The Students Guide to Writing: Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling (Palgrave Study Guides:Literature)
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If you have the opportunity to choose your format, think carefully about your purpose and intended audience, and exactly how he or she will engage with your communication. On one occasion I designed instructions to show car drivers how to replace a wheel if they experienced a tyre puncture when driving. I made the communication A2 size, laminated, with printed images on a luorescent background, and few words.
My reasoning was that the instructions could be readily stored in a car boot and taken out and used in poor light conditions and whatever the weather. Structure The structure of a document concerns how the various elements of evidence and reasoning are organised to form the beginning, middle and end of a communication. In some cases, assessors expect these sections to be clearly indicated by the use of headings; in other cases they may not. You may have the opportunity to indicate the low of your argument in an assignment through the use of sections, each with its own heading.
An essay is often easier to read and mark if it contains thoughtfully chosen sections with appropriate headings. But you will need to be guided by your assessor as to whether this practice is acceptable for his or her assignments. Structure is clearly crucial to developing the argument in your assignment. Understanding the Nature of an Assignment 31 There are many kinds of document structure, a subject to which we will return in Chapters 3 and 6. Clearly, for you as a student completing an assignment, you need to know the structures that are acceptable for the type of assignment you have been asked to complete.
While there are some conventions see Chapters 3 and 6 , they always need to be checked in the context of a speciic assignment on your particular programme at your particular institution. You may have the opportunity to be creative — and challenge accepted practice — but you need to judge whether this will be acceptable.
If you decide to defy convention, you need to be conident about the conventions you are choosing to challenge. Writing style We have touched on writing style several times already. Which of the answers a — d best describes the style of writing used? The mycorrhizae probably make micronutrients available to the trees with which they are associated, and through iniltration of root cells the mycorrhizae may serve to increase effective root surface area.
Some mycorrhizae release anti- bacterial agents that may help protect the tree against pathogens. On balance, mycorrhizae appear to beneit the trees with which they are associated. Check your answer at the end of the book. Experience For the inal part of the IPACE model, your experience is essentially the knowledge, skills and attitudes you are bringing to the writing task in hand. These apply not just to the content of what you are going to write but also to the process of writing it.
Apart from the video itself, possible sources of information for this task might include lecture notes, tutorial notes, textbooks, academic journal articles, radio or TV programmes, conversations with staff or other students, and relevant websites. But what about the process of writing the assignment? To what extent are you familiar with the writing style, structure and format of the assignment you are being asked to create?
If required, do you know how to use computer software to draw and then import suitable graphics into your document? Have you experience of the particular referencing system you might be expected to use? Thinking about content and process at an early stage helps ensure that you build in enough time to gather the information you need, carry out the writing, and then complete the assignment to the required speciication. At this early stage, identifying gaps in your knowledge and understanding of content and process gives you enough time to seek the help you need, to address any shortcomings.
IPACE is a powerful planning tool. By establishing identity, purpose, audience, writing code, and experience for a writing task, you are now in a much stronger position to carry out the task. You have identiied your strengths and weaknesses, and potential gaps in your knowledge of content and process in relation to the task. You are now much clearer about exactly what you are seeking to do. At the very least you are in a more powerful position to seek speciic kinds of help and support. You will be more focused and much less likely to waste time gathering inappropriate or irrelevant material.
Developing an appropriate style and structure for your writing will be less a process of trial and error. And having worked through IPACE once, you will ind it much speedier to use the next time you have something signiicant to write. In the next section we will consider how you can you use IPACE in just 15 minutes to help you plan and organise completing an assignment.
Further chapters within the book will then enable you to explore any part of the overall writing process in more depth. If you cannot answer all the questions or prompts to your satisfaction, this might indicate areas where you need to obtain further clariication or support. Do you have any choice? What level of formality will be expected? From whose viewpoint will you be writing? Will you be writing in the personal or impersonal? What knowledge can you assume on the part of your reader? Where are the obvious gaps? What will you do to ill them? Process extends from writing your argument in a particular style, for a particular audience, using an appropriate structure and format, to the mechanics of putting together the document, such as using appropriate word-processing and other kinds of software.
It might also include any citing and referencing system you are expected to use. Again, where are the obvious gaps in your knowledge and skills? Early in your academic career you may not be able to answer all the questions above to your satisfaction. But as you progress through your undergraduate programme, you should ind it easier. It is most appropriate for those assignments you think will be most challenging or with which you are least familiar. Key points in the chapter 1 The IPACE model identity, purpose, audience, code and experience is a planning tool that systematically focuses attention on the various aspects of a writing task so that you can complete the task more effectively and with a greater likelihood of success.
Identity shapes your writing to meet its purpose and audience. An assessor may take on a particular persona, such as that of a member of the public, when assessing your writing. Cited references Hickman, D. Carmarthen: Crown House Publishing. Hyland, K. Teaching and Researching Writing. Harlow: Pearson Education. Chapter 3 Kinds of Writing As we have seen in Chapter 2, academic writing almost always takes place within a disciplinary context. And a speciic assignment has particular purposes although these may not always have been made explicit. To really understand a writing task may involve asking your assessor key questions, so that which was hidden or unclear is revealed and made clear.
However, what exactly counts as evidence and reasoning will vary from one discipline to another, and even between different sub-disciplines within the same discipline. In educational studies, for example, investigations that observe behaviour in a classroom may analyse qualitatively what people say for emerging themes. Such studies may use quite different forms of evidence and interpretation from those of researchers using scientiic methods; for example, where many teachers are surveyed by questionnaire, and quantitative data are analysed.
Both kinds of investigation may, however, be equally valid. Increasingly, teaching staff in higher education seek to make clear what their expectations are for an assignment by giving guidelines, referring to learning objectives or intended learning outcomes, and providing assessment criteria. These exemplars or models of good practice give you an idea of what you are seeking to achieve. You may even have the opportunity to view a range of completed assignments of varying quality, to gain a sense of common weaknesses or mistakes that students make, and what distinguishes the best work from that of a lesser quality.
However, whether this wealth of information is available to you, or not, you may well have questions to ask, perhaps guided by the elements of the IPACE model in Chapter 2. Should the essay take a particular viewpoint and argue for it? Should I write using the passive voice, e. If so, how much? Across this range of documents, with different purposes and audiences, I have chosen two styles of writing.
Essay writing is considered many times in this book, so I have focused here on two other rather different forms: business-style report writing and critical relective writing. I have chosen these two because they are, arguably, almost at two ends of an academic writing spectrum. Business- style report writing usually has a highly structured, no-nonsense approach, often being written in an impersonal style. Critical relective writing, on the other hand, is likely to be written, at least in part, from a personal viewpoint and in a personal style.
I am considering these two styles of writing in some depth to highlight the differences between them. It is important at this stage to have some appreciation of the diversity of structure and style in academic writing before progressing on to researching the literature and reading source material, which are explored in Chapters 4 and 5. A report has a clear structure and adopts many conventions appropriate to the discipline in which it is written. It is the analytical, business-style report that is considered here.
The Student's Guide To Writing
Other kinds of report are considered in Chapter 6. Business-style reports are unusual in that apart from being clearly structured, they may use more overt tactics to persuade the reader. Analytical report structures Analytical reports often contain all or most of the following elements although the order of elements in the front and end matter may vary : Front matter: Title page Acknowledgements Glossary Table of contents Main part of the report: 1 Executive summary. Present in most but not all business reports. The validity of the results obtained depends on the methods used. This section should help convince the reader of the strength and validity of the results.
This interprets, explains and analyses the results with respect to other sources of information: it may evaluate the strength and validity of the indings on the basis of the methods used; depending on the nature of the report, it may give several options, giving the risks and beneits of each, inishing with the preferred option.
These may occupy separate sections or be combined. The conclusions refer to the original purpose of the report, summarise the main indings rather than simply repeating them, highlight the signiicance of the indings and their implications, and may suggest further research. If recommendations are included, they suggest what action should be taken. End matter: References Appendices. Contain detailed information that would disrupt the low of the argument in the main part of the report. Such information is needed to convince the reader that the investigation was properly carried out.
Material in an appendix might include raw data, statistical analyses, sample questionnaires or interview transcripts. Notice that in the main part of the report, the sections are numbered. This is a common convention in business and technical reports, and the speciic form used here is called decimal numbering. Main sections have a single number e. Decimal numbering organises the parts of the report into a clear hierarchy, which follows a logical structure. This makes it easy for the writer to cross- reference between different parts of the document and for the reader to navigate through the document and locate, refer to and discuss speciic parts with colleagues.
Most people who read a business report, whether it is an assessor on your course or a manager who is reading the document to help with her work, will irst read the contents list, the executive summary, the conclusions and any recommendations. First impressions count. Aim or objective? TIP In a report, there is normally a distinction between the two. An aim is what is being sought overall. Objectives are the means of achieving the aim the how.
If so, what is the likely demand and how could it be met? Other analytical report structures A business-style report may have a different structure from the one above. Business reports tend to be driven by the pragmatic needs of the organisation, and the organisation may have its own standard template for reports.
In any case, if you are set an assignment for a business-style report, you may not have been given detailed guidelines for the structure although I suggest you ask for them. If that is the case, you could structure the main part of the report to respond logically to the guidelines the brief. For example, if you were asked to write a report on the need to upgrade the virtual learning environment VLE of an organisation, and the implications of doing so, the main part might look like this: 1 Executive summary 2 The need for change 2.
Upgrading existing VLE 3. Changing to a new VLE 4. TIP Strictly, a report contains information about what has happened in the past. A proposal considers what might happen in the future. It puts forward arguments, usually making one or more recommendations to help persuade the reader to make a decision. It may well express opinions. In practice, analytical reports may contain elements of reports and proposals, as in the alternative analytical report structure example above.
The more like a proposal a business document is, the more likely it is to contain overtly persuasive argument. The future tense is used to point to what will, or could, happen. Technical terms may be listed and deined in the Glossary. As always, be acutely aware of the purpose of your report and its audience.
Match the language you use to your audience. Active or passive? TIP The active voice emphasises the subject of the sentence, which carries out the action, e. Doing so gives the work objectivity and authority and avoids the writer having to say who did what. However, writing that way throughout makes documents slower and harder to read. Injecting the occasional sentence with an active voice brings vitality. Instead of having a document full of passive people and objects having things done to them, you have a document that has at least some people, organisations, objects, and so on, engaging in action.
The irst one has been done for you: Passive Active Five students were interviewed. Sally interviewed ive students. Or Five students were interviewed by Sally. A team using a platform and hoist painted the underside of the bridge. Kinds of Writing 43 Passive Active The beneicial use of regular exercise in reducing blood pressure is reported by Smith and Jones Imagine you have been given the information below by a teacher and you want to simplify it for other teachers.
Using bullet points, reduce this words to words or less. The rules for using clay in class are designed to meet health and safety requirements, enable effective classroom management and ensure that children have an enjoyable experience and can produce objects of which they can be proud. Among the rules relating to health, safety and hygiene are: children must wear protective aprons; no eating of clay; avoid getting clay in hair; and cleaning all work surfaces thoroughly with water and sponge to remove clay deposits, which would otherwise dry and become dust.
Those concerning the proper use of clay are: the need to wedge knead the clay to make it pliable and to remove air; making objects with clay that have no parts thicker than a thumb; covering clay in plastic bags or cellophane to keep it moist; joining modelled clay pieces by scoring and slipping while moist; ensuring objects to be fired are thin or hollow; and not glazing the underside of clay objects to be fired.
One solution to this task is given at the end of the book. How does yours compare? Shorten this account of words to fewer than 75 and make it easier to comprehend. Do so by using the active voice, removing unnecessary words or phrases, and splitting long sentences into two or more shorter ones. We envisage, in the future, implementing most aspects of the new system, but we will have to review the system for providing commentary, so that commentators can choose who they wish to view their comments. It involves documenting a personal view, focusing on recent experience.
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It usually involves moving beyond mere description, to explaining and justifying what has taken place. Often, particularly if the work is to be assessed, it involves critical relection, in which the individual seeks to learn from their experience. It is this latter type of relective writing — critical relective writing — that is considered here. Examining how you learn by writing relectively about your learning experiences, and what and how you have learnt from them. It also helps embed relective thinking in your practice as a student, and later as a professional in your discipline.
Reflective writing in action Notes taken at or around the time of an experience, perhaps recorded in a learning relective journal or logbook, can be highly subjective, with descriptions of what happened and perhaps what the writer thought or felt at the time. Or it may be evidence that can be shown to an assessor. Such writing may include emotive emotional language, exclamations, casual expressions — the very things that are not encouraged in academic writing.
Such writing, however, is material for more considered relection later, which informs a critically relective account that can justly be called academic writing. Here are two samples of written work, the irst from the experience of a trainee teacher writing a learning journal about what had just happened in a classroom when working with three students.
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Today, tutorial time, I tried out the action Action planning, as part of personal planning exercise with three students. At its best it promotes it beforehand. As is prepare for the meeting and be very clear evident from my experience with class 11, about what we were seeking to achieve. Back to the drawing The PLP process dramatically improved board. The challenges of critical reflective writing Many students ind critical relective writing dificult, because it combines documenting personal experience and its interpretation with standing back and taking a critical view.
In degree courses in health, social work or education, students are required to relect on critical incidents — dramatic events which they have observed or been directly involved in, which raise important questions from which they can learn. At the same time, they may also be writing relective accounts about how their practice has improved, looking back over weeks or months. The stages in this cycle can be relected in the narrative of your writing. You cannot critically relect on everything you experience, so you need to be selective in order to maximise your opportunities to learn, and you will often be guided in this by your supervisor.
Your skill lies in knowing your reader and what she or he recognises about your situation. For example, here is what a trainee physiotherapist might write about a particular incident with a patient: I accompanied a local physiotherapist, Mr Smith, who was treating a 35 year old man with a severe ankle sprain. Longer term treatment included strengthening exercises. The next step involves relecting upon and interpreting the incident step 2. For example: In the light of this outcome, and relecting on advice from my tutor, I approached Mr Smith.
I suggested I might review with him recent research literature and case studies for this type of problem and consider what alternative treatment options were available. He agreed, seeing this as an opportunity to improve the clinical outcome for his service when dealing with this common condition.
This analysis might draw upon background theory from a taught course, so that you are interpreting the speciic incident in terms of general principles, or it might prompt a review of relevant literature step 3. For example: Prompted by the guidance notes from Unit 3. In the light of new research and approaches to treatment documented in the literature, I discussed my indings with Mr Smith, who suggested I prepare a short presentation for the next practice meeting.
Drawing upon my review, I proposed that joint manipulation, orthotic joint strapping with non-elastic tape, together with acupuncture, would probably improve the therapeutic outcome for this type of severe ankle injury. Finally, critical relection normally involves applying what has been learnt, to inform the planning of future actions step 4. For example: Discussion at the practice meeting resulted in an agreement that Mr Smith, and his physiotherapist colleague Mr Kline, would implement two of the suggested treatment alternatives, namely joint manipulation and strapping.
This would be on a trial basis with suitable patients followed by clinical audit to assess any change in outcome. These different stages in the experiential learning cycle need not be neatly separated in your account.
The student's guide to writing: Grammar, punctuation and spelling -ORCA
But in formal critically relective accounts, which are assessed, the four steps are normally represented. For example, here some of the verbs are shown in bold to make the changes in tense easier to follow: On several occasions over the ten weeks, one student or another missed our 2-hour weekly session. The impact of this was quite disruptive on the class as a whole, and especially for any sub-group the student joined. For example: My work placement was enjoyable and instructive, but it has conirmed for me that I would prefer to specialise in data management, rather than be employed in the more general design aspects of mechanical engineering.
And when you then relect upon practice and refer to professional guidance or the literature to support your argument, you need to adopt the conventions of relective academic writing: During my second session counselling client D, I found it extremely dificult to disassociate from her remembered experience of having a panic attack. The account is written in the impersonal. How would you personalise it? These three items will form the major focus of the next review with the university course tutor.
The two examples of writing style considered in this chapter — business-style report writing and critical relective writing — reveal that the two approaches, both forms of academic writing, have rather different conventions. And each style of writing must be considered within its speciic context. A business-style report might even include an element of critical relective writing if, for example, the report concerned a general medical practice and drew upon the relective accounts of staff or patients. Key points in the chapter 1 You may need to ask your assessor speciic questions to clarify the purpose, audience and code for a given writing assignment.
Such reports normally have front and end matter, between which the report begins with an executive summary and inishes with conclusions and recommendations. The bulk of the report may have sections such as an introduction, methods, indings and discussion, or variations on these. Sections have clear headings and subheadings, which, like the visual elements, are usually numbered for ease of navigation and comment. The writing often relects stages of an experiential learning cycle: engaging in an activity; relecting on and interpreting the experience; generalising and learning from the experience; and then planning further action.
Cited references Boud, K. Relection: Turning Experience into Learning. London: Kogan Page.
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Bullock, K. Educational Studies, 25 1 , pp. Dewey, J. Experience and Education. New York: Collier. Kolb, D. Lewin, K. Journal of Social Issues, 2 4 , pp. London: Temple Smith. Educating the Relective Practitioner. Relective Writing. Further reading Forsyth, P. How to Write Reports and Proposals. LearnHigher Report Writing — Resources for Students.
Marsen, S. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Kinds of Writing 51 Reid, M. Report Writing. University of Manchester Academic Phrasebank. Manchester: University of Manchester Press. Williams, K. Chapter 4 Researching an Assignment There is no single way to research an assignment. It depends on the nature of the assignment. But a wise researcher knows where to look, asks for help when they need it and then knows when to stop. Researching, like writing, is not about reaching perfection although we might strive for it.
When researching and writing in some professions, such as law and medicine, the consequences of inaccuracy or miscommunication could result in miscarriages of justice and even be life threatening. Nevertheless, whether you are a professional working in the discipline, or a student on the way to becoming such a professional, researching, reading and writing concerns doing the best job you can with the time and resources available. When researching the literature for an assignment, following the guidance in this chapter should save you time and focus your attention on gathering high quality material that is most relevant to your task.
You need to quickly gain a sense of the information that is available, how it relates speciically to your task, and how to judge its value in completing your assignment. You also need to be prepared to change direction, based on the information you are inding. In many cases you start out with preconceived ideas and this allows you to make a preliminary plan , but often it is only when you have gathered material that your response to an assignment takes shape — and perhaps in unexpected ways.
This is as it should be. After all, if you knew the answers before you carried out the research, why carry out the research? An assignment is intended to stretch your learning, not simply to reinforce what you already knew and understood. Taking online information alone, as you are no doubt aware, there is a huge volume of material on almost any topic. The problem is, from the wealth of material available to you, to quickly ind and evaluate the best sources for a given writing task.
That is what this chapter is about. Given that you have understood the nature of a task, as outlined in Chapters 2 and 3, then your next step is to ind the information you need to write the assignment. Identifying key words, phrases and underlying themes, while understanding the scope of the assignment, is key to carrying out an eficient literature search. It is an electronic gateway to a world of online material, much of it in peer-reviewed journals, that is accessible from on or off campus. The library is also an invaluable source of expertise. But by your inal year, that is exactly what you might need to do.
A sensible approach to researching an assignment is to move from the general to the speciic; that is, to ind and read relevant textbooks and review articles and then, if appropriate, read research articles on speciic aspects of the topic Figure 4. In a sense, you are mapping the territory, checking your general understanding of a topic, before you narrow down to what is most relevant to your assignment. In some degree programmes, you will start reading leading-edge research papers in your irst year.
These are equivalent to a paper copy of the journal article, and can be cited and referenced in the same manner as a paper document see Chapter Such documents are not the same as information freely available on the World Wide Web, and usually carry much higher academic authority. Researching an Assignment 55 It is easy to waste hours searching through hundreds of sources that are not exactly relevant to your task or are of poor quality. You need to quickly work out strategies to avoid falling into such traps.
Making good use of your library TIP Learning to made good use of your university library, information centre or resource centre, and the staff within it, can make an enormous difference to your productivity and success on your course. Early in your irst year at university, you could be asked to carry out an introductory task to enable your tutors to ind out whether you are skilful at inding material and judging its suitability for the task.
They might well, of course, be interested in knowing how well you can write an essay. The scope of such an essay could vary depending on who set the task. One tutor might wish you to focus on the physics of radio waves and the likelihood of a mobile frying your brain. Nevertheless, whatever the scope of the assignment, you need to ind information and you need to assess its value in relation to your task.
As it is an assignment early in your irst year, let us assume you are asked to gather the material by searching online. In fact, for health and medical topics, there is a considerable volume of high quality material published online by reputable organisations. Warning: Depending on your discipline, some teaching staff may not wish you to use sources that are freely available on the World Wide Web because the quality of much of the material on the web might be poor. For example, a Wikipedia article — although it might give a useful initial overview of a topic — cannot be assumed to be accurate or reliable and normally should not be used as a source in academic writing.
In many disciplines, the most authoritative articles are found in peer-reviewed journals and other publications for which your university library pays a subscription. There are exceptions. In health and medicine, for example, there is increasing pressure from research funders for published research, even in the best peer-reviewed journals, to be freely available online.
This is partly so that those in developing countries, whose institutions may not have the funds to subscribe to journals, are not disadvantaged by the lack of access to information that could be vital for improving healthcare. A useful way to start any search of the literature is to deine your brief, what is sometimes called a search proile. In this you set down the scope of your search. It narrows down what you are seeking to ind. Figure 4. Search proile for Mobile phones: are they bad for your health? Scope level, Authoritative online and other sources. Review articles dates, languages, within the last 5 years, with preference for the latest country and most authoritative.
English language. Exclusions Effects on children Key words Mobile phone, cell phone, cellular phone, safe, safety, unsafe, harm, harmful, harmless Known references — Notes — Figure 4. Many of the responses would probably be trying to sell you a mobile phone service or might be giving you reviews of the latest mobile phone models. You need to narrow your search. Even when using a generic search engine such as Google, you can dramatically improve your search by including qualiiers: terms that narrow down your search.
Once you have found such sources, you need to judge their usefulness. To ind more specialist sources, you could use a discipline-speciic database such as PubMed. This is a free-to-use database on biomedical and life science topics. In response to your search, it will list the most relevant sources, in most cases with their abstracts summaries. In many cases, you will need to then go to another resource to access the full article. In some cases, your university will need to already subscribe to the relevant journal for you to obtain the article, or a speciic fee may be payable.
Be aware of synonyms TIP Be aware that the items you are searching for may have synonyms different words that mean the same thing. Some bibliographic databases, including PubMed, automatically incorporate synonyms of key words or phrases in a search. In other cases, you may need to manually enter the different possibilities. You need to make judgements about which material to use as a suitable source and which to exclude. Note its authors. Are they afiliated to well recognised institutions? Are the listed references of high quality?
In some cases you may be able to quickly judge whether the source is relevant, authoritative and worthy of further reading. Let us consider each of these elements in turn: Relevant? In my Google search, three of the ten website entries on the irst page of results concentrated on the effect of mobiles on children.
For this task, these three can therefore be immediately excluded. It carries authority. A reputable website, such as one for an academic institution or professional organisation, will give organisational addresses and contact information on its webpages. A reputable website for an individual should give information about that person; for example, their qualiications and experience, and any organisations with which they are afiliated. Grey literature TIP Published or unpublished material of potential academic importance that does not come with bibliographic information, such as an ISBN international standard book number or ISSN international standard serial number , is called grey literature.
Such material includes technical reports from government agencies or research groups, patents, newspaper articles and editorials, personal letters and diaries, and even trade catalogues. Because such material may be dificult to catalogue and archive, it can be challenging to ind. In recent years, grey literature is increasingly published online and has therefore become easier to ind.
Some grey literature reveals the latest developments in a ield, before more oficial communications are published, and so is of interest in scientiic and technological disciplines as well. On each of the sites, you can ind more information about who is responsible for the content and you can see what their editorial policy is, or judge what it might be. Again, the extent to which you might rely on these sources would depend on the exact nature of the task. In your irst year of study you might be less critical about these sources, but by the third year you could be subjecting them to detailed scrutiny, and rejecting them or criticising their content.
Wikipedia is not an authoritative source of information, but it does have its uses. You cannot easily judge the reliability of a Wikipedia article unless you already have in-depth knowledge of that topic. A Wikipedia article might help you decide which search terms to use to ind out more about a topic. Also, the sources to which a Wikipedia article refers could be sought, and provide useful information, but you still need to judge their reliability.
As a general rule, do not cite Wikipedia articles but ind more authoritative sources. Palgrave Study Skills. Other Editions 3. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details.
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I never had a chance at school to learn about the subjects in this book, and have been disadvantaged all my life. Now at 60 I have discovered a flair for writing trying to help other people who have suffered childhood trauma like my self, but am struggling with the various aspects of writing. This book has been very helpful and comforting, not too strict, and is very understanding of the difficulties encountered in the use of the English language. Very highly recommended!!! An impeccable book, it really is. From the basic 'what is a sentence' to more advanced grammar and punctuation of the English language.
A must have for anyone wanting to improve their English skills for academic writing to writing in general. It does all this and is surprisingly a very manageable size. This book has absolutely blown my mind. It is so good and precise with common grammar mistakes and how to improve writing. It is a must read before attempting to write anything, even more so, academically. It is a MUST have!