The Change Intelligence Factor

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Theories of Intelligence in Psychology

Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Description Change is the name of the game in the complex business climate you face today. Sign up to get these answers, and more, delivered straight to your inbox. There was an error. Please try again. Thank you, , for signing up. Kramer, M. Archives of General Psychiatry , 65 5 , Plomin, R. Intelligence: Genetics, Genes, and Genomics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86 1 , — More in Theories. School attendance has an impact on IQ scores Ceci, Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback!

Email Address Sign Up There was an error. What are your concerns? Article Sources. The association between breastfeeding and child cognitive development is conflicted by studies reporting positive and null effects. Relationship may be confounded by factors associated with breastfeeding, specifically maternal socioeconomic class and IQ [28].


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Another study found that breastfeeding had a positive effect on cognitive development at 24 months of age even after controlling for parental IQ [30,31]. How ever another study support the view that apparent effects of breast-feeding on IQ reflect differential likelihood of breast-feeding as a function of parental education and did not support the predicted interaction effect of FADS2 and breast-feeding on IQ [33]. If there is a genetic predisposition for some babies to benefit more from breastfeeding, current knowledge of genotype-phenotype interactions in general suggests that it is probably polygenic, but more research would be needed to confirm this So it may be concluded that Breast feeding may have some small effect on IQ but the effect may be explained by confounding factors including maternal intelligence.

The Change Intelligence Factor

Supplementation with creatine significantly increased intelligence in the elderly rather than young adults [34,35] There was another study showing that creatinine can boost cognitive performance in young adults [36]. However, it should be noted that there is a question mark over the safety of long term creatinine supplementation [37] and studies of this are lacking. Schulenburg [38,39] claimed that with improvement in music skills, the improvements may transfer to other domains, like language and mathematics but needs more research tracking long-term outcomes.

Moreover people improved their performance because listening to music elevated their mood and left them feeling more alert. In adults there is a positive correlation between musical training and IQ, but it is not evident that musical training has a positive effect on emotional intelligence [40]. Psychological Science 15 8 : —m He claimed Schellenberg obtained a significant difference by use of a dubious combination of groups. Reanalysis of the original uncombined groups produced results that were statistically insignificant and had small effect size values or in other words no significant difference were obtained when this specific grouping was eliminated and standard analyses were conducted.

Musically-trained kids showed greater improvement in finger motor skills and auditory discrimination skills. Hence Musical training has been shown to positively influence linguistic abilities [42,43].

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In another study the researchers tested children for improvements in four areas--spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. The phenomenon was coined the Mozart Effect.


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So it can be concluded that the effects of music on IQ may be small or negligible, transient, and probably confined to spatial intelligence. Several factors can lead to significant cognitive impairment, particularly if they occur during pregnancy and childhood when the brain is growing and the blood—brain barrier is less effective. It includes pollutants e. Head injuries and mental illnesses can also cause cognitive impairment.


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Please note a Intelligence a polygenic trait is a highly complex phenotype which is the net result of a wide range of biological processes and the effect of individual polymorphisms on intelligence is thought to be very low. Human IQ is characterized by a high level of heritability A very large proportion of the over 17, human genes are thought to have an effect on the development and functionality of the brain.

While a number of individual genes have been reported to be associated with IQ, none have a strong effect [57]. There is growing interest in the potential for epigenetics a stably heritable phenotype resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations in the DNA sequence to influence cognition [8]. The role of epigenetics in human complex traits such as intelligence is difficult to study for a number of reasons. Epigenetic status can be influenced by factors such as diet and alcohol therefore, depending on the epigenetic mark of interest.

DNA methylation is probably the most commonly studied epigenetic phenomenon. The relationship between DNMT3L and adult intelligence was only approaching statistical significance after Bonferroni adjustment therefore the primary finding here is in relation to childhood intelligence. The potential involvement of epigenetics and imprinting in particular, raises the intriguing possibility that even the heritable component of intelligence could be modifiable by factors such as diet during early development [58].

However, it is likely that the potential of epigenetics to explain the heritability of intelligence is small.

Recent studies have shown that most of this heritability can be explained by a combination of thousands common polymorphisms in DNA sequence across the genome [9]. Rare DNA variants have not been extensively studied yet on a genome-wide scale.