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Even allowing for this, and the reported bullet hole variation in experimental cases [ 23 ], our entry wound defects are smaller than real injuries. Previous work at the Impact and Armour Group has used food-grade swine tissue for ballistic experiments; mean entrance holes using similar ammunition were 4.
The skin entry wounds do show many features of real gunshot wounds including bullet wipe, Contusion and radial tears but to a varying degree. The similarity of the skin to synthetic bone on CT imaging also made aspects of the CT assessment challenging. A key function of the surrogate soft tissues was containing the majority of the fragments associated with the bone exit wound. Even with this, some of the material was lost making assessment of the exit characteristics difficult. In real cases, wound assessment can also be frustrated by lost fragments, surgical treatment and scavenger activity [ 6 ].
Smith et al. Impacts on the synthetic bone with modern rifle bullets 7. The bone surrogate used in the current work showed some of the elements of real bone injury although beveling at the entrance and exit sites was inconsistent, as can be the case in real ballistic events [ 13 ]. Overall, the reviewer response to the macroscopic fracture pattern in this work and the previous studies [ 3 , 4 ] was positive, likely due to the anatomically correct features of the skull model used.
As noted above imaging in ballistic investigations , real brain injury includes cortical contusions and bleeding from tissue shearing with associated oedema. Our current study used a combination of physical assessments by pathologists and imaging assessments by a radiologist. Although Bollinger et al. Drawing on two different clinical specialities has offered both contrasting and complementary views of the realism of the model.
The assessment was undertaken both by physical examination and CT imaging. The model showed some of the features of real wounds including entry and exit wound characteristics and macroscopic fracture patterns—but individual elements including the size of bullet holes in the skin and synthetic bone beveling need refinement.
Testing the model against data from actual incidents will allow us to critically assess it further and undertake these refinements. Other weapon systems or ammunition types may produce different results under these experimental conditions. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
International Journal of Legal Medicine. Int J Legal Med. Published online Nov Delaney 6. Russ J. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Peter Mahoney, Email: ku. Corresponding author. Received Sep 25; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction Ballistic head injury is a significant threat to troops in combat [ 1 ] and ongoing research is needed to assist designers of military helmets and associated personal protective equipment [ 2 ]. Gunshot wound characteristics The appearance and characteristics of gunshot wounds depend on a number of factors.
Open in a separate window. Imaging in ballistic investigations Thali et al. Methods The research described in this paper was carried out in a number of stages. Table 1 Example Likert-type score sheet used by assessors. Exit wound scoring chart—please tick one only. This looks nothing like a real exit wound 2.
300-356 German Brown
This looks a bit like a real exit wound 3. This looks a lot like a real exit wound 4. This looks exactly like a real exit wound. Results Review of the high-speed video found that the bullets followed four slightly different trajectories. Discussion As far as possible, the models used in the current work were constructed to be identical but inevitably there were minor differences such as with the creases in the gelatine fill.
Acknowledgements From: 1. Adrian Mustey and Dr.
Neanderthal genes could explain the shape of our skulls, study finds - CNN
Jon Painter, Cranfield Forensic Institute. Amarjit Samra, Director of Research. Yvonne Yau. Suzanne Elliott and Anthony Barnett. Military CT Specialist Radiographers. References 1. Died of wounds: a mortality review. J R Army Med Corps. A systematic review of military head injuries. Does preliminary optimisation of an anatomically correct skull-brain model produce clinically realistic ballistic injury fracture patterns?
Forensic Sci Int 2—3 : — [ PubMed ]. Saukko P, Knight B. Knights forensic pathology, 4 th Edn.
Gunshot and explosion deaths; pp. Di Maio VJM Gunshot wounds: practical aspects of firearms, ballistics and forensic techniques, 3 rd edn. Karger B. Forensic ballistics. In: Tsokos M, editor. Forensic pathology reviews volume 5.
German Stag Skull
Totowa: Humana Press; Sellier K. Bullet entry studies of the skin. BeitrGerichtl Med. Rothschild M Conventional forensic medicine. Wound ballistics basics and applications. Translation of the revised third German edition. Springer -Verlag Berlin Heidelberg pp — Characteristics of gunshot wounds to the skull. J Forensic Sci. Experiments on head wounding by high velocity missiles. J Neurosurg. High speed documented experimental gunshot to a skull-brain model and radiological virtual autopsy.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol.
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Leave Feedback. CNN Humans have unusually globular or round skulls and brains compared to our ancient ancestors -- including our closest extinct cousins the Neanderthals -- and a new study provides a possible explanation as to why. Stars Screen Binge Culture Media. Facebook Twitter Instagram. Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what's happening in the world as it unfolds. Neanderthal or Homo sapiens: Do you recognize your skull?
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For the first time, an interdisciplinary team of scientists have identified two genes that affect the shape of the modern human's skull -- and they originate from Neanderthals. These are typically humans with European ancestry stemming from interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern Europeans.