The Interrelation of Phenomenology, Social Sciences and the Arts: 69 (Contributions To Phenomenology)
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Series: Routledge studies in social and political thought Includes bibliographical references and index.
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Meaning Philosophy Social epistemology. For the present version, the text has been edited, updated, and adapted to a wide academic audience interested in the contemporary problems of social theory. In fact, it runs more or less in the opposite way. My observations on Chinese painted screens are found in the last chapter of this book. When a chapter was starting to have a clear shape, it soon seemed to ask for a foundation and required me to dig deeper into the problem. The second detail refers to the complexity of the topic and its highly interdis- ciplinary character.
An exhaustive coverage of the topic is simply impossible across such a large number of disciplines, and I could not have this intention. Equally important is the fact that some notions may sound too technical to a phi- losopher or a literary theorist, while other expressions may sound too metaphor- ical and vague to a sociologist or a psychologist. I tried to balance the style and the use of terminology from this point of view and to locate my discourse in the wide sphere of Schutzian sociology and interpretive social theory. From these encounters, I have also learned to seek a measured order in the realities of words and ideas and to inquire into the measure of actions and things.
I am grateful to Professors Austin Harrington and Lidia Julianna Guzy for having offered me profound and detailed comments and useful suggestions that helped me to improve this book and see it in a different light. I am grateful to my friends Alina S. My thanks also go to my teachers in Cluj, who have stimulated my research interests and paved my way to this research: Professors Ion Copoeru, Vasile S.
I thank my family for their unconditional love and support. Smartphones, smart watches, smart eyeglasses, smart homes, smart cities, and smart things all come up with quite the same ambivalent offer. Second, they promise us, on the contrary, to invade, enrich, and augment the reality of our daily life by preserving, again, the authenticity of our sense of reality. We are invited to admit that, ulti- mately, it makes no difference whether the things we see and hear are real or just appear to be real as long as our experience of them is real enough.
In other words, we have an invitation to ontological neutrality. Was this ontological plural- ity and ambivalence of human experience an invention of our contemporary society?
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- Alfred Schutz (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)?
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Did it land into our world on the wings of our marvelous technologies, or was it just emphasised and problematised1 by them? A closer look at the question shows us immediately that, regardless of their cultural, geographical, or historical context, humans have always lived in multiple realities.
The main objective of the present work is not a contribution to the sociology or anthropology of virtual experience in a hypertechnologised world. The amount of scholarly research that has been pro- duced in connection with the subject2 would make it an impossible task within the narrow scope assumed here.
Rather, the large interest in such topics must be an argument for the idea that a solid theoretical foundation is needed for the under- standing of human experience in a world that is irrevocably plural.
This fundamental problem has been approached by many scholars using various theoretical tools. Halliday, semioticians have investigated the concept of modality as the status of reality attached to a text, which is founded on a pluralist conception of reality. To the best of my knowledge, nobody has carried out a similar project so far. Phenomena occurring in a certain province of meaning are compatible among each other but normally incompatible with phenomena and experiences belonging to a different reality. They were just among those who realised that reality is plural and that we can never experience it otherwise.
The Interrelation of Phenomenology, Social Sciences and the Arts
Before approaching with quanti- tative methods the many realities created with new technologies, scientists need to understand the multiple character of human experience in its simpler forms, which are historically older and genetically closer to everyday life. This is rather a philosophical than a sociological question, and it will not be addressed in the present investigation. The social world may appear today more fragmented and compartmentalised than ever.
There is also the question of why humans have progressed particularly in the sense of increasing the diversity of experience and not viceversa. Is diver- sity of experience good for humans? Is it a source of pleasure? Is it a basic need? Weber Heidelberg: Springer; Sylvie Magerstadt Virtual Reality. Rijeka: InTech; Edward Castro- nova Synthetic Worlds. Reading Communities From Salons to Cyberspace. The Second Media Age. Managing the Reality of Virtual Organizations. New Delhi: Springer; Thomas M.
Malaby At the end of this essay, Schutz speculates whether the Husserlian method of freely varying examples to determine the essential features that survive through such variations is not constrained by both ontological structure e. These types, based on past experiences or socially transmitted, aim at future occurrences not in their uniqueness but with an emptiness that future events will fill in, such that only in retrospect, after an event occurs, is one able to determine how much that event was expected or unexpected.
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Schutz, himself a trained pianist and widely read musicologist, integrated his phenomenology with his understanding of music. Music, differing from language in being non-representative, lends itself to phenomenological analysis in the meaning it carries beyond its mere physical nature as sound waves and in its character as an ideal object that must be constituted through its unfolding stages, i.
Hence, Schutz disagreed with Maurice Halbwachs who posited musical notation as the basis of social relationships between performers, when in fact it is merely a technical device accidental to their relationship. In another essay, Schutz depicted Mozart as a social scientist, presenting a succession of situations that different characters interpret, and Schutz showed how orchestral representations of characters and their moods in melody made possible a simultaneity of fluxes of inner time that the non-operatic, nonmusical dramatist could only unfold successively.
For instance, music and inner time unfold polythetically and cannot be grasped monothetically; that is, one must live through the unfolding of a symphony or inner experience, and any conceptual summary of their contents inevitably fails to do justice to their meaning. However, since all conceptualization consists in a monothetical grasping of polythetic stages, Schutz is actually realizing that certain dimensions of consciousness elude conceptualization and thus demarcating the limits of rationalization, just as he had pointed out how certain provinces of meaning e.
According to Kersten, Schutz has seen clearly that the passive associations of listening e. Although Quixote is capable of constructing a defense of his own chivalrous world from within that world, the fact that this phantasied world contains an enclave of dreams at the cave of Montesinos ends up undermining it by raising the possibility that it itself is but a dream. Schutz also brought his phenomenology to bear on political issues such as citizenship or racial equality.
Schutz delineates various zones of interests, or relevances, extending from those within reach to those absolutely irrelevant, comments on the constant changeability of relevance configurations, and differentiates between relevances intrinsic to a theme, which one chooses, and those imposed. Schutz, usually the value-free describer of social reality, in his conclusion endorses a normative notion of democracy in which it is a duty and a privilege, frequently not available in non-democratic societies, for well-informed citizens to express and defend opinions that often conflict with the uninformed opinions of the man in the street.
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- The interrelation of phenomenology, social sciences and the arts (Book, ) [ybotumafar.tk].
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- Linked bibliography for the SEP article "Alfred Schutz" by Michael Barber?
- Martin Heidegger.
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- Contributions to Phenomenology.
Board of Education that ended racially segregated education in the United States. As regards group membership, he illustrates that the mere categorization of another as a member of a group need not be discriminatory, but depends upon an appropriate evaluation of the category from the viewpoint of the categorized individual. In this essay, Schutz is concerned not to present a final definition of equality, but to highlight the differences between in-group and out-group understandings that serve as the preconditions of any discussion about it.
Some recently published texts that Schutz authored during an ethics institute in make possible an even richer awareness of his views on politics. In these documents, he recognizes the complex, unforeseen consequences resulting from social change, urges active engagement with others as crucial for developing social and civil judgment, and examines the barriers to sound civil judgment created by government, political parties, pressure organizations, mass media, and educational, familial, religious, and professional institutions.
Embree , For Schutz, however, insofar as those experiences of what was not properly of the ego, supposedly confined within the sphere of ownness, had their origin in the intersubjective world of everyday life that higher level phenomenological reflection presupposed, it seemed difficult to see how one could exclude from such correlates any reference to the sense-determinining of other subjectivities.
It was as though Husserl was striving for a theoretical detachment that the ontological origins of theory would not allow. In addition, for Schutz the very consciousness of another inevitably instituted a relationship with her. Finally, he questioned whether the philosopher, refraining from belief in the existence of the world or others and entering into a certain reflective solitude, could ever experience the transcendental community of which Husserl spoke, since she only constituted the world for herself and not for all other transcendental egos.
Intersubjectivity, Schutz concluded, was a matter of everyday life to be simply described and not to be constituted within the transcendental sphere of a self-reflective consciousness giving an account of how the other comes to appearance. Just as Schutz had argued that the social world dictated the methods for its own social scientific investigation, so here it seemed to prescribe to phenomenology the approach appropriate to its description. In the last thirteen years of his life, Schutz was preparing a comprehensive phenomenology of the natural attitude, and one manuscript, edited by Richard Zaner, was posthumously published as Reflections on the Problem of Relevance , and another, co-authored by Thomas Luckmann, appeared as The Structures of the Life World.
The former book distinguishes different sets of interests, or relevances: topical which focus attention on themes , interpretive which confer meanings on experiences or objects , and motivational.
The Interrelation of Phenomenology, Social Sciences and the Arts | Michael Barber | Springer
The Structures of the Life-World represents a most complex and thorough restatement of many of the themes Schutz addressed throughout his life. After a more general account of the life-world and its relation to the sciences, the book takes up its various stratifications, such as provinces of meaning, temporal and spatial zones of reach, and social structure. They consider how subjective knowledge becomes embodied in a social stock of knowledge and how the latter influences the former.
In addition, the authors pursue such issues as the structures of consciousness and action, the choosing of projects, rational action, and forms of social action, whether such action be unilateral or reciprocal, immediate or mediate. A final section analyzes the boundaries of experience, different degrees of transcendencies from simply bringing an object within reach to the experience of death , and the mechanisms for crossing boundaries e. Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann wrote The Social Construction of Reality , which focused on how subjective human processes construct objective structures that human subjectivity in turn interprets and reacts to and which was among the most widely read books of social science in the twentieth century.
Michael Staudigl and George Berguno have edited a collection of essays on the connection between the Schutzian approach and various hermeneutic traditions. The work of Alfred Schutz opens a wide field that is fruitful for addressing multiple themes and underpinning and supporting multiple disciplines. Life and Influence 2. The Phenomenology of the Social World 3. Extensions 3. Life and Influence Vienna-born Alfred Schutz — joined the artillery division of the Austrian army during World War I and served on the Italian front before returning to pursue studies at the University of Vienna.
The Phenomenology of the Social World In his principal work, Schutz placed three chapters of philosophical discussion between introductory and concluding chapters that discussed the social scientific positions his philosophy attempted to engage. Walsh and F.
Lehnert trans. Schutz ed. Wagner ed. Zaner ed. Zaner and T. Engelhardt trans. Zaner and David J. Parent trans. Smith ed. Grathoff ed. Wagner trans. Srubar ed. Evans trans. Wagner and G. Psathas eds. Embree ed. Endress and I. Srubar eds. Grathoff, H-G. Soeffner, and I.
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Knoblauch, R. Kurt, and H-G. Soeffner eds. Weiss eds. Petropulos, Columbia: University of Missouri Press. Endress and J. Renn eds.