter in the second collection. They are there, as is the poetics of the troubadours, to enrich the "plot," to provide it with a referential echo, so that through the adjunction of mythological, linguistic, psychoanalytic, or autobiographical elements the poem becomes a layered text, existing on a number of cellular levels, both personal, in which emotions are undisguised, and formal, in which.
For Michel Deguy narration is a concept too easily confused with a representative sector of American poetry in which the poet "lives" his times and exploits his feelings, either in short, uncorrected poems like Allen Ginsberg's or in larger works like Robert Lowell's historical poems, in which individual consciousness also reigns Deguy does not, for all that, exclude the narrative from his work; instead he redefines it and, in a metaphoric illustration, circumvents the genre: for him narration is an indispensable clothesline on which the poet pins up his thoughts With this metaphor, which offers a new meaning of narration but resists a clear statement of that meaning, Deguy exemplifies its essential though restrictive role in the articulation of the poem.
Deguy's work falls in a number of genres, from polemical nonfiction  to a poetry rich in intellectual manifestations. His professional responsibilities as codirector of Galerie Lelong in Paris and New York have provided him with analogies to the visual arts that allow him to free his story from the story. First, he appreciates the possibility of substitution and the option of inserting quotations in the text.
And second, he has mastered the fragmented narrative, whose origins go back to Dada, if not further. The narrative need no longer follow a linear pattern; the writer is no longer responsible for the "invention" of the tale. Meaning is constructed through borrowing and incorporating other texts. Ready-mades have. This referential order is indicated sometimes by the use of italics or quotes, sometimes by the insertion of proper names to document the extratextual sources. But often material is included without specifically acknowledging its origin. This patchwork poetics Pound and Zukofsky were masters at it now orders the composition of a narration in which discontinuities are as much witness to the telling of a story as the plot structure had once been in a Greek tragedy.
Leslie Kaplan's work further illustrates the differences between narrative as conceived in contemporary French and American literature. Kaplan has systematically returned to her stylistic-philosophic vision of the world in her novels. Her identifiable practices are not of aesthetic intention but rather of what I would call a "philo-graphic" intention.
Thus, the problem of simultaneity is resolved in Kaplan's insistence on providing the reader with a coexistential, nonnormative series of snapshots, "insignificant" events, and sound or color sketches that document a given moment. Through them, a story of passion unfolds in which individuals find themselves in the protective custody of "real" clouds, smoke, noises, people, buses. The reader recognizes the world within which fiction evolves—in the case of Le Pont de Brooklyn , a world that is close at hand for many American readers, since the novel appears to be situated in New York.
Kaplan's portrayal of New York lends itself to immediate recognition, and yet in the novel's scriptural insistence, it disturbs the conventional, passive relation between reader and text. This double aspect—in which narrative is combined with an ever-present writerly preoccupation—produces a novel that is fiction in the generally accepted sense, all the while resembling poetry as it locates and then dislocates the site of the real.
Two examples highlight the differences and similarities between Kaplan's fiction and that of American practitioners of the genre: first, Marge Piercy's Summer People , and second, Raymond Carver's short story "Feathers. The beginning of the novel is so fact-filled that the reader is immediately gratified as he or she meets the principal players. The writing doubles the accessibility of the narration. It is conventional in its use of realistic props as it describes and transcribes the ways people speak and think.
There is nothing here that unsettles or challenges the reader; nothing that makes the reader consider the place of language or the style of writing. This novel, and the hundreds like it published each year, testify to the persistent allegiance to subject matter in order to minimize resistance on the part of readers. The second example, from Carver's collection Cathedral New York: Knopf, , is totally unlike the above model. The visibility of the writing a characteristic usually associated with poetry directs the reader toward a sophisticated discordance with traditional fictional purposes—to assure an easy passage from topic to reader's reception.
The care accorded to language, rhythm, structure, syntax, and silence all amount to a passion for writing akin to that of French writers. The translations of Carver's stories and the critical acclaim accorded to his work in France attest to a correspondence between his sensibility and the one I have been defining. Here too, as in Marge Piercy's work, oral qualities are present. In Piercy's novel they constitute a mimetic exercise; in Carver's story they form a strategy to lull the reader into recognizing his or her own universe, or at least one possible universe, resembling a Sam Shepard play.
However weird, "Feathers" defines an "American way of life," just as Edward Hopper's paintings have done. Perhaps the topical analyses of Hopper's work facilitate a certain critical refusal to enter into the coded world of both psychological motivation and scriptural insistence. In addition to lyricism, narration, formalism, voice, and the body, an important element of the new poetics in France is the influence of American poetry, in which the above elements are to some degree objectified.
This influence does not exclude other foreign influences, of course, but for French avant-garde poets, the American model has been privileged ever since the sixties. Translation is an odd practice, as many theoreticians have demonstrated, from Saint Jerome to Walter Benjamin.
One particularity is of special interest here: Why have certain American poets received acclaim in France, while others, though translated, remain marginal? Why, specifically, have Ezra Pound and the Objectivists, and in more recent times the Language Poets including Charles Bernstein, who translated one of Claude Royet-Journoud's books of poetry into English , become. Why have these poets been invited to French poetry festivals? Why, at another moment, were the Beats so appreciated? In the first place one might cite the distinctiveness of American poetry and prose beginning in the late fifties.
What was happening in American literature and in the theater as well bore almost no resemblance to the French concerns of the Tel Quel years. The attraction of opposites can also be seen in the other direction: Americans discovered the nouveau roman through publishers such as Grove Press and George Braziller and the Evergreen Review. From the postwar years on, and especially in the more prosperous sixties and seventies, cultural exchanges between France and the U. These connections were marked by invitations to poetry festivals, public readings, and publications of contemporary American poetry in French anthologies representing an avant-garde view of current American poetic production.
Its charm was its espousal of an absolutely antithetical poetics. Jacques Roubaud, then one of the keenest readers of American poetry, is quick to admit that he found it so attractive precisely because of its "otherness. Nothing quite like it had ever been written in France, where at that time any sign of romanticism in the realm of letters was rejected wholesale. The American model which went beyond poetry, encompassing Raymond Chandler's novels and Jerry Lewis's films, as well as those two ubiquitous American viruses, blue jeans and T-shirts appeared as a dialectical Other, one that perhaps even proved the value of the French attitude in contrast to American practices, or more specifically to the American poet's lyrical presence in his or her text.
Levertov—were shaped by an often barely veiled autobiographical enterprise and characterized by common speech, a form generally alien to French poetry. Ever since the translations of some of the Cantos , by Denis Roche in ,  that poet became a literary fetish, but—as always in such cases—of an ambivalent kind. Was this ambivalence in part because Pound had failed to gain admission not only to mainstream American poetry but also to American intellectual life and that, of course, before World War II?
Together with his poetics, his fascist, anti-Semitic politics assuredly contributed to his later, quasi-definitive exclusion. That bit of pro—antiAmericanism cannot in itself account for his reception in France. As a result of this ambivalent status which was also the case for Louis Zukofsky , there was one Pound who could easily be assimilated to French avant-garde poetics and another who had to remain outside it. In the first instance, it is clear that Pound, as the paradigmatic figure of modernism, reassures the avant-garde reader and poet who can appreciate both the new forms developed in the Cantos and the traditional allusions to historical, literary, and mythological sources.
When Pound exclaimed that to translate, one had to "Make It New," he might not have been alluding only to that specific literary enterprise. This enticing formula could also define his own contribution—the way he worked, the way he conceived of his own poetics. The use of typography in the Cantos , the inclusion of foreign languages, and the mixing of linguistic registers, complete with colloquialisms and accented speech to mock. Pound's Jewish friend, the French medievalist Gustave Cohen —all these elements could "pass" into the French order of cultural artifacts.
In the second instance, there is the "invisible" side to Pound's poetics. Whereas the signifier found a ready avant-garde public, the signified could not, in Pound's lifelong project to rewrite a Homeric epic in which, as he so succinctly stated, History would converge with personal experience. In the sixties, when French poetics had renounced this postromantic historical posture—as it had with equal vigor rejected the accompanying lyrical voice, one able to carry the autobiographical concern—it was impossible to subscribe to Pound's whole project. He was thus at once present and absent: present, of course, in translations; absent as a wholly useful model for French avant-garde poetry.
French translations of Louis Zukofsky's poetry further illustrate this absence. Much like his better-known friend and compatriot, Zukofsky has in recent years gained a small but impressive following in French avant-garde circles. These readers see in the American Objectivist's poetics a model that preceded yet paralleled their own concerns.
What, then, filters in to French? Quite evidently the rejection ot the sentimental, lyrical voice, and Zukofsky's metadiscourse, which informs his project and provides it with a theoretical justification—the intellectual analogy to Bach's fugues, especially the St. Matthew Passion. This formalism is clear in Zukofsky's treatment of language and placement of lines on the page. His principles of verbal condensation, his retextualization of borrowed material, and his montage techniques, as well as his musical sonorities and use of punctuation and capitalization, all attest to his centrality in the world of French avant-garde poetics.
It is also worth noting that his espousal of Marxism like Aragon's, from Marx through Stalin represents a perfectly recognizable legacy.
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Finally, his reworking of classical rhetoric is the most readily acceptable lesson. But something else remains outside the cultural option, remains, so to speak, in the shadow of Zukofsky's legend and defies translation. The rich vein of the spoken register in " A " is both a highly distinctive trait and a major stumbling block in assuring a commensurate restructuring of the American text within French poetic language.
We find base or "obscene" sexual terms in Joseph Guglielmi's poetry, as in Joyce Mansour's surrealist poetry, but avant-garde poetics in France has no place for the inscription of a spoken text. There is no room for the newspaper editor's diction in " A "-1 or for Henry Ford's voice in " A " For the sake of poetic language, then, Zukofsky's commitment to a multiple linguistic experience is brushed aside. The French unisemic code washes away what it considers impertinent information, unreadable material, renegotiating vulgarity within an acceptable aesthetic medium.
The frenchification of Zukofsky's poetry forcefully reduces the impact of his poetics in France, or at the very least demonstrates the principles of cultural refraction noted above. A second difficulty appears on the conceptual level. What does not pass are three essential elements of " A ": the poem as a man's life; the epic project,. The body, the voice, narration however elliptic , forms of lyricism—all point the way toward incorporating Zukofsky's multilayered autobiographical commentary into a possible French appreciation.
And yet, both the epic poem as a genre and the historicization of the text remain as stumbling blocks. The grandiose cannot be entertained when the everyday is flaunted. Furthermore, while Zukofsky has found favor among readers opposed to a surrealist, metaphor-laden poetics, they have failed, as far as I have been able to make out, to read his Jewishness into the text; thus, his translation and adaptation of Solomon Bloomgarden's Yiddish poems within " A " have gone unobserved.
The lesson is clear. When Zukofsky or George Oppen, for that matter is translated, he serves a dual function: on a theoretical level, he is acknowledged as one of the principal innovators of twentieth-century American poetry; on a domestic level, he is brandished as an "outsider" to marshal forces against competing subcategories within the poetic avant-garde in France. Although Zukofsky is a glorious absence in booklength studies, his American adepts are prominent in French poetry festivals, translation workshops, and anthologies. Reciprocally, though with less financial support, French poets have also been invited to the United States.
Contacts are now better than ever between New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and various American universities and their corresponding organizations in Paris, Royaumont, and Marseille. Increasingly, cultural exchanges encourage poets and writers to participate in joint activities, including collective translations, thereby enriching the literary scene on both sides of the Atlantic. This cosmopolitanism is indicative of a new configuration in the world of letters: eloquently defined, systematically translated, the works of French and American poets and, to a lesser extent, fiction writers have now gained access to a broadening circle of readers and practitioners.
Rich in variants, its multiple productions nonetheless all honor that contract between author, text, and reader that is founded on reality, textuality, and readability. The numerous translation projects on both sides of the Atlantic attest to this trend, which is essentially a shift toward recuperating meaning by exploiting themes taken from daily experience or from dramatic events, a communion of interests that envisages a telling compatibility between French and American poetry and poetics.
It is quite obvious, however, that the poets and writers who define contemporary French avant-garde writing do not fit into a popular mold. Though some may be amused by comic strips, television programs, newspaper headlines, or by reality itself, all these signs suffer from formal constraints. Today, writing may no longer imply hermetic forms, the nontranslatability of arcane deconstructive montages, or even the rejection of meaning in its conventional sense, but it still centers on a questioning of the processes of writing itself that has set the terms of the relation between theory and literary production for the past thirty years.
Rather than focus on discontinuities, in conclusion, I would like to borrow Derrida's concept that that which is has always been. Yet throughout, the stability of poetry and prose is apparent, reminding us of Apollinaire's insistence in La Jolie Rousse on a dual allegiance within the avant-garde, both to tradition and to innovation. Thus, no contemporary French poetics can deny its antecedents, which go back to the troubadours, when formalism was at its height.
Nor can its most recent antecedents be banished, which accounts for the ambivalent relation that today's poetics maintains with its immediate past—what I have characterized as the Tel Quel perspective, with its radical theoretical interference within the creative work. The days of those "excesses" may be gone, but no avant-. Michel Deguy was born in Paris in Berkeley: University of California Press, New York: Random House, Special issue of Tyuonyi , no. Serge Gavronsky: I often think of you as perhaps one of the greatest travelers in the world of letters! You have carried off something quite unique in maintaining that energy which is yours, whether you're writing poetry, literary criticism, or philosophic essays.
Could you talk about this continuing interest in translation, and perhaps in so doing connect it to your other activities? Michel Deguy: First of all, it corresponds to a personal history and so requires a bit of autobiography—but only as relevant to the matter at hand! In my background, in my Bildung , philosophy, poetry, and translation clearly coexist as a triad without any order. What I mean is that there wasn't philosophy and poetry and, in parentheses, translation.
This may appear slightly disconcerting, but for me, translation was not a more-or-less transparent middle position, a "go-between" [said in English], but was itself on a par with poetry and philosophy. Tous les disques qui sont ici dans les locaux de Ed Banger ndlr. Et ce serait quoi une production parfaite pour Iggy Azalea?
Surtout Diplo. Robert Crumb! Entre autres, oui! Je le trouve brillant.
Propos recueillis par Brice Bossavie. Flavien Berger : Vous les vendez combien? SCC : Dix boules. SCC : Non. On va. Intelligent, non? Et pour toi, Flavien? La photo originale sera toujours mieux que si tu la retouches dix fois. Flavien : 28 ans. Flavien : Oui je pense. Des images se retrouvent dans certains de mes clips. Flavien, tu as des projets particuliers pour ? Flavien : Je vais sortir un album en entier, complet. Flavien : Pas trop.
Ouverture en ? SCC : Oui! Il sera totalement en paillasson! Propos recueillis par Alice De Jode. Il a des origines grecques. Gab : Absolument pas! Jono : elle est saine, plus saine que jamais. Il est sur la face A et dure 12 min. Ca se rapproche de James Blake vocalement parlant, je ne sais pas si tu vois. Il est en train de nous faire un remix. Enfin, je crois. Pour Freud, je ne sais pas. Jono : Oui. Je collectionne des disques depuis des. Jono : Ils sont incroyables!
Vous pouvez leur dire. Jono : Tu as raison. Gab est un grand fan de Dragon Ball Z rires! Un type cool, quoi. Tu nous expliques? Cela semblait normal. Je parle seulement anglais. The Seeds, The Sonics faisaient du Garage super. Propos recueillis par Bastien Internicola. En quoi cet engagement, est-il important pour toi?
Quel lien entretiens-tu avec tes origines? Un instant. Inconsciemment oui. La vie est pleine de couleurs qui changent tous les jours et qui changent avec nous. Cela change, impressionne. Un mot sur Michael Jackson. Pour moi, Michael Jackson est le plus grand!
Et ne le sera jamais. Promis, on lui demandera! Photographe professionnel depuis , Maxime Leyravaud est un adepte de belles images et de la photographie sous toutes ses formes. Il navigue entre les voyages et les studios. Ayo est une amie. Elle a grandi. Au sommet de son art, tout en prenant des risques. Elle a trois ans, elle aussi a grandi. Elle parle, fait des grimaces, me regarde, est surprise. Tu as fais quoi tout ce temps? Au fond de moi, je sais que je suis dans le vrai. Il a ri.
Tu sais, cet album est une renaissance. Une version anglaise de cette interview est disponible sur le site du magazine : www. I love the whole universe they have created around themselves as musicians and artists. When I was a teenager I printed out the lyrics to all the songs ever made by Sonic Youth, and I would read in the pile of paper before I went to bed. Fish cutters rest in the harbor, pickled gherkins stand in straight rows at the supermarket, the Christmas decoration glistens in the window; life appears boring and tedious.
But somehow director Casper Balslev made it all appear visually beautiful, accentuating the theme of growing up in a small provincial town while dreaming about making it big. My biggest fear was to miss a party; to miss the fun. Just try to let go, relax, express yourself when you need to, and be as happy. This is an electro-pop heroine we can relate to. To be personal without reaching the borders of privacy, and to express feelings in a simple way without being too obvious. What are you listening to at the moment? What was on your stereo as a teenager?
What does youth mean to you? To wander around in the woods. Did you always want to make music? Yes — since I was seven it has been my big dream and obsession. What has been the greatest experience since your music career truly kicked off last year? All the traveling and the excitement of being in this position — chasing your dreams everyday. What is sexy? Confidence and muscles. Do you see yourself as a lady or a tomboy? What can we expect from your first album? Honesty, restlessness and hopefully songs people can relate to and be touched by. Are you coming to Paris anytime soon?
I sure hope so! I really like Paris. Sentez-vous avoir appris quelque chose? Maintenant, Internet est le label. Carlotta : On y passe des heures! Comme si tout ce monde fonctionnait comme un voisinage. Il pourrait bien vous sauver la vie, mais seulement si vous y croyez. A Sound. Du vrai. Nous utilisons beaucoup internet pour diffuser notre musique. Quelle odeur ce parfum aurait-il pu avoir?
Notre culture est. Il y a au contraire beaucoup de curieux. Quelle est la chose qui vous fait le plus peur? Nous aimons vents et violons, piano et nuages. Bienvenue sur nos terres! Finalement par ricochets, tout est ressorti. Dans une inconscience totale. Non pas du tout. Vincent Chauvier voulait faire de la Noisy Pop. Cela se passe bien? Il y a beaucoup de chansons sur la campagne, comme un cadre rupestre. Ce sera toujours Dominique Brusson au son? On travaille bien, il y a vraiment un ping-pong entre lui et moi.
Un moment particulier? Non, pas encore. Il va le chercher dans sa veste pour me le faire feuilleter. Non, je ne crois pas. Pour beaucoup, nostalgie rime avec blessures et souffrances, comme quelque chose qui ronge. Dan aussi. Je crois bien que nous sommes un duo de peureux. De quoi avez-vous peur? Comment qualifierais-tu ce premier album? Un ensemble vrai, intense et un peu dreamy.
Un peu journal intime? Je pense que quand on sait cela de moi, on sait beaucoup de choses. Stella de Warpaint, une de mes super potes, a fait des guitares sur mon album. Comment te sens-tu depuis la sortie? Toujours avec un iPhone? Le premier truc que je. Monsters of Folk au Greek Theater. Dans la chanson I Just Want to Make it New with You, on dirait presque que tu conclues un genre de pacte avec tes fans. Pourquoi ce choix? Il y avait comme une distance, de fait.
Mais pas que, je ne crois pas. Pourquoi cette collaboration? Les rythmiques sont plus denses. Si tu devais choisir un morceau, ce serait lequel? Je suis incapable de choisir. Il y a une raison pour tout. Ca bouleverse tout. Tu en as toi? Comment pouvait-il nous en parler? Et bien je dirais que la ressemblance je ne peux pas la nier mais je ne la vois pas vraiment.
Je pourrais citer aussi Rodolphe Burger. Il fut mis en ligne le 20 novembre Il affine son style musical, conduit une Mustang dans les rues de LA et vit dans une cabane dans les arbres. Dommage pour elle. Tant mieux pour nous. Il vient de sortir Dopamine, son premier album. Un piano macabre, le style de son qui te fout la chair de poule. Le silence nous soulage. Retour sur ce nouveau langage. Les paroles sont riches, sur ce disque.
Est-ce une pratique courante en Angleterre? Le titre Nara parle des droits des homosexuels. Surtout venant de leur part. Les intros sont longues, les outros aussi. Les espaces entre les chansons sont tout aussi importants. Il y a une voix feminine sur Warm Foothills. Est-ce Feist? Tu ne nous crois pas, hein?! Ils rient. Ce genre de confiance se gagne avec le temps.
En tant que trio il est difficile que nous ne soyons pas satisfaits de ce que nous avons sorti. Des morceaux trop country. Pour toucher un maximum de gens. Qui nous est propre. Je crois que je suis assez fataliste. La conversation part un peu dans tous les sens. Je parle trop. Il sourit. Piaf le faisait, Nougaro aussi. Mais il a le droit. Et inversement. En trois minutes, tu cliquais sur deux boutons pour en faire un titre. Tu ne dors plus chez maman? Je vis tout seul. Les deux! Je me suis fait avoir au niveau du contrat de la vie. Et heureusement. Les films me saoulent aussi parfois.
On aborde la notion de Gloire. La merditude des choses deFelix Van Groeningen, Belgique, , ndlr. Mais pour qui se prend-on pour juger? Rencontre avec Asa et Matthew. Asa : MGMT! Quel serait le pire groupe auquel on puisse vous comparer? Asa : Ouh! Matthiew : Ah oui! Rires Foster The People? Cela reste, pour moi, le meilleur morceau de tous les temps!
La musique est un moyen de se faire entendre sur tous les plans et ce que je vais dire dans mes chansons compte beaucoup. Et il est parti. Propos recueillis par Marie Polo. Il fut mis en ligne le 16 mai En live, nous sommes quatre, avec la plupart du temps deux batteurs qui jouent debout pendant que nous nous occupons de la basse et du clavier. Je ne sais pas pourquoi. On ne pouvait plus la retirer ni abandonner le concept. On essaie de faire en sorte que cela soit possible.
Il fut mis en ligne le 16 juillet Comme Burial ou Joy Orbison? Guy : Oui totalement! Du dubstep, mais pas du genre woa-woa-woa rires , du bon dubstep! Pas mal de House music aussi. Nous faisions des beats sur mon. Guy : Non. En fait on voulait faire de la House Music, un truc assez underground. Et on est toujours dans le Top Comment travaillez-vous?
Howard : Oui! Guy : Pas pour le moment. Mais nous allons revenir. On adore Paris. Comment concevez-vous votre musique? Parlez-nous de la chanson Flickers. Vous aimez danser? Dot : Moi pas du tout. Parlez-nous de votre collaboration avec Disclosure. Dan : Ce ne sont pas vraiment des paroles! Last Days avant quoi?
Avant la mort… Rires. Dans Last Days, je raconte mon histoire avec des samples et non en rappant. Est-ce que le masque et sa symbolique sont encore de vigueur sur cet album instrumental? Ce qui est. Cet album vient un peu de mon obsession pour le Minimoog et toutes ces ambiances. Juste que comme on bosse ensemble depuis longtemps il sait parfaitement ce que je veux et le grain que je cherche. En fait, oui, je pense. En tout cas plus que comme rappeur. Quand tu composes, comment avances-tu? Tout ce qui est. Ces dialogues te sont venus comment?
Comment les utilises-tu dans ta composition, pour rythmer la musique? Le travail de texture me prend le plus de temps. Dans le catalogue on trouve une traduction en japonais. Les japonais sont vachement dans ce style de musique cosmique. Tu trouves tout. Vous verrez! Tu peux nous en dire quelques mots? Non, je suis en plein dedans. Je ne suis pas logique. Interview et propos recueillis par Sirius Epron. Photograhies : Laurent Nalin, du Collectif 5. Je ne peux pas vraiment savoir. Pas seulement positives. Tout a fait. Il a une certaine importance et il se trouve que je suis son ami.
Les gens qui posaient les questions savaient de quoi ils parlaient et cela se sentait.
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Nous avons fait une pause. Je dis que je viens de cela… Je parle aussi un peu du film Being There de Hal Ashby avec Peter Sellers, son personnage est un jardinier. Donc je peux faire cela en portugais, mais pas en anglais. Pas encore. Je ne suis pas vraiment un mec de la ville. On jouait des trucs. On jouait, on chantait, personne ne jugeait. Je voulais juste sortir mon truc sur vinyle, peu importe la taille du label. Oui, effectivement.
Pas tant pour les choses auxquelles tu penses que celles que tu vois. Parce que je ne vois pourquoi on dit cela de moi. Surprenant ou pas. West Coast quand tu nous tiens. Alice de Jode. Non Il rit. De quoi parle exactement le titre Jailhouse Talk? Ils ne peuvent pas car Johnny est en prison pour meurtre. Ils sont tellement habiles et intelligents, musicalement parlant. Pouvu que ce soient elles qui restent. Serait-ce Godzilla? Ca grouillait de monde et une sorte de bruit permanent arrivait de toute part.
Quelles influences la ville a-t-elle eu sur ton disque? Trey et Matthew E.
Je pense que tout le monde les aime, non? Ils obtiennent peu mais travaillent comme des dingues. Je ne pourrais jamais me torturer ainsi aussi longtemps. Je lui. Il y a eu beaucoup de discussions, mais pas de vrais liens naissant avec la plupart des gens que je rencontrais. A Nashville, tout le monde fait de la musique, mais personne ne prend le temps de soigner les choses. Mais parfois, je vais chercher des mots ailleurs. Pour It Is You, je voulais emmener les gens dans des endroits oniriques.
Oh mon dieu, oui. McGee et ses camarades pour le label donne le ton. A bon entendeur…. Pour notre plus grand bonheur. Une conversation. Tu prends ce que tu veux. Quand il est mort ce fut un choc. Jeff, oui. Avec un grand M. Tout Rires! Il est bon de le rappeler de temps en temps.
Textes et propos recueillis par Ariel Carol Novak. Photographies : Justine Tellier, pour Crumb magazine. Autant dire que je ne savais pas de quoi elle. Tout le monde le pratique plus ou moins dans sa chambre ou sa salle de bain. Et tu es champion du monde de la discipline… Oui! Champion du monde et ! Ah non! The prophetess Pythia, seated on a golden tripod in the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, uttered incoherent words that had to be interpreted by priests.
On 29 December the mayor of Arles was asked to take measures to this end; see letter , n. At the end of February there was again talk of transferring Van Gogh to Aix; see letter , n. Van Gogh had written in his previous letters about his ambition to produce in the near future a series of presentable and thus saleable paintings. See letters , and See letter , n. Gauguin would indeed receive a version of La berceuse ; see letter , n. Reference to works from the Faure Collection exhibited in rue Laffitte; see letter , n. He moved into the apartment with Jo on 20 April See Brief happiness , pp.
He also gave his parents-in-law detailed information about the new apartment, including a floor plan. Police officer Alphonse Robert later recalled that the girl worked under the name of Gaby Doiteau and Leroy , p. For an interpretation see Murphy , pp.