Una recerca en dos temps (Catalan Edition)

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Comentaris Ressenya Policy. Mostra els detalls. Marca com a inadequat. Visita el lloc web. The Tabernacle Choir. Stream Inspirational Music. Remote Link PC Remote. SPC Connect. Vanderbilt Industries. Epson iProjection. Seiko Epson Corporation. As mentioned in a previous section, the care of the injured took place in the voting centres in many cases, in the midst of police charges and, in these conditions, the staff of the Emergency Medical Service prioritised the quality of care over the correct completion of the clinical forms.

This explains why in diagnoses Thus, when analysing the location of traumas in different parts of the body, this group was not taken into account, nor was the group of traumas in multiple parts of the body. Traumas of known location were in total. Figure 1 shows its distribution by corporal areas. The head and neck traumas were including injuries of non-specific location and TBI The blows must be given with the defence parallel to the ground and on muscle-protected parts of the lower body.

In the event of an assault with a knife or blunt instrument, the articulation of the member of the body holding the weapon should be found. As mentioned in a previous section, there were multiple location traumas Published footage and reports [2, 4, 6, 7, 19] show that a certain number of people were repeatedly hit with the result of multiple contusions or polycontusions. In accordance with the aforementioned protocols for police action, the recommendation to give only 1 or 2 blows was not complied with either.

Comparing the data in this study with the data in the CatSalut Report, the figures of polycontusions do not match. The Spanish National Police Code, an organic law updated in January [23], contains all the regulations concerning the National Police but does not include specific instructions on the use of police defences. When analysing the specific locations within each part of the body in more detail, some are significant.

For example, within the head and neck area there were 65 injuries to the face, most of them contusions, but also 2 fractures not counting the ocular orbit floor included in TBI. Other significant injuries due to their location on the head, and also due to their severity, were the 34 TBI. Unlike scalp contusions there were only 4 , TBI require a strong impact on the skull, capable of injuring the organs inside it. Both facial and head injuries The act of causing injuries to multiple parts of the body, apart from aggravating the severity of the injury, also suggests similar attitudes.

The area of the trunk, which includes the thorax, shoulder, back with the spine, and pelvis, houses organs as important and fragile as the lungs, kidneys, or spinal cord. Fortunately, these vital organs were not significantly affected, although there were numerous injuries to the chest and back including a vertebral fracture. The upper limb is the part of the body that suffered the most trauma and also the most fractures.

The arm was the most injured area but in the hand and fingers there were also contusions. The hand fingers specifically presented fractures, capsulitis and dislocations, which can be caused, among other actions, by twisting or excessive stretching of the fingers [20]. The lower limb, despite being considered a less risky part of the body, also suffered some major injuries, especially an impacted femur fracture, which was one of the most severe cases. The sight of indiscriminate attacks of all kinds by a compact mass of uniformed policemen, often with their faces covered by the visor, the presence of wounded or bloodied people on the ground, and the screams of pain and fear from people at polling stations were reason enough to have a strong emotional impact all over the world.

In addition, the actions of smashing doors and breaking glass and furniture added to a sense of insecurity and danger [6, 27].

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In this situation, there were people who developed disorders secondary to the emotional impact received, in total 76 Table 5. When we talk about emotional impact, we tend to think that it only produces psychological disorders but, in reality, there were a greater number of organic and mixed disorders 67 than pure psychological disorders 9.

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The latter were, in general, transitory and of little seriousness although this type of disorders sometimes manifest themselves in a delayed manner and it is possible that some were attended later than the days included in the study. A joint project of the universities of Lleida and Barcelona is carrying out research into the emotions and psychological consequences of the situation experienced on the day of the referendum [28].

Nine people experienced dizziness or vertigo, but it cannot be ruled out that these symptoms corresponded to anxiety or anguish. The remaining diagnoses were cardiovascular organic disorders, mainly syncope 31 cases , which is a temporary loss of consciousness caused by low blood pressure and decreased cerebral blood flow. Other cardiovascular disorders, of growing severity, were: transient alterations in blood pressure hypertensive crisis and heart rhythm tachycardia , paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, cardiac disorder requiring the implantation of a defibrillator and, in the most serious case, myocardial infarction with cardiac arrest.

According to the October CatSalut report [3], the majority of people attended had mild injuries or conditions: However, in cases These 7 patients were counted in the section of characteristics of the people attended and their diagnoses in the corresponding sections of physical injuries and emotional impact but, due to their importance, they are described separately indicating the combination of pathologies they presented [3, 29].

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These 7 patients had:. In some patients, the severity was due to the seriousness, extent and complications of the trauma, mainly in TBI. The prognosis was aggravated when there were multiple injuries and also with the addition of organic disorders by emotional impact. On October 1, when citizens only wanted to vote, there were massive police charges in many polling stations, resulting in 1, people attended and 1, diagnoses made. They are summarised below:.

The National Police Code , mentioned above [23], establishes some basic principles for the conduct of officers: they must act with absolute political neutrality and impartiality, they must adhere to proper and careful treatment in their relations with citizens and they must only use weapons in situations in which there is a rationally serious risk to their lives or physical integrity or that of third parties, or in circumstances that may pose a serious risk to public safety.

Comparing the outcome of police actions against the regulations governing the conduct of officers, some questions arise :. Instead of behaving in compliance with protocols, the Police used totally disproportionate force and showed remarkable aggressiveness, viciousness and total indifference or empathy towards the injured. A typical example of this was found in a polling station in Lleida, where there was the patient with the acute myocardial infarction; the footage shows how the police continued the charges while he was being resuscitated, and how some people who were beaten even fell on the patient.

The action protocols of all police forces are precisely intended to limit the use of force to avoid unnecessary injuries or, in any case, less serious injuries. However, to this day it is not clear exactly what orders the Spanish policemen received regarding their conduct at the polling stations, nor who gave the orders.

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On the other hand, the police officers were responsible for their own actions and, as explained in the National Police Code, officers will adhere to the principles of hierarchy and subordination but, in no case, due obedience may cover orders involving the performance of actions that clearly constitute a crime or are contrary to the Constitution or the laws. A number of international institutions and organisations claimed that disproportionate violence was used during the police charges on the 1st of October.

They also called for a swift, independent and effective investigation.

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As a result, Human Rights Watch, in its last annual report published a few days ago, criticised the fact that no police officer was convicted for the excessive use of violence during the referendum [30]. A small number of police officers were also attended to by CatSalut Table 6. They were between the ages of 19 and 65 and all were men except one woman from the National Police. The injuries diagnosed were only mild contusions and none of the officers had emotional impact disorders.

Some members of the Spanish government and ever-supportive media had claimed that the number of police officers injured was very high, around , which was later significantly reduced [13]. Nonetheless, some of the legal charges against those involved in organising the referendum have been based precisely on the fact that there were injured police officers. It is therefore essential to clarify how many police officers were actually injured and what kind of injuries they sustained. In the first place, when analysing the images of October 1 it can be observed that police officers were protected with boots, helmets with visors, vests and other anti-riot gear such as shields [2, 4, 19].

On the other hand, it can also be observed that the crowds at the polling stations did not attack any officers and, in any case, only shouted in fear and indignation. Secondly, only 12 police officers appear on the CatSalut centralised register. It cannot be ruled out that, sporadically, some citizens acted aggressively against police officers, but it must also be considered that with their forceful actions against people and the use of defences during the charges, they could also have caused injuries to themselves.

The brief states that the people were aggressive and caused injuries to several police officers. It describes that 6 officers were attacked, specifically 4, and that several more officers in each of two schools were also attacked, without mentioning what traumas they sustained. Finally, a description is given of 7 officers with specific traumatic injuries: 1 testicular trauma caused by kicking, 4 contusions, 1 wound caused by kicking, 1 fracture of the phalanx of a finger.

With the exception of these 7 cases, it is difficult to know the number of police officers injured on the basis of the written data, since it does not explain how many of the attacked officers presented traumas or what type of injuries the officers had. In order to be able to clarify the real number of police officers with injuries, it would be of great help to provide the medical diagnoses of the officers who were attended to in health centres other than CatSalut.

To the Department of Health of the Generalitat de Catalunya for their collaboration, without which it would not have been possible to carry out the study. Catalonia 1 October Som-Ara llibres, Barcelona, Commissioner for Human Rights, Council of Europe. Letter to the Minister of the Interior of Spain. October 04, Human Rights Watch, October 13, BBC News, Word. Antich J. How dare he?


It was blood, not red paint! Spanish Justice minister jokes about injuries during the Catalan independence referendum. El Nacional. January 21, October 13, MedTerms Medical Dictionary. Guinjoan M, Rodon T. Quin criteri va fer servir la policia espanyola per reprimir en uns municipis concrets? Altesa C. The 1st of October in Numbers. National Library of Medicine. Institut Guttmann.

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Recommendation 10 adopted by the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on September 19, United Nations Human Rights. CNN World, Mombiela M. Human Rights Watch, World Report There were certain expectations of an improvement in the text of the reform of the Statute of Autonomy approved in July but the Partido Popular filed an appeal of unconstitutionality.

And so, the Catalan sentiment of a large part of the population was transformed into a desire for independence [3]; this feeling also developed in a section of the population, generally of non-Catalan origin, which had previously felt Catalan [4]. One of the effects of this situation was the gradual increase in the number of independence-minded MPs in the Catalan Parliament from onward.

The Parliament of Catalonia elected in September , agreed, in the session of September 6th , to carry out a binding referendum on self-determination in Catalonia and passed the law which was based on international law. A few hours later, all members of the government of the Generalitat de Catalunya signed the decree calling the referendum on October 1st On September 7th, the Constitutional Court admitted the appeal of unconstitutionality presented by the government of Spain against the law and the decree and cautiously suspended them [5, 6].

The government of Catalonia therefore proceeded with the preparations to hold the referendum on the 1st of October as planned. The Spanish government made several efforts to prevent the referendum, which they considered illegal. At the same time, the government of Spain sent 10, National Police and Civil Guards to Catalonia [3, 5] and, at the end of September, its president, Mr. When the polling stations were protected by a large number of people, the Mossos did not intervene because they considered that they could not do so without charging and, therefore, without disrupting citizen coexistence.

The same statistics explain that Spanish police officers intervened in a total of polling stations and, in 75 of these, performed charges in order to confiscate the ballot boxes and ballot papers to prevent the voting.