La grossesse : De la conception à la naissance (Puériculture/Grossesse) (French Edition)
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Anneloes L. Maarten M.
Jan J. Wilmar M. Hemmo A. Huib L. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Citing Literature. Volume 50 , Issue 2 February Pages Related Information.
Close Figure Viewer. Abstract In France, a laboratory-based surveillance network RENARUB has been implemented since in order to follow incidence of maternal and congenital rubella infections. The aim of the RENARUB network is to evaluate the impact of the French rubella vaccination program, and to monitor progress towards elimination of congenital rubella by Biologists report to the National Institute for Public Health Surveillance the rubella infections with positive IgM in pregnant women, and the diagnosis of congenital infections made in foetuses or newborns.
These infections led to the birth of 33 children with congenital rubella syndrome CRS and to 86 rubella-associated pregnancy terminations.
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Data showed a decrease in the ratios of the number of maternal infections to live births LB , from For the first time since , no CRS was reported in A decrease of the ratio of the number of maternal infections to live births was observed in all maternal age groups, but remains higher for 15 to 19 year old women Despite a null CRS incidence rate in , the occurrence of about 10 cases of rubella maternal infections per year since reflects a residual circulation of the rubella virus, particularly among young adults.
Efforts have to be maintained in order to increase immunization coverage in children and reinforce catch-up immunisation of non immune girls and women of reproductive age. Abstract Materno-neonatal MN listeriosis includes listeriosis diagnosed during pregnancy or the first month of life. Four hundred and one cases of MN listeriosis mandatorily reported to French Institute of Public Health Surveillance from to were analyzed. Sixty-eight per cent of the cases had consumed products which were not recommended during pregnancy. Control measures in food-production industry that have demonstrated their efficiency in MN listeriosis case reduction have to be maintained.
It would be useful to evaluate the reasons for non compliance with recommendations to avoid at-risk foods. A telephone survey on prevention practices was conducted on a 53 maternity wards sample, stratified on their status, activity and geographical setting. However, there are concerns that bacterial resistance to antibiotics used may emerge or a change in the ecology of the pathogens involved in neonatal sepsis.
Lisa King l. Abstract Introduction — The national prevention programme for congenital toxoplasmosis in France has been in place since ; however no data is available concerning the annual number of cases. In order to estimate the perinatal burden of this infection, and to follow the impact of the national prevention programme, a surveillance system was implemented in Methods — In , an ad-hoc working-group recommended a laboratory based surveillance system as being the most adapted for the surveillance of this infection.
Nonetheless, these con- crete challenges, their cultural reading, and the resulting oscillation between faith and fear, were by no means exclusive to Iran.
In Western countries, it had peaked at the turn of the century, but continued to grip bourgeois imagination. The latter had been growing since the nineteenth century, and formed a global space that was unified, and yet per- meated by profound socio-political hierarchies. Hall, ed. A European Disorder, c. Edward Chamberlin and Sander L.
Gilman, eds. Sexual Murder in Weimar Germany Princeton For the simultaneity of shared features and socio-political hierarchies, see Frederick Cooper and Ann L. Cooper and A. Stoler, eds. Regarding faith in scientific knowledge and its application to social formation, the absence of direct colonization meant that in Iran, science was not fully controlled by Westerners.
Conversely, there were no institutional venues to leave an active mark on a Western-dominated yet global, interactive metro- colonial network of science. On the other hand, the case il- lustrates how the discourse and practice of science in interwar Iran did not ush- er in new ideas that could have been exported to third countries.
Bibliography in: Maternal Breast-Feeding and Its Substitutes in Nineteenth-Century French Art
Interaction be- gan to characterize the relationship, for example between U. In India, malaria research took a quantum leap. A method of fingerprinting, to take a second example, was developed by Edward Henry in active participation with two Indian research assistants; see Arnold, Science; Simon A. Brazilian physicians developed an approach to tropical medicine that soon entered into the same metro-colonial system of exchange; see Nancy L. Stepan, Beginning of Brazilian Science. Called by their French names—sadisme, fetichisme, masochisme, onanisme, exhibitionisme12 —they were seen to result from diseased willpower.
In medical terminology, a compulsive movement is released by a natural force. Peo- ple who are afflicted by a personal compulsion fall into the path of aberration to satisfy their libidinous sensations, and lose control over themselves. How- ever, he defined them not only as causes but rather as outcomes, and cited the French physician Fournier to the effect that all sexual perverts are soft-brained and incapable of making decisions. For Ribot, see J. Physicians harboring this view directly intervened in the journalistic debate. He minced no words about his view that the criminal is insane.
He ended his letter on a sarcastic note, advising those who did not accept the need to hospitalize Borujerdi to close all mental hospitals and simply kill the inmates. And how does this disease mani- fest itself physiologically, or in a moral, clinically unobservable way? All sides of the debates were informed by bio-medical theories, the specialist expertise of which was accepted with great respect even by those who questioned spe- cific theses.
He had heard that a for- eign hospital had asked to obtain the brain for a pathological analysis. In the same month, M. Willpower is denied him. Especially in some ner- vous diseases, it is not only a lack of deeds of will that shows, but the miserable person is also affected by an unusual pressure which results in complications in his brain cells. Is it possible, after a period of seclusion and arrest, or by treatments of the brain and moral education, to restore [to such persons] their willpower, and to bring them back to their former disposition?
Concern- ing Borujerdi, see ibid. They reflected a distinct French influence in terms of Iranians studying abroad and Western physicians and pro- fessors sent to Iran, France was the dominant Western source of modern med- icine and bio-medical sciences in Iran from the s to the s. More specif- ically, pathological theories of crimogenesis in Iran grew out of a tradition of nineteenth- and twentieth-century French research in criminal and neural pathology that tried to identify the function of damaged brain centers in crimi- nal behavior.
Psycho-social analyses, based largely on deterministic theories of hereditary degeneration and neuro-physio- logical automatism, had a profound impact on interpretations of both individ- ual and social pathology. Such explanations had come under increasing attack since the s by dualistic theories that sought to integrate moral and physiological disorder into a unified theory of mental and social degeneration that endangered society.
This perspective therefore strengthened the long- standing links between criminality and madness. Referring to a conference by Dr. Ley he had attended in Europe, he argued that almost everybody is mad to some degree; and he opined that Borujerdi was a degenerate, and, in this sense, not responsible for his deeds.
With this view, he not only echoed a Morelian-type understanding of madness, he was in line with specialized texts on psychiatry written by his contemporaries.
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They refused to adopt the outright materialist positions that had been dominant in Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. His argument was tilted in favor of heredity. Nye, Crime, Madness and Politics, — Its writer stressed the importance of heredity in determining human beings character, and charged that the ancestors, and in fact the father of gAli Asghar had been known criminals, terrorizing the region of Borujerd by waylaying and killing a num- ber of its inhabitants.
From the late s, and especially from the early s onward, Iranians debated that field. The latter rather focused on the revolutionary changes that science had undergone in the West since the nineteenth century. Weismannian genetics started in the early s with an attack on neo-Lamar- ckianism, posited the continuity of the germ plasma untouched by external in- fluences after conception.
Weismannian genetics was known in Iran but rejected. As a corollary, it advanced reforms of the environmental and so- cial milieu as viable measures to better the lot of human beings. Genetic heredity and milieu were believed to influence humans equally, or to shape different parts.
Only in the late s did a professor of biology teaching at Tehran University sub- mit neo-Lamarckian genetics to a first, explicit critique, but even he retained hope that in the future neo-Lamarckian principles could be vindicated.
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Adolph Pinard. His calls for social measures vividly contrast- ed with the anti-welfare rhetoric of negative eugenicists, many of whom denied that social milieu and environment had any influence on human character and behavior. On the Iranian reception of Weismannian genetics up to the s, see Prof. All his mental states and qualities are in congruence with the mental states and qualities of natural criminals.
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It gave voice to the rampant fury of the public, and provid- ed a first explanatory framework for the grisly murders. As I was cutting his head off, he became conscious again and implored me [to save his life] and cried. But he referred to it in an impressionistic sense that, while associated with extreme crimes, was void of legal corollaries. He claimed that their views of the corre- spondence between external appearance and character had been conclusively proven.
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However, rather than adopting the French school and scholars such as Gabriel Tarde, he took his cue from the Italian school formed by Lombroso and his successors like Ferri and Garofalo. Rather, he has been created as a natural criminal.