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In Peru, 18 wasp species were found living on 14 fly species in only two species of Gurania climbing squash. Of the dozens of extant wasp families, only the family Vespidae contains social species, primarily in the subfamilies Vespinae and Polistinae. All species of social wasps construct their nests using some form of plant fiber mostly wood pulp as the primary material, though this can be supplemented with mud, plant secretions e.
Wood fibers are gathered from weathered wood, softened by chewing and mixing with saliva. The placement of nests varies from group to group; yellow jackets such as Dolichovespula media and D. Other wasps, like Agelaia multipicta and Vespula germanica , like to nest in cavities that include holes in the ground, spaces under homes, wall cavities or in lofts. While most species of wasps have nests with multiple combs, some species, such as Apoica flavissima , only have one comb.
The vast majority of wasp species are solitary insects. There are some species of solitary wasp that build communal nests, each insect having its own cell and providing food for its own offspring, but these wasps do not adopt the division of labour and the complex behavioural patterns adopted by eusocial species. Adult solitary wasps spend most of their time in preparing their nests and foraging for food for their young, mostly insects or spiders.
White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
Their nesting habits are more diverse than those of social wasps. Many species dig burrows in the ground. Predatory wasp species normally subdue their prey by stinging it, and then either lay their eggs on it, leaving it in place, or carry it back to their nest where an egg may be laid on the prey item and the nest sealed, or several smaller prey items may be deposited to feed a single developing larva. Apart from providing food for their offspring, no further maternal care is given. Members of the family Chrysididae , the cuckoo wasps, are kleptoparasites and lay their eggs in the nests of unrelated host species.
Like all insects, wasps have a hard exoskeleton which protects their three main body parts, the head , the mesosoma including the thorax and the first segment of the abdomen and the metasoma. There is a narrow waist, the petiole , joining the first and second segments of the abdomen. The two pairs of membranous wings are held together by small hooks and the forewings are larger than the hind ones; in some species, the females have no wings. In females there is usually a rigid ovipositor which may be modified for injecting venom, piercing or sawing. In addition to their large compound eyes , wasps have several simple eyes known as ocelli , which are typically arranged in a triangle just forward of the vertex of the head.
Wasps possess mandibles adapted for biting and cutting, like those of many other insects, such as grasshoppers , but their other mouthparts are formed into a suctorial proboscis , which enables them to drink nectar. The larvae of wasps resemble maggots , and are adapted for life in a protected environment; this may be the body of a host organism or a cell in a nest, where the larva either eats the provisions left for it or, in social species, is fed by the adults.
Such larvae have soft bodies with no limbs, and have a blind gut presumably so that they do not foul their cell. Adult solitary wasps mainly feed on nectar, but the majority of their time is taken up by foraging for food for their carnivorous young, mostly insects or spiders.
Apart from providing food for their larval offspring, no maternal care is given. Predatory and parasitoidal wasps subdue their prey by stinging it. They hunt a wide variety of prey, mainly other insects including other Hymenoptera , both larvae and adults. Some social wasps are omnivorous, feeding on fallen fruit, nectar, and carrion such as dead insects. Adult male wasps sometimes visit flowers to obtain nectar.
Some wasps, such as Polistes fuscatus , commonly return to locations where they previously found prey to forage. These include both sugars and amino acids , and may provide essential protein-building nutrients that are otherwise unavailable to the adults who cannot digest proteins. In wasps, as in other Hymenoptera, sex is determined by a haplodiploid system, which means that females are unusually closely related to their sisters, enabling kin selection to favour the evolution of eusocial behaviour. Females are diploid , meaning that they have 2n chromosomes and develop from fertilized eggs.
Males, called drones, have a haploid n number of chromosomes and develop from an unfertilized egg. Therefore, under most conditions in most species, wasps have complete voluntary control over the sex of their offspring. Females of the solitary wasp parasitoid Venturia canescens can avoid mating with their brothers through kin recognition. Female wasps appear to recognize siblings on the basis of a chemical signature carried or emitted by males.
While the vast majority of wasps play no role in pollination, a few species can effectively transport pollen and pollinate several plant species. Pollen wasps in the subfamily Masarinae gather nectar and pollen in a crop inside their bodies, rather than on body hairs like bees, and pollinate flowers of Penstemon and the water leaf family, Hydrophyllaceae. The Agaonidae fig wasps are the only pollinators of nearly species of figs ,  and thus are crucial to the survival of their host plants.
Since the wasps are equally dependent on their fig trees for survival, the coevolved relationship is fully mutualistic. Most solitary wasps are parasitoids. Parasitoid wasps are extremely diverse in habits, many laying their eggs in inert stages of their host egg or pupa , sometimes paralysing their prey by injecting it with venom through their ovipositor. They then insert one or more eggs into the host or deposit them upon the outside of the host. The host remains alive until the parasitoid larvae pupate or emerge as adults. The Ichneumonidae are specialized parasitoids, often of Lepidoptera larvae deeply buried in plant tissues, which may be woody.
For this purpose, they have exceptionally long ovipositors; they detect their hosts by smell and vibration.
Wasps | National Geographic
Some of the largest species, including Rhyssa persuasoria and Megarhyssa macrurus , parasitise horntails , large sawflies whose adult females also have impressively long ovipositors. One family of chalcid wasps, the Eucharitidae , has specialized as parasitoids of ants, most species hosted by one genus of ant.
Eucharitids are among the few parasitoids that have been able to overcome ants' effective defences against parasitoids. Many species of wasp, including especially the cuckoo or jewel wasps Chrysididae , are kleptoparasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other wasp species to exploit their parental care. Most such species attack hosts that provide provisions for their immature stages such as paralyzed prey items , and they either consume the provisions intended for the host larva, or wait for the host to develop and then consume it before it reaches adulthood.
An example of a true brood parasite is the paper wasp Polistes sulcifer , which lays its eggs in the nests of other paper wasps specifically Polistes dominula , and whose larvae are then fed directly by the host. Many wasp lineages, including those in the families Vespidae , Crabronidae , Sphecidae , and Pompilidae , attack and sting prey items that they use as food for their larvae; while Vespidae usually macerate their prey and feed the resulting bits directly to their brood, most predatory wasps paralyze their prey and lay eggs directly upon the bodies, and the wasp larvae consume them.
Apart from collecting prey items to provision their young, many wasps are also opportunistic feeders, and will suck the body fluids of their prey. Although vespid mandibles are adapted for chewing and they appear to be feeding on the organism, they are often merely macerating it into submission. The impact of the predation of wasps on economic pests is difficult to establish. The roughly species of beewolf Philanthinae hunt bees, including honeybees, to provision their nests; the adults feed on nectar and pollen.
With their powerful stings and conspicuous warning coloration , social wasps are the models for many species of mimic. Batesian mimics of wasps include many species of hoverfly and the wasp beetle. While wasp stings deter many potential predators, bee-eaters in the bird family Meropidae specialise in eating stinging insects, making aerial sallies from a perch to catch them, and removing the venom from the stinger by repeatedly brushing the prey firmly against a hard object, such as a twig. Social wasps are considered pests when they become excessively common, or nest close to buildings.
People are most often stung in late summer, when wasp colonies stop breeding new workers; the existing workers search for sugary foods and are more likely to come into contact with humans; if people then respond aggressively, the wasps sting. Some species of parasitic wasp, especially in the Trichogrammatidae, are exploited commercially to provide biological control of insect pests.
It entered commercial use in the s in Europe, was overtaken by chemical pesticides in the s, and again received interest from the s. Encarsia is used especially in greenhouses to control whitefly pests of tomato and cucumber , and to a lesser extent of aubergine eggplant , flowers such as marigold , and strawberry.
Wasps RFC is an English professional rugby union team originally based in London but now playing in Coventry; the name dates from at a time when names of insects were fashionable for clubs.
8-ft wasp nest found in barn
The club's first kit is black with yellow stripes. Among the other clubs bearing the name are a basketball club in Wantirna, Australia,  and Alloa Athletic F. Wasps have been modelled in jewellery since at least the nineteenth century, when diamond and emerald wasp brooches were made in gold and silver settings.
The "wasps" are the chorus of old jurors. It flew, he is convinced, within a yard of him, struck the ground, rose again, came down again perhaps thirty yards away, and rolled over with its body wriggling and its sting stabbing out and back in its last agony. He emptied both barrels into it before he ventured to go near. When he came to measure the thing, he found it was twenty-seven and a half inches across its open wings, and its sting was three inches long.
The day after, a cyclist riding, feet up, down the hill between Sevenoaks and Tonbridge, very narrowly missed running over a second of these giants that was crawling across the roadway. Wasp is a science fiction book by the English writer Eric Frank Russell ; it is generally considered Russell's best novel. Parasitoidal wasps played an indirect role in the nineteenth-century evolution debate. The Ichneumonidae contributed to Charles Darwin 's doubts about the nature and existence of a well-meaning and all-powerful Creator.
In an letter to the American naturalist Asa Gray , Darwin wrote:. I own that I cannot see as plainly as others do, and as I should wish to do, evidence of design and beneficence on all sides of us. There seems to me too much misery in the world. I cannot persuade myself that a beneficent and omnipotent God would have designedly created the Ichneumonidae with the express intention of their feeding within the living bodies of caterpillars, or that a cat should play with mice. With its powerful sting and familiar appearance, the wasp has given its name to many ships, aircraft and military vehicles.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Members of the order Hymenoptera which are not ants nor bees. For other uses, see Wasp disambiguation. Play media. Main article: Parasitoid wasp. Further information: kleptoparasitism and cuckoo wasp. Further information: mimicry and aposematism. Further information: biological pest control. Dolphin et al found a correlation between the predicted numbers of undescribed species by these two methods, doubling or tripling the number of species in the group.
Natural History Museum. Retrieved 18 June National Geographic. Current Biology. Eliminate all cards in the tableau to beat Wasp Solitaire. No payouts will be awarded, there are no "winnings", as all games represented by Games LLC are free to play. Play strictly for fun. This is NOT a casino game. Also Try Wasp Solitaire Get stung by Wasp Solitaire! Baltzell stressed the closed or caste-like characteristic of the group by arguing that "There is a crisis in American leadership in the middle of the twentieth century that is partly due, I think, to the declining authority of an establishment which is now based on an increasingly castelike White-Anglo Saxon-Protestant WASP upper class.
The concept of "Anglo Saxon" and especially "Anglo Saxon Protestantism" evolved in the late 19th century, especially among American Protestant missionaries eager to transform the world. Historian Richard Kyle says:. Protestantism had not yet split into two mutually hostile camps — the liberals and fundamentalists.
Of great importance, evangelical Protestantism still dominated the cultural scene. American values bore the stamp of this Anglo-Saxon Protestant ascendancy. The political, cultural, religious, and intellectual leaders of the nation were largely of a Northern European Protestant stock, and they propagated public morals compatible with their background.
The negative connotation was especially common among Irish Americans and writers in France. It also remains in use in Ireland as a term for the British or English, and sometimes in Scottish Nationalist discourse. Roosevelt insisted he was Dutch. Charles de Gaulle repeatedly sought to "rid France of Anglo-Saxon influence".
Outside of Anglophone countries, the term "Anglo-Saxon" and its translations are used to refer to the Anglophone peoples and societies of Britain, the United States, and countries such as Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. In the nineteenth century, "Anglo-Saxons" was often used as a synonym for all people of English descent and sometimes more generally, for all the English-speaking peoples of the world. It was often used in implying superiority, much to the annoyance of outsiders. For example, Josiah Strong boasted in In this race numbered less than 6,, souls. In , Anglo-Saxons I use the term somewhat broadly to include all English-speaking peoples had increased to about 20,,, and now, in , they number more than ,, Is it not reasonable to believe that this race is destined to dispossess many weaker ones, assimilate others, and mould the remainder until WASPs traditionally have been associated with Episcopal or Anglican , Presbyterian , United Methodist , Congregationalist , and other mainline Protestant denominations; but the term has expanded to include other Protestant denominations.
The term WASP has many meanings. In sociology it reflects that segment of the U. Northwestern Europe. The term To many people, WASP now includes most 'white' people who are not The WASP elite dominated much of politics and the economy, as well as high culture , well into the 20th century. Anthony Smith argues that nations tend to be formed on the basis of a pre-modern ethnic core that provides the myths, symbols, and memories for the modern nation and that WASPs were indeed that core.
Expensive, private prep schools high schools, primarily in the Northeast , the Ivy League universities, and the Little Ivies and Seven Sisters colleges historically have historically had strong WASP ties, which continue today. As some of the nation's top colleges and universities, they still continue to be the universities of choice for WASPs today, with the Big Three — Harvard , Yale and Princeton universities—traditionally being the choicest. Admission to these colleges and universities is usually based on academic merit, but there is nonetheless a certain preference for "legacy" admittance favoring the children of alumni.
At these schools, students can form connections which carry over to the influential spheres of finance, culture, and politics, with many alumni going on to successful careers and continuing the WASP economic and cultural influence. As well as being better educated, Episcopalians and Presbyterians tend to be considerably wealthier  than most other religious groups,  and they are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business, law, and politics.
Like other ethnic groups, WASPs tend to live in proximity to each other in close social circles. Neighborhoods and cities with large populations of WASPs are often the most sought after. These areas are largely exclusive and upper class , with top private and public schools, high family incomes, well established Christian church communities, and high real-estate values. In the Detroit area, WASPs predominantly possessed the wealth that came from the industrial capacity of the automotive industry.
After the Detroit riot , they tended to congregate in the Grosse Pointe suburbs.
David Brooks , a columnist for The New York Times who attended an Episcopal prep school, writes that WASPs took pride in "good posture, genteel manners, personal hygiene, pointless discipline, the ability to sit still for long periods of time. America's social elite was a small, closed group.
The leadership was well known to the readers of newspaper society pages, but in larger cities it was hard to remember everyone, or to keep track of the new debutantes and marriages. Most were WASPs, and they included families who mingled at the same private clubs, attended the right teas and cotillions , worshipped together at prestige churches, funded the proper charities, lived in exclusive neighborhoods, and sent their daughters to finishing schools  and their sons away to prep schools. Its day has passed. The New York Times stated in Once, the Social Register was a juggernaut in New York social circles Nowadays, however, with the waning of the WASP elite as a social and political force, the register's role as an arbiter of who counts and who doesn't is almost an anachronism.
In Manhattan, where charity galas are at the center of the social season, the organizing committees are studded with luminaries from publishing, Hollywood and Wall Street and family lineage is almost irrelevant. By the s, brands such as Lacoste and Ralph Lauren and their logos became associated with the preppy fashion style which was associated with WASP culture. The Founding Fathers were mostly educated, well-to-do, of British ancestry, and Protestants.
According to a study of the biographies of signers of the Declaration of Independence by Caroline Robbins :. The Signers came for the most part from an educated elite, were residents of older settlements, and belonged with a few exceptions to a moderately well-to-do class representing only a fraction of the population. Native or born overseas, they were of British stock and of the Protestant faith.
Catholics in the Northeast and the Midwest—mostly immigrants and their descendants from Ireland and Germany as well as southern and eastern Europe—came to dominate Democratic Party politics in big cities through the ward boss system. Catholic politicians were often the target of WASP political hostility. Bush, elected in , his son George W. Bush, elected in and , and John McCain, who was nominated but defeated in In the ensuing furor, the president's wife Eleanor Roosevelt publicly resigned from the DAR and arranged for Anderson to sing at the Lincoln Memorial before a crowd of 75, A number of analysts have suggested that WASP dominance of the institutional order has become a thing of the past.
The accepted wisdom is that after World War II, the selection of individuals for leadership positions was increasingly based on factors such as motivation and training rather than ethnicity and social lineage.
- W.A.S.P. (band).
- Demons Beware (Demons Beware series Book 1);
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- Keep calm and wear white – how to avoid wasp stings.
Many reasons have been given for the decline of WASP power, and books have been written detailing it. Nevertheless, white Protestants remain influential in the country's cultural, political, and economic elite. Scholars supporting this idea [ who? A notable event [ according to whom? John F. Kennedy's election was the result of his father Joseph P. Kennedy's election was one of the closest presidential elections in US history, and it is likely that Joseph P.