Politische Parteien nach 1945 (German Edition)
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National Democratic Party of Germany - Wikipedia
Helmut Kohl. Political parties -- Germany -- Rhineland-Palatinate -- History. View all subjects. Similar Items. Helmut Kohl Find more information about: Helmut Kohl. Home About Help Search. Stern, Carola, Ulbricht. Werner, Paul pseud. The Life of Alexander I. Stoecker, Helmuth, Walter Stoecker. Die Fruhzeit eines deutschen Arbeitersfuhrers — , East Berlin. Beckers, Hans, Wie ich zum Tode verurteilt wurde. Buber-Neumann, Margarete pseud. Globig, Fritz, Groener, General Wilhelm, Lebenserinnerungen. Jugend-Generalstab-Weltkrieg Intro , by Frh. Jannack, Carl, Wir mit der roten Nelke. Souvenirs de contemporains , vol.
II, Moscow , pp. Krivitsky, Walter G. Maercker, Ludwig R. Noske, Gustav, Von Kiel bis Kapp. Paetel, Karl O. II, , pp.
National Democratic Party of Germany
French trans, with some cuts in Haupt and Marie, op. Reichenbach, Bernhard, Moscow Meetings in the Kremlin , Survey , No. Serge, Victor pseud. Unter der roten Fahne. Valtin, Jan pseud. Zikelsky, Fritz, Das Gewehr in meiner Hand. French trans. Bernstein, Eduard, Die deutsche Revolution, I. Braun, M. Crispien, Artur, Programm und Taktik der U. Die U. Goussev Gussew S. Gruber, Helmut ed. Fischer, Brandler, etc. Heckert, Fritz Gekkert , Germanija v oktjabre k istorii K.
Gehalten vor dem Moabiter Sondergericht am Karski, Julian pseud. Kools, Frits ed. Landauer, Gustav, Aufruf zum Sozialismus , Third ed. Eine kritische Erledigung der bolschewistischen Methoden , Hamburg n. Levi, Paul with pseud. Wider den Putschismus. Liebknecht, Karl, Klassenkampf gegen den Krieg , Berlin n. Abbrev: Klassenkampf.
‘Rechte Hefte’: Rightwing magazines in Germany after 1945
IX, Mai bis Lozovski, A. Ludwig, E. Pannekoek see Kools, op. Pawlowski, Eugen pseud. De la N. Eine Antwort an Crispien, Ditmann und Hilferding , s. Soll de V. Reissner, Larissa, Hamburg auf den Barrikaden , Berlin n. Struthahn, Arnold pseud. Troeltsch, Ernst, Spektator-Briefe. English trans. Ulbricht, Walter, Zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung , vol. Warski, Adolf pseud. Der Weisse Terror. Wolffheim, Fritz, Betriebsorganisation oder Gewerkschaft? Zinoviev, G. Anderle, A. Anderson, Evelyn, Hammer oder Amboss. Kongresses der Kommunistische Internationale fur die Entwicklung der K.
Angress, Werner T. Beckmann, E.
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Oktober bis November Berlau, Joseph A. November—Dezember VII, , pp. Bock, Hans Manfred, Syndikalismus und Linkskommunismus von bis A History of the Communist International , new ed. Bosl introduced by , Bayern im Umbruch. Braunthal, Julius, Geschichte der Internationale , Hanover, vol. Brjunin, V. Buchheim, Karl, Die Weimarer Republik. Buchot, J. Buse, D. Carr, E. Chelike, V.
Colloti, Enzo, Sinistra radicale e spartachisti nelle socialdemocrazia tedesca attraverso le Spartakus-Briefe , Annali , , pp. Comfort, Richard A. Davidovitch, D. Dorst, Tankred and Neubauer, Helmut eds. Drabkin, J. Fabian, Walter, Klassenkampf um Sachsen. Fischer, Ruth, Stalin and German Communism.
Flechtheim, Ossip K. Freymond, Jacques ed. Gatzke Hans W. Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung-Chronik , East Berlin, vol. Golovacev, F. Gordon, Harold J. Gorlitz, November Grundriss der Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung , Fourth ed. Grundriss der Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung. Later he became head of the health service of the French high commissioner in Germany, and was for some time based at both the universities of Mainz and Paris.
The Soviet scenario was different again. The community of political exiles in the Soviet Union was much more homogenous in its interests than those in France, Britain, or the United States. In and their number was increased further by the arrival of communists who had fought in the Spanish Civil War or who came from French internment camps. Whereas in Britain and America German doctors often had to retrain and requalify before they could work, here they were easily absorbed. These doctors, as highly qualified forces, will be very useful once in Germany.
They had to undergo rigorous checks into their past and present activities. Only a minority of them were based in Moscow, while many more were scattered across the Soviet Union, including Siberia. His wife Martha Ruben-Wolf, also a politically active doctor from Berlin, committed suicide in Nonetheless, Soviet policy on the use of German nationals for future work in Germany was more flexible than that of Britain and the United States.
Right‐wing extremism analyzed
The situation was in some ways simpler than it was in the West. For many non-communists, this distinction between apparently good and bad Germans was much harder or even impossible to maintain. A diary entry by Georgy Dimitrov offers a glimpse of this position. A nation is millions of workers and peasants, working people, who are being betrayed by the Chamberlains and Daladiers. In discussions with German comrades in subsequent years, Dimitrov applied this notion to Germany.
You have to differentiate and show the positive qualities to be found in the depths of the German people, on the strength of which the German people could rise up and rid themselves of the Hitlerite clique, washing away their shame and the bad and dangerous qualities. There is a need for serious national self-criticism, but not for indiscriminate self-flagellation. Organise the municipality … , re-establish the economy, etc. In addition to being willing to distinguish between good and bad Germans or at least between those who were useful and those who were not , Comintern officials had long been involved in the German Communist Party, whose leading individuals identified themselves as communists first and Germans second.
Although the Comintern was officially disbanded in —just days before the formation of the NKFD—its equipment and operations were taken over by a number of Soviet agencies, and aspects of its approach informed official activities. The Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party had, at any rate, long been involved in the training of German communists who were in Soviet exile, and memoirs of the period of exile in the Soviet Union often record the many training schools and cadre programmes. With the plurality and changeability of Soviet plans for the future occupation, insisting on adherence to any principles was not very practical.
Throughout the war they maintained close contacts with people such as Pieck and Ulbricht. Although by the end of the war Dimitrov was not as influential as he had been in the late s, through him something of the old Comintern mentality found its way into the spring preparations for the Soviet administration of their German zone. Significantly, it was Dimitrov himself a Bulgarian who regularly met the Germans, as well as all the other national groups of the Comintern, to discuss their future tasks. Therefore the task of the German Com[munist] party as regards the postwar period lies first of all in creating the sort of organised national force that, with the help of the Soviet Union, would be capable of taking upon itself the rebirth of Germany as a genuinely democrat[ic] country.
Dimitrov approved this, and on his recommendation the Central Committee sent three groups to Germany, one with each of the major armies. After Germany's unconditional surrender, the Free Germany committee in Moscow was disbanded and many of its members were appointed to positions in the state and security apparatus of the Soviet zone in Germany. Maxim Zetkin was among those who returned from Moscow to Berlin in , and participated in the construction of the Soviet zone's Central Health Administration.
As its vice-president, he was responsible for the all-important organizational and personnel matters, as well as for liaison with the Soviet Military Administration. Ulbricht, Wandel, and Wintzer, who in spite of their intelligence and engagement were not widely known, would have acquired resonance, especially among the German proletariat, if associated with Zetkin's name. Officially sanctioned returns included the arrival of a large group of KPD functionaries from Scandinavia in January , of communists from Mexican exile in May , and of some communists from Britain in the summer of Kurt Winter arrived from Sweden in , and after working as a district physician in Teltow directed the Brandenburg public health department and subsequently became a vice-president of the Central Health Administration.
Felix Boenheim returned from the United States and went to Leipzig in , where he became a professor for internal medicine and director of the Medizinisch-Poliklinisches Institut at the University of Leipzig. Rolf Becker, Carl Coutelle, and Herbert Baer all returned in and worked in the Central Health Administration and in other leading capacities in the health service. In the many branches of the Free German groups, and in countless other organizations, they drafted proposals for the reconstruction of Germany after the war and lobbied the future occupying powers to be allowed to participate.
Their relations with the British, American, French, and Soviet authorities were consequently often fraught. The Big Four dealt with them very differently. They viewed them as ineffective and out of touch with developments in Germany, and insisted that cooperation with them was politically undesirable. Both the Soviet and the French governments, by contrast, proved more willing to differentiate between different kinds of Germans. To some degree it was also a feature of the greater requirement for collaborators by the two occupying powers who were most in need of material and political support.
All of this is significant, even if during the first year of occupation the stance of some American occupation authorities softened and they brought back a number of people from exile—such as the SPD politician Wilhelm Hoegner and a group of journalists from Switzerland and Britain. The reasons given, such as a lack of transport to Germany, often hid a multitude of political considerations.
And even after the ban was officially relaxed, a return was often a complicated procedure with endless bureaucratic obstacles, which took years to overcome. The consequences for public health work of this absence of trusted German collaborators in the first months after the war will be examined in Part II. Carter Trading with the Enemy Department to J. Troutbeck German Department , 24 Aug. Michael F. Jahrhunderts Cologne, , — Mosse ed. Kathleen M. See e. Krauss, Heimkehr in ein fremdes Land , There is a large historiography on the NKFD. Ivo Banac ed.
See also 24 May , —7. Clara Zetkin had played a crucial role in the establishment of the Communist Party of Germany and the Comintern.
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She was a friend of Lenin, and married a Polish revolutionary, Maxim's father. Bonn, Another example was Frida Rubiner. Also see Bungert, Das Nationalkomitee und der Westen. Dr Heinrich W. Friedemann Zentrum , D. In Belgium and Luxembourg it published Die Wahrheit. BL, Ursula Langkau-Alex and Thomas Ruprecht eds. James K. Lyon, Bertolt Brecht in America London, Constantin Goschler, Wiedergutmachung: Westdeutschland und die Verfolgten des Nationalsozialismus, — Munich, , 30—8.
Stephan Leibfried and Florian Tennstedt eds. Grosser ed. Kempner later assisted the American prosecutors at the Nuremberg Trials, and eventually went to Germany as chief prosecutor for the trial of German Foreign Office diplomatic staff, see Weindling, Nazi Medicine On this shift, also see Glees, Exile Politics.
Anthony J. Thornley to Mr Geoffrey Harrison, 16 Mar. Sir Thomas Moore, 7 June Minutes by D. Allen, 6 June Lafitte, The Internment of Aliens London, Chaplin, 15 June Selby, 26 June Troutbeck's reply on 5 Mar. Allen, 8 Nov. Although even this was repeatedly criticized by some: e.
Strauss eds. Munich and New York, —3. Both Korach and Goldmann remained active in public health in the United States until their retirements. Franz Goldmann and Hugh R. Leavell eds. Michel Grunewald and Frithjof Trapp eds. Philip E. On internment after , see esp.
Soma Morgenstern, Flucht in Frankreich Berlin, Also see Edwin M. Vincent Auriol, Oct. Circular letter from the French Foreign Ministry, 31 Mar. Bungert, Das Nationalkomitee und der Westen , My trans. See essays in Rainer Hudemann et al. Between Mar. See Wolfrum in Krohn and Schildt eds. He died in Mainz in Schafranek in Krohn et al. Banac ed. See also meetings recorded on 9 Sept.