Protozoan Parasites of Fishes, Volume 26 (Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science)
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Published six times a year, British Wildlife bridges the gap between popular writing and scientific literature through a combination of long-form articles, regular columns and reports, book reviews and letters. Conservation Land Management CLM is a quarterly magazine that is widely regarded as essential reading for all who are involved in land management for nature conservation, across the British Isles.
CLM includes long-form articles, events listings, publication reviews, new product information and updates, reports of conferences and letters. Exceptional customer service Get specialist help and advice. Newsletter Google 4. Additionally, Silva et al. Fresh-mounted smears can be observed in light microscope. According to Davies et al. Cyrilia and Haemogregarina are both characterized by the presence of an intra-erythrocytic merogony phase in fish host, while in Desseria spp. According to Eiras b the degree of the lesions are variable. As for example, E.
Up to now, Eimeria sp. Nyctotherus Leidy, and Rhynchodinium paradoxum Cunha et Penido, Ciliated Nyctotherus is present in digestive tract of insects, amphibians and fishes. Great macronucleus, triangular and located at the anterior end of the body. According to Thatcher , these protozoans do not cause severe pathology and can be considered as endocommensals EIRAS, a.
In Brazil, it was observed in P. Rhynchodinium paradoxum shows elongated and cylinder-shaped body, bean-shaped macronucleus located at the anterior end of the body. Tetrahymena is considered an important pathogenic agent to ornamental freshwater fish where it may cause severe mortalities BRUNO et al.
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This protozoan has a pear-shaped body covered by a row of cilia, besides macronucleus and micronucleus. According to Bruno et al. Cutaneous infestation by Tetrahymena causes scaleness, whitish lesions on the skin and opportunistic secondary infection by bacteria. It can also be found in the swimbladder, liver, spleen, blood, kidney, and heart of hosts FOIN, These parasites present a monoxenic life cycle; the pear-shaped trophozoites change to spherical before cellular division WOO, Several protozoan parasites of fishes have been reported in national territory, as a result of efforts of Brazilian researchers from different localities.
Nevertheless, unpublished data of the present authors indicate that much more observations are yet to be reported as shown in Figure Colour black indicates previous reports; colour red indicates unpublished data from the present authors. The use of chemicals in order to control protozoan parasites can be, sometimes, difficult to administer, costly, not completely efficient and even environmentally hazardous.
Dozens of protocols used in many other countries for tropical and temperate fishes have been adapted to fish farms in Brazil with no scientific criteria. In fact, if applied erroneously, it may cause environmental degradation such as impairment of water quality pH and dissolved oxygen alterations can lead to great fish mortality , besides the fact that several chemoterapeutics employed are corrosive, carcinogenic or even explosive. Nevertheless, in field practices it is usually observed low knowledge when employing these techniques.
Prophylactic measurements or immunoprophylaxis adopted in the fish farms and ornamental industry are important tools to minimize the effects of parasitism and to estimulate the fish immune system MARTINS et al. In order to control outbreaks of diseases in fish farms it is fundamental to first characterize carefully the hygienic-sanitary state of the facility. The use of chemotherapeutics cannot be linked only when an outbreak of mortality occurs, in which treatment is employed as a rescue measure to reduce the economic losses. Such products must be applied strategically in each rearing phases in order to have the best fish response, with lowest environmental impact and safety to the operating person.
In these farms, transmission of diseases from the broodstock to eggs, larvae and fingerlings deserves special attention. Efforts to control diseases must be concentrated on these units, which represent the beginning of the production cycle. In tilapia hatcheries where the eggs are collected from the mouth, it may be necessary to disinfect them before storage in incubators. The use of Chloramine-T is an efficient measure for disinfecting eggs against viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites found in this process. It is important to assure that water will circulate inside a mechanical filtration system with the aid of an acrylic filter mat.
In this case, it is worth mentioning that the use of activated carbon elements or other substances with adsorption effects is not recommended, since they could kidnap the molecule of the drug used for disinfection. Adequate management include not handling fish when abiotic factors such as water temperature and pH are exceeding limits generally considered safe for the fish species, avoid translocation of fingerlings from one place to another without proper care, always use good quality feeds, monitor regularly the quality of the water entering the farm, avoid water sharing among ponds and disinfect fish handling equipment.
After that, it is necessary to adopt other measures of biosecurity to ensure larvae remain free of parasites during subsequent rearing phases. For such, it is important to sectorize fish farm facilities, thus delimitating areas for equipments and for passage of employees. Other important measures to avoid disease dissemination include preventing entry of wild fish in the farm this can be done using screens in the water supply canal , implementing sanitary barriers such as cleaning and disinfecting ponds, using a quarantine tank, depurating fish before transport and using wetlands in the water supply canal.
Wetlands macrophytes such as Eichhornia spp. Figure 12 can be considered an efficient tool to contain dispersion of resistant forms of parasites, such as eggs and resistent cysts into the farm, as well as to provide a huge surface area for attached microbial growth. However, one must establish a routine for renewal of these aquatic plants so that the saturation capacity of retention of particles in its submerged roots does not occurs.
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To this end, it must be performed the removal of adult plants, or under the senescent stage, every 15 to 45 days, varying according to the season and the amount of suspended material in the water. After storage of fingerlings in a farm destinated to fish fattening, the use of sanitary measures may be expensive and sometimes operationally difficult.
Similar to that found in industrial pig and poultry farming, young fish should be sent to growing units in a good health status and possibly vaccinated, minimizing thus parasite hazard to an acceptable level. It must be emphasized that it is complex to achieve fish completely negative for parasites and so prophylaxis and best management practices are the best ways of achieving adequate health status of farmed fish BOYD et al.
Recurrent amyloodiniosis on broodstock of the Brazilian flounder : dinospore monitoring and prophylactic measures. Paralichthys orbignyanus J World Aquac Soc ; 36 1 : First report of sp. Calyptospora Eur J Protistol ; 46 2 : Morphological data of spinosa n. Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae parasite of.
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Barnett SF. In: Theileria Kreir J Ed. Elsevier; Trichodinidae and other ciliophorans Phylum Ciliophora. In: Woo PTK. Fish diseases and disorders. Cab International; Protozoan and Metazoan infections. Evaluation of data on ichthyopathological analyses in the Brazilian Northeast.
Cienc Cult ; 44 6 : Apicomplexa: Sporozoea from liver of tucunare in Brazil. Calyptospora tucunarensisCichla ocellaris Syst Parasitol ; 18 2 : Parasites of native Cichlidae populations and invasive Linnaeus, in tributary of Amazonas River Brazil. Oreochromis niloticus Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 23 1 : Hepatic Calyptospora sp. Apicomplexa infection in a wild-born, aquarium-held clutch of juvenile arapaima Osteoglossidae. Arapaima gigas Dis Aquat Organ ; 70 : Disease and health management in Asian aquaculture. Vet Parasitol ; : Best management practices for responsible aquaculture.
Guide to the identification of fish protozoan and metazoan parasites in stained tissue sections. Dis Aquat Organ ; 70 : Bullock WL. Entamoeba gadi sp. Pollachius virens J Parasitol ; 52 4 : Detection of antibody response against Amyloodinium ocellatum Brown, is serum of naturally infected European sea bass by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol ; 21 3 : Calyptospora serrasalmi sp. Coccidia: Calyptosporidae from liver of the black piranha, Serrasalmus niger Schomburgk.
J Aquaricult Aquat Sci ; 4 3 : Mass mortality of hatchery-reared milkfish Chanos chanos and mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus caused by Amyloodinium ocellatum Dinoflagellida. Aquaculture ; : Rev Bras Zool ; 10 3 : Davies AJ. The biology of fish haemogregarines. Adv Parasitol ; Haemogregarina bigemina Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Adeleorina - past, present and future. Folia Parasitol ; 51 : Potential environmental and host gender influences on prevalence of Adeleorina:Haemogregarinidae and suspected. Haemogregarina platessaeHaemohormidium terraenovae incertae sedis in Brazilian flounder from the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern BrazilFolia Parasitol ; 55 3 : Some observations on the fine structure of trophozoites of the haemogregarine Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae in erythrocytes of the fish Synbranchidae.
Cyrilia lignieresiSynbranchus marmoratus Parasitol Res ; 88 7 : Durborow RM. Protozoan parasites. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center; Eiras JC. Elementos de ictioparasitologia. Mugil platanus Res Rev Parasitol ; 55 3 : Checklist of protozoan parasites of fishes from Brazil. Zootaxa ; Quantitative study of Trichodina heterodentata Ciliophora: Mobilia infrapopulations infesting tadpoles of a Brazilian endemic toad Rhinella pombali Anura: Bufonidae.
Zoologia ; 28 6 : Notes on the occurrence of sp.
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Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in freshwater fishes from South Africa. Trypanosoma Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 80 1 : Foin AA. Parasites et parasitoses des poissons d'ornement d'eau douce: aide au diagnostic et propositions de traitement [Tese]. Francis-Floyd R, Reed P. Management of in ornamental cichlids [ Hexamita online]. Trichodina compacta Int J Zool Res ; 2 4 : Guerra-Santos B.
Salvador: Universidade Federal da Bahia; Rachycentron canadum Pesq Vet Bras ; 32 11 : Ultrastruct of red-sore lesions on largemouth bass Micropterussalmoides : associattion of the ciliate sp. EpistylisAeromonas hydrophila J Protozool ; 25 3 Pt 2 : Light and scanning electron microscopic studies of trypanosomes parasites infecting freshwater fishes in Qena Governorate, Egypt.
Egypt Acad J Biolog Sci ; 2 1 : Molecular tools for the detection and identification of spp. Kinetoplastida , important fish parasites. Ichthyobodo Parasitol Int ; 61 4 : Isaksen TE. Bergen: University of Bergen; Documentos Jepps MW. Note on a haemogregarine in. Lepidosiren paradoxa Parasitology ; 19 3 : Seasonal variation on the ectoparasitic communities of Nile tilapia cultured in three regions in southern Brazil. Braz J Biol ; 71 2 : Junior GE. Nyctotherus piscicola Arch Protistenkd ; Kazubski SL, Migala K.
Studies on the distinctness of Chilodonella cyprini Moroff and Ch. Hexasticha Kiernik , ciliate parasite of fishes. Chlamydodontidae, Gymnostomatida Acta Protozool ; Introduction to freshwater fish parasites [online].
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Kozloff EN. Redescription of Leidy, Kinetoplasta: Bodonea: Cryptobiidae , disposition of flagellates mistakenly assigned to this species, and description of a new species from a North American pulmonate snail. Cryptobia helicis Acta Protozool ; Flagellate Cryptobia branchialis Bodonida: Kinetoplastida , ectoparasite of tilapia from the Salton Sea. Hydrobiologia ; : Lainson R. On Neiva and Pinto, gen. Haemogregarinidae and Trypanosoma bourouli Neiva and Pinto, in the fish. In: Cyrilia gomesiSynbranchus marmoratus : simultaneous transmission by the leech Haementerialutzi Canning EU, editor.
Parasitological topics. London: Society of Protozoologists; Special Publication vol.
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A protozoologist in Amazonia: neglected parasites, with particular reference to members of the Coccidia Protozoa, Apicomplexa. Cienc Cult ; 44 : Lainson R, Ribeiro L. Eimeria lepidosirenis Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 3 : Theileria electrophori n. Electrophorus electricus Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 2 : Scanning electron microscope study of dinospores of cf. Amyloodiniumocellatum Dis Aquat Organ ; 20 1 : A highly specific PCR assay for detecting the fish ectoparasite.
Amyloodinium ocellatum Dis Aquat Organ ; 73 3 : Study of Blanchard occurring on fry of freshwater fishes in Hongze, China with consideration of the genus. Apiosoma piscicolaApiosoma Parasitol Res ; 5 : Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Zootaxa ; Lom J. A contribution to the systematics and morphology of endoparasitic trichodinids from amphibians, with a proposal of uniform specific characteristics. J Protozool ; 5 4 : Lom J, Schubert G. Piscinoodinium pillulare J Fish Dis ; 6 5 : Protozoan parasites of fishes. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science.
Parasitic infections in cultivated freshwater fishes a survey of diagnosticated cases from to Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 9 1 : Parasitological and pathological aspects. Braz J Biol ; 61 4 : First record of Trichodina heterodentata Ciliophora: Trichodinidae from channel catfish, cultivated in Brazil. Ictalurus punctatus Braz J Biol a; 70 3 : Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in. If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube.
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