The Words of Our Time: Speeches that Make a Difference 2001-2011

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It would be foolish to make rigid rules about these things. However as a teacher in a cross-language environment, it is worth thinking critically about one's own speech production. How can your speech serve as a useful model for people who are mentally processing your sounds much more slowly and inaccurately than a native speaker? How can you do this without sounding like a retarded idiot? Here is what you need to do as a speech model: a Keep the natural rhythm of your speech; b Speak in short segments. The amount of time they need will depend upon their level in the new language.

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Are they mentally translating? Or are they familiar enough with L2 to swim in the new ocean?. Watch their eyes. Be ready to paraphrase. Reading Aloud Reading is a large topic which I will not deal with in depth here. However, the special skill of reading aloud needs a note in any discussion of classroom oral language.

Students should never be permitted to read aloud while looking at a page. Nor should teachers!. That is almost guaranteed to lock anyone into a word-plus-word monotone.

The trick is to look down, remember a few words, look up, and THEN speak; this also happens to be an effective method of memorizing material. The best way to encourage skilled reading aloud is to have students reading dialogues in pairs, and requiring them to LOOK AT their partner while speaking]. One of the few really useful books I have found which is purpose-built for teaching students and teachers! They did speak English in , and the book went through many impressions.

It is unavailable now unless you are lucky enough to pick up a second hand copy somewhere. You can see those pages at this link which also has a description of supra-segmental phonology I provided for those students. A search of the Internet will obviously find you many more!

South African rand

Stannard- Allen's excellent out of print book, Living English Speech. Related Papers. Rhythm in English: Implications for Teaching. By Adrian Leis. By sinta susanti. By majda faris. Capitalizing on musical rhythm for prosodic training in computer-aided language learning. By Peggy Mok. Its value thereafter fluctuated as various exchange rate dispensations [ clarification needed ] were implemented by the South African authorities. By the earlys, high inflation and mounting political pressure combined with sanctions placed against the country due to international opposition to the apartheid system had started to erode its value.

By the time that State President P. As it became clear in the earlys that the country was destined for Black majority rule and one reform after the other was announced, uncertainty about the future of the country hastened the depreciation until the level of R 3 to the dollar was breached in November This sudden depreciation in led to a formal investigation, which in turn led to a dramatic recovery.

At the start of , however, the currency resumed its rally, and as of 19 January , was trading under R 6 to the dollar again. However, during the second and third quarters of i. April through September , the rand weakened significantly. In sterling terms, it fell from around 9.

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In late, the rand rallied modestly to just over 8p, only to experience a precipitous slide during the first quarter of The rand depreciation was exacerbated by the Eskom electricity crisis, which arose from the utility being unable to meet the country's rapidly growing energy demands. A stalled mining industry in late led to new lows in early The rapid drop in value was stemmed when Zuma backtracked and announced that the better-known previous Minister of Finance, Pravin Gordhan , would instead be appointed to the post.

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The January drop in value was also partly caused by Japanese retail investors cutting their losses in the currency to look for higher-yield investments elsewhere and due to concerns over the impact of the economic slowdown in China , South Africa's largest export market. In April , a Reuters poll estimated that the rand would remain relatively stable for the rest of the year, as two polls found that analysts had already factored in a possible downgrade to "junk" status. At the time, Moody's rated South Africa two notches above junk status.

At the time, it had no permanent CEO, and Colin Coleman of Goldman Sachs in Africa said the company was "having discussions on solutions" on finding credible management. Reuters noted that "South Africa is highly susceptible to global investor sentiment as the country relies on foreign money to cover its large budget and current account deficits. The 2-rand coin was introduced in , followed by 5-rand coins in Production of the 1- and 2-cent coins was discontinued in , primarily due to inflation having devalued them, but they remain legal tender.

In an effort to curb counterfeiting, a new 5-rand coin was released in August The first series of rand banknotes was introduced in in denominations of 1-, 2-, , and rand, with similar designs and colours to the preceding pound notes to ease the transition. They bore the image of what was believed at the time to be Jan van Riebeeck , the first V.

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It was later discovered that the image was not in fact Van Riebeeck at all, a portrait of Bartholomeus Vermuyden had been mistaken for Van Riebeeck. In , a second series was released with designs which moved away from the previous pound notes. Notes with denominations of 1-, 5- and rand were produced with predominantly one colour per note.

A smaller 1-rand note with the same design was introduced in and a 2-rand note was introduced in The rand denomination from the first series was dropped. All notes bore the image of Jan van Riebeeck. The practice of having an English and an Afrikaans version of each note was continued in this series. The series began with denominations of 2-, 5-, and rand, with a rand introduced in This series had only one language variant for each denomination of note.

Afrikaans was the first language on the 2-, , and rand, while English was the first language on the 5- and rand. The 1-rand note was replaced by a coin. In the s, the notes were redesigned with images of the Big Five wildlife species. Coins were introduced for the 2- and 5-rand, replacing the notes of the previous series, mainly because of the severe wear and tear experienced with low-denomination notes in circulation.

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In , and rand notes were introduced. The series has the same principal design, but with additional security features such as colour-shifting ink on the rand and higher and the EURion constellation. The obverses of all denominations were printed in English, while two other official languages were printed on the reverse, thus making use of all 11 official languages of South Africa.

In , the South African Reserve Bank and commercial banks withdrew all series rand banknotes due to relatively high-quality counterfeit notes in circulation. In , the South African Reserve Bank issued rand banknotes which were defective because they lacked fluorescent printing visible under UV light. On 11 February , President Jacob Zuma announced that the country would be issuing a new set of banknotes bearing Nelson Mandela 's image. In , the series was updated with the addition of the EURion constellation to all five denominations.

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On 18 July , a special commemorative series of banknotes was released in commemoration of the th anniversary of Nelson Mandela's birth. This series includes notes of all denominations, , , , and rand. These notes will circulate alongside the existing notes. Levin , Hardcover Blue Book of Gun Values 40 40th Edition. Sabatine Ringbound, Revised Edition, The Book of Enoch by Enoch , Paperback Save on Nonfiction Trending price is based on prices over last 90 days. Linda McCartney. The Book of Enoch by R. You may also like. John Green Hardcover Books.

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