The Banished A Swabian Historical Tale. In Three Volumes.
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Success , Captain Ayscough. Having at Malta changed the Success for H. Formidable , we finally reached Plymouth on the 25th November, I should be wanting in gratitude, if I did not here express the obligations which I owe to my fellow traveller, Mirza Abul Hassan, the late Persian Envoy Extraordinary, for much information on subjects relating to his own country, and for all the facilities of acquiring his language, which his communicative and amiable disposition afforded me.
As this personage was distinguished, during his stay in England, by attentions more marked and continued than, perhaps, were ever paid to any foreigner, I have conceived that I should not trespass too much on the patience of my readers by inserting a sketch of his life;.
I feel at least that it will prove very acceptable to those who have shown him, as a stranger, so much friendship and hospitality.
the banished a swabian historical tale in three volumes Manual
In my narrative I have confined myself to relate our proceedings from the time we left Bombay to my arrival at Constantinople. The sea voyages, from England to India, and from Constantinople to England, are too well known to require any thing more to be written about them. The engravings that are inserted are made from drawings which I took on the spot; they are done in a slight manner, and therefore are more intended to give general ideas, than to enter into any nicety of detail.
For the map from Bushire to Teheran I am indebted to my friend Captain James Sutherland, of the Bombay army; and for the general one of the countries, through which my route carried me, I must here return my thanks to Major Rennell, who has furnished me with this valuable document, and who has kindly assisted me in this, as well as on other occasions when I found myself deficient, with his advice and information. The map from Teheran to Amasia is the result of my own observation, corrected by the same masterly hand.
It terminates at Amasia , because my journey from that place to Constantinople was performed as much by night as it was by day, and prosecuted with too great speed to permit me to observe with accuracy. Besides which, in Turkey, where the people are much more jealous and watchful of travellers than in Persia, I found that I could not make my remarks so much at my ease as I wished, although assisted by the disguise of a Persian dress. The courses and distances, noted in the journal, are only to be regarded as a kind of dead reckoning , subject to correction by the application of latitudes in certain places, and of approximated positions in others; and, in all, by allowances for the inflexions and inequalities of the roads.
I am indebted to Messrs. Jukes and Bruce, of the Bombay service, for the information which they furnished me whilst I was in Persia, and I have not failed to make my acknowledgments, wherever such information has been inserted. But I must, in particular, express my gratitude to Mr. Robert Harry Inglis, for the kindness with which he offered to correct and arrange my memoranda, and prepare my journals for the press. I beg leave to repeat that this volume is meant merely as provisional, and that I am far from entertaining the presumption that it will class with the valuable pages of Chardin, Le Brun, Hanway, Niebuhr, or Olivier.
It is to be expected, that the extensive communication that will be opened with Persia, in consequence of our late political transactions with its court, will throw the whole extent of that very interesting part of the globe under our cognizance; and that, among other subjects of inquiry, its numerous antiquities, which have as yet been but imperfectly explored, will throw new lights upon its ancient history, manners, religion, and language.
Morier from thence to Constantinople. The history of Persia from the death of Nadir Shah to the accession of the present King, comprehending a period of fifty-one years, presents little else than a catalogue of the names of tyrants and usurpers, and a succession of murders, treacheries and scenes of misery. After the assassination of Nadir, one of the most formidable of the competitors for the vacant throne, was Mahomed Hassan Khan, the head of the Cadjar tribe, and a person of high rank among the nobles of Shah Thamas, the last king of the Seffi race.
Mahomed Hassan Khan had several sons: Hossein Kooli Khan, the eldest, was father to the present King of Persia, and was killed in a battle with the Turcomans : Aga Mahomed Khan, the second son, was the immediate predecessor of his nephew on the throne. Mahomed Hassan Khan had not long assumed the crown, when he was opposed by Kerim Khan, a native of Courdistan ; who, under pretence of protecting the rights of Ismael,. The birth of Kerim Khan was obscure; but the habits of his early years qualified him for the times in which he lived, and the destiny to which he aspired.
His family, indeed, was a low branch of an obscure tribe in Courdistan , that of the Zunds , from which his dynasty has been denominated; and his profession was the single occupation of all his countrymen, robbery,. Here he acquired the talents and hardihood of a soldier; and was renowned for an effectual spirit of enterprise, and for great personal skill in the exercise of the sword, a qualification of much value among his people.
The long revolutions of Persia called forth every talent and every passion; and the hopes of Kerim Khan were excited by the partial successes of others, and by the consciousness of his own resources. He entered the field; and eventually overcame Mahomed Hassan Khan, his principal competitor, who fled and was killed in Mazanderan.
The conqueror having seized and confined the children of his rival, proceeded to quell the several inferior chiefs, who, in their turns, had aspired to the succession. His superior activity and talents finally secured the dominion: and having, in , settled at Shiraz , he made that city the seat of his government. He beautified it by many public buildings, both of use and luxury; and their present state attests the solid magnificence of his taste.
His memory is much lamented in Persia; as his reign, a reign of dissipation and splendor, was congenial to the character of the people. In his time prostitutes were publicly protected; their calling was classed among the professions; and the chief, or representative, of their numbers, attended by all the state and parade of the most respected of the Khans and Mirzas , used daily to stand before the Sovereign at his Durbar.
On the 13th of March, , Kerim Khan died a natural death, an extraordinary occurrence in the modern history of Persia, having reigned according to the different dates assigned to his accession, from the deaths of different competitors from nineteen to thirty years. From the fall of Mahomed Hassan Khan the better epoch, his conqueror lived nineteen years, with almost undisputed authority.
After his death all was again in confusion; and the kingdom presented a renewal of blood and usurpation.
It is scarcely necessary to state the short-lived struggles of his successors: their very names have ceased to interest us. It is sufficient therefore to add, that his sons and brothers, and other relatives, attacked each other for fourteen years after his death; till the fortunes of the whole family were finally overwhelmed in the defeat of Loolf Ali Khan, the last and greatest of these claimants; and the dominion was transferred, in the year , to his conqueror, Aga Mahomed Khan, of the present royal race of Persia. In latter years, during the war between the East India Company and Tippoo Saib, under the administration of the Marquis Wellesley, the political relations of England and Persia were renewed.
An embassy, which Tippoo sent to Fatteh Ali Shah, the present King of Persia, was followed soon after by a rival mission, which the Indian government confided to the care of Mehede Ali Khan, a man of Persian extraction. In the mean time, indeed, Tippoo was killed; and his death left us in possession of the Persian councils. That gentleman concluded a treaty,. The King of Persia carried his arms into Khorassan , and conquered that province. Hajee Kelil Khan was sent as the embassador, but unfortunately he was killed in a fray at Bombay , as he was attempting to quell a disturbance between his servants and some Indians.
To explain this untoward event, Mr. Lovett, a gentleman in the Bengal civil service, was dispatched; but he proceeded no further with his mission than to Bushire , and delivered it over to Mr. Another embassy was now sent from the Persian Court; and Mahomed Nebee Khan, the Envoy appointed, luckily reached Calcutta without any accident.
Nose, the Dwarf (Little Longnose)
Some time after, French agents were traced into Persia, and the views of France begun to be suspected. Monsieur Jouannin, an intelligent Frenchman, succeeded in getting the Persian Court to send a mission to Buonaparte. On his return, a large embassy, confided to General Gardanne, was sent from France to Persia: this gave rise to the mission of Sir Harford Jones, who, arriving at Bombay in April , found that Brigadier-General Malcolm had been previously sent by the Governor-General to Persia.
General Malcolm having failed of success, Sir Harford Jones proceeded. The establishment of the mission had been changed since our arrival in India; Major L. Smith, who left England as public Secretary, on landing at this settlement proceeded to Bengal; and the duties of Secretary of the Legation were annexed to those, which, as private secretary to the Envoy, I had originally discharged. The suite was augmented at Bombay by Mr.
Thomas Henry Sheridan, and Captain James Sutherland, severally of the civil and military establishments of that presidency, by Cornet Henry Willock, of the Madras cavalry, commander of the body guard; and was subsequently joined by Lieutenant Blacker, of the Madras cavalry, and Mr. Campbell, surgeon to the mission. Besides three European and some Indian servants, the Envoy carried washermen and tailors, and some artificers, as carpenters, blacksmiths, and locksmiths.
On the 12th Sept. Sir Harford Jones, accompanied by Mr. Sutherland and Mr. Willock went in the Sapphire , Capt. Davis: and the H. The Governor of Bombay drew out the troops of the garrison to salute the Envoy on his embarkation: they formed a lane from the government-house to the entrance of the dock-yard; and as He passed the troops presented arms, and the music played God save the King.
A salute of fifteen guns was fired on his quitting the shore, and was answered by another from the frigate; a ceremony which always excites a powerful feeling of respect in the minds of the natives. In the afternoon of the 12th, the squadron left the harbour of Bombay : on the 13th, the Nereide had out-stripped the Sapphire , and had lost sight of the Sylph. The land of the Guzerat is extremely low. Diu Point is studded with towns and pagodas.
A Journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809
The largest place, which we marked in our progress, was Pour-bundar. The coast itself continued flat, with scarcely an inequality. On Sunday, the 18th. The scene struck me as more simple and more impressive than any that, for a long time, I had witnessed. The cleanliness of the ship, the attention of the sailors, the beauty of the day, all conspired to heighten the solemnity of the service, and I felt persuaded that the prayers, offered up to God by such men and in such a manner, would be favourably accepted.
Published by Messrs. As the coast of Mekran , taken largely, from the Indus to the entrance of the gulph of Persia, along which we now sailed, is so little visited in this age, and has, indeed, been so seldom described since the days of Alexander, it may, perhaps, be acceptable to insert even the few and incomplete notices of the country which my journal affords. On the 18th. On the 24th we again saw land, which in appearance was remarkable. It was a very long range of table land, the soil of which, though light coloured, was strongly marked in horizontal strata.
As we approached it, we discovered several curious capes, rising in a varied succession of grotesque forms; and among them one so very singular, that we were surprised that it had not been particularly described by those who have compiled the directories for navigating these seas. By our chronometers we took this land to be Cape Moran. The shore gradually shallows from twelve to five fathoms, when we tacked and stood off again in the evening, expecting a land breeze to spring up, but were disappointed. The sea is here very much discoloured, the effect probably of black mud at the bottom.
Cape Arubah is a long slip of table land, which on its first appearance looks like an island. Its soil seems to be clay, and of a colour a few shades darker than Portland stone. We did not discover, among the head-lands into which it was broken, the particular cape which might have given its name to the whole; but the highest point to the westward appeared to deserve the preference. Beyond that western extremity of the table land, the coast immediately recedes into a bay, which is terminated by a long range of extremely rugged mountains. In one of the recesses of the cliffs of Arubah , we fancied that we had discovered a village, and even through our glasses were still positive that we could mark its white buildings; but as we drew closer to the shore, we ascertained that the houses in appearance were in reality large clods of white soil, which had fallen from the cliffs above, and were arranged so happily, some in separate piles, and some in rows, as to give to the whole the full effect of a town.
A number of small boats with white lateen sails were creeping quietly along the shore, as we passed; but we could not get close enough to them, to ascertain the people who managed them, or the nature of the goods which they carried. On the 26th. On the 27th. On the 28th.
Not far from the island, we caught turtle. The continent as seen from Ashtola , appears extremely high, in long continued ranges; but the lands which more immediately border on the sea, are very low. The soundings are regular, and there is no danger, as long as the lead is going. On the 1st of October, we made Cape Guadel , a piece of land of a moderate and rather equal height, which projects far into the sea, and is connected with the continent by an isthmus less than half a mile in breadth.
Close under the north side of the cape, there is still a town; and on the isthmus, as we could perceive from the ship, are the remains of an old fort. In the neighbourhood are the vestiges of a town also, built with stone, and some wells. But the more modern village of Guadel is composed of mat houses, and the greater part of the inhabitants the number of the whole is very small are weavers, who manufacture coarse linen and carpets of ordinary colours. From Crotchey to Cape Monze the people call themselves Balouches ; and from Monze to Cape Jasques , they take the name of Brodies : there is some difference in their language, perhaps in their religion also, but none in their dress or manners.
The high lands about Cape Guadel are all extremely remarkable, rising in spires and turrets so correctly formed, as to give to many parts of the coast, an appearance of towns with their churches and castles. One piece of land in particular, forming an entrance to the bay behind Cape Guadel , has the most striking resemblance to a long range of gothic ruin. We perceived three camels grazing on the heights of the cape, and some few signs of cultivation, which we had discovered on no other spot along the coast before.
On the 3d. We saw several boats with lateen sails, of a canvas very conspicuously white, cut exactly like the sails of the boats on the coast of Italy and Sicily. The 5th. On the 6th. This wind brought with it a thick mist of an impalpable sand, which gradually cleared away, and left us the first view of Cape Jasques. We saw at the same time the high land of the Arabian shore, terminating in a lofty and marked peak; it is the land about Cape Musseldom.
The entrance of the gulph may be properly marked between Cape Bombareek and Cape Musseldom. I call these places by their names, as laid down in our sea charts; because their more proper appellations would probably not be understood. Bombareek for instance, which by sailors is also called Bombay rock , is derived originally from " Moobarek , happy, fortunate. The genuine name of this head-land is Mama Selemeh , derived according to the story of the country from Selemeh , who was a female saint of Arabia, and lived on the spot or in its neighbourhood.
The Indians, when they pass the promontory, throw cocoa nuts, fruits or flowers into the sea, to secure a propitious voyage. My informer added, that the superstition was not practised by the Persians. On the shore of Cape Bombareek is an insulated and very singular mass of rock, in which we could perceive from the ship a large natural aperture. To me the shape of the whole mass appeared like a tankard, and the aperture formed its handle. After having rounded Cape Musseldom which is eighteen leagues to the westward of Bombareek , we came to the five small islands generally called altogether the Quoins.
Kishmis is the largest island in the gulph; and, according to the account which I received, is capable of being made very productive: it is at present in almost total abandonment, though still nominally the property of Persia. We next passed two small and low islands, called the Great and Little Tomb.
The strong south wind, with which we were now favoured, was at this season considered extraordinary. It blew so strong that the Nereide, with every sail set, went ten and eleven knots. It is accompanied with much haze, not indeed to be compared to that which came with the hot wind from off the shore, though in the same manner it warped the furniture and slackened the rigging. On the 8th. It is a long and low slip, but the land on the continent behind it is extremely high. We had a light sea breeze all day, that carried us off Cape Nabon , a part of the province of Farz.
On the morning of the 9th.
We conjectured that they might be Arab ships, bound from Muscat to Bussorah , which about this season proceed on their voyages. They carry thither annually eight thousand bales of coffee; and in return get cargoes of dates. The sea breeze of the day was extremely light, and set in at noon. In the evening the Barnhill , a remarkable piece of land, which derived its name from its resemblance to an old and decayed thatched building, and which is situated over the town of Congoon , bore N. Here the whole coast is very high. On the morning of the 10th. Du kanske gillar. Understanding the Consecrated Life in Canada.
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