Nature Under Siege: Portrait of Environmental Crisis in the Niger Delta

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At one of the water pumps in the village, the government had erected a signpost warning the people not to use the water. I first saw that signpost in when I went home for vacation. Seven years later, it still stands there. And there has been no alternative source of drinking water. In the UNEP report, some emergency measures were recommended, stating that the government needed to do some important things such as providing drinkable water to affected communities, before the clean-up is kicked off. The same report found that levels of benzene, a carcinogen, in the groundwater is far higher than World Health Organisation WHO standards for safety.

Yet people have been drinking that water for decades and the government has not taken steps to do something about it. Now, when citizens who are unaware of the reality on ground see affected communities protesting government inaction, they wonder why the youths are restive. Once, my father and I were reminiscing on the loss of Ken Saro-Wiwa and all of a sudden my father began to sob. It suddenly dawned on him that he could have been arrested the same day security officers raided the community and arrested Saro-Wiwa and the other protesters.

At that moment, he felt he could have died with the struggle had it not been that he was away in a neighbouring community. So, the crisis disrupted the peaceful nature of the Ogonis. In fact, the government instigated inter-communal squabbles between the various communities in Ogoniland, just to stop the campaign of the protesters.

At a period where Brexit is forcing the United Kindgom to look for economic ties globally, away from continental Europe, this conference is somewhat historic for Nigeria. Nigeria is one of only four countries to have ever been suspended from the Commonwealth, the others being Pakistan and Fiji, on two separate occasions and Zimbabwe, which later withdrew from the fold. The official website of the Commonwealth still carries that decades-old ignominy action of General Sani Abacha and his military cronies.

This suspension also acted as a public declaration from the Commonwealth to the Nigerian government and the international community, condemning the undemocratic and human rights abuses which reverberated across the world. While the Commonwealth from its London headquarters were denouncing the actions of General Abacha, the recently appointed executive chairman, Muhammadu Buhari of the newly established Petroleum Trust Fund, a kind of sovereign wealth purse into which excess revenues from oil prices increases could be channelled for further deployment for development projects in such critical areas like education and infrastructure, was settling into his position, enjoying the perks of office.

Lanre Suraj: Today, Nigerians are able to elect leaders of their choice. Although, at times, the electoral process is marked by rigging, citizens still express their rights, choice of whoever they want through the ballot. Yet are still experiencing some infractions such as the detention of El Zarkazy of the Shiite movement, a Muslim cleric who has been detained by government despite public outcry.

Much has been done in terms of providing free education from the primary to secondary level but the standards are dismal. The same thing goes for healthcare, roads, and electricity. I wept when that happened. Some of us were involved in the advocacy for the freedom of Ken Saro-Wiwa and the advocacy for the emancipation of the people of the Niger Delta and the degradation of their environment as perpetuated by the oil multinationals, which as at that time and up till now, abdicated their corporate social responsibilities to the host communities where they operate.

They also furthered the disintegration of the people by sponsoring all manners of internal wrangling and infightings. Leaders of the people were targeted for character assassination and this was done in active connivance with the military which is the whole essence of what led to the killing of Ken Saro-Wiwa.

That was blood on the hands of Abacha. What do you make of that scenario? President Jonathan also appointed another colonel on the tribunal. It was a public outcry at that time. Unfortunately for us, the political landscape of Nigeria today is an extension of the military. It is the same class of politicians that supported the military that is still running the current system.

Nothing fundamental has changed. At a recent media event, I learned about an American professor who has been revisiting cases of extrajudicial killings of African-Americans in the Deep South of the United States from a century ago. This is a very good idea. But the problem is very simple and straightforward. The American professor you speak of is revisiting issues that occurred a century ago. So you see, it took them many years to revisit those issues. Secondly, the issues we are confronted with in Nigeria today are even more complex that those of the past.

It is something that will definitely happen but its timing cannot be predicted. Shell was dragged to court by some Niger Deltans but the case was thrown out. Still in Italy another case is ongoing. The cause is rooted in our governance structure because some of the elements in our government are still in active conspiracy with the multinationals. Due to the evolution of our own internal regime, it takes an eternity to conclude such cases. In the other trial case, Milan in Italy, my organisation is one of those that is responsible for dragging Shell and Agip to court.

Justice is going to come their way. But in terms of securing justice in the long run, all hope may not be lost. In the past, I have written about how difficult it is to prosecute former Nigerian heads of state because they are till retained as members of the Council of State. Adamu Abdulkarim is a social commentator and a doctoral candidate at the Usmanu Danfodio University in Sokoto. He thinks without proper institutions, justice will continue to elude most Africans. What do you think of the killing of Ken Saro-Wiwa? Has his memory been adequately honoured by Nigerians? Adamu Abdulkarim: It was wrong and I totally condemned it.

I was happy to read about the action taken by the United Kingdom by suspending Nigeria from the membership of Commonwealth of Nations as a result of the killing of Ken. Ken saw a cause worth standing and even dying for. He stood for his people and eventually paid the ultimate price with his life. I think this is largely due lack of strong and independent institution in our clime.

Our judiciary is a mere extension of the executive wing of government in our democracy. They mostly do the bidding of the prevailing government. And most human right abuses are perpetrated by people with some level of authority. Unfortunately, the systems were not adequately prepared to punish high ranking officials. The perpetrator of the human right abuses will quickly whip off sentiment and appeal to the emotion of his native people. In a split of seconds, the narration will change that he is being haunted because he is a member of so and so group.

The former Chad dictator was tried in Senegal. Is bringing bad African leaders to justice in other African countries the way forward? In the first place, there is no consensus on defined goals and aspirations among African countries. So I cannot see how a divided house can support and ensure the administration of justice. What I see for African countries is to develop strong institutions that can checkmate the excesses of their citizens regardless of their status.

How can we avoid the jungle justice that was so typical of the military regimes of the past? Though the pace may be sluggish, but I believe we will get there.

Eco-Crimes: Shell and the Niger Delta | FairPlanet

With democracy getting entrenched in many African countries, there will be gradual enforcement of checks and balances to checkmate the excesses of African despotic leaders. The continued detention of El-Zakzaky as you rightly called it, is illegal. Verdict upon verdicts by a court of competent jurisdiction has found him not guilty, and have asked Federal Government to set him free but the Buhari-led government disobeyed all the court injunctions. It is still with us. However, I am of the opinion that we can avoid that through building institutions strong and independent enough to enforce law and order.

Bassey worked tireless to convince the Nigerian government that the oil spills that occurred in the Niger Delta led to a genocide of the people of the Ogoni, an ethnic group living in the Delta. It's fair to say that without Bassey's struggle there won't be a cleaning project like the Ogoni clean-up, which is about to start soon. Has the Ogoni-Project to clean-up the Niger-Delta already commenced? Nnimmo Bassey: The situation is that based on a repost of the program issued by the authorities in , there've been some kind of effort to get it on the ground, but it wasn't until August , that the actual administrative architecture for the clean-up project was set up.

By March the coordination and implementing team was set up and engaged. So it took quite some time to get it going so far. The administrative body that organises the clean-up and channels all the funding provided by the companies that caused all the polluting is called " Hydrocarbons Pollution Remediation Project " HYPRED and has started preliminary work. What has been done so far are demonstrations of how the clean-up could be carried out, and also health assistance to the communities that are affected by the crude oil pollution.

And I think they are now in the process of commencing an implementation of water supply to the communities. That is actually a kind of emergency action that should have been carried out much earlier. In fact, there are two kinds of clean-up that a taking place in Ogona at the same time. One clean-up is based on a lawsuit against Shell by the Bodo community in Ogona, which was in a court in London against Shell for oil spills that happened in and Shell has taken complete responsibility for that oil spill, but they are also required to do a clean-up at the Bodo Creek, which has just started.

But the bigger clean-up, which should take care of all the polluted soil and water has not yet started. What has started are preliminary works, and I think that HYPRED right now is concluding an action plan or master plan, whatever you want to call it, to give an outlook of what will happen in the weeks and months to come. And as soon as that is concluded, I'm sure the clean-up will start very rapidly.

What about the security situation on the ground at the moment? There have been quite some concerns in recent years about militant local groups trying to blackmail government and to take foreigners, especially workers of the oil companies, as hostages. I think with regard to the clean-up, everybody has an agreement, everybody is involved and everybody is anxious for the cleaning to start. Therefore I don't see a security problem with regard to the clean-up. There are quite a lot of young people from Ogoni that are currently running a second stage of training to be part of the clean-up, they are exercising hardly.

In the Shell clean-up that has already started, there are about ninety percent of the workforce coming from Ogoni people. That is something that could develop very positively in the long run. Everybody, every company that was involved in the oil drilling is involved in the cleaning. Shell, Eni and all the others, they are providing the finance for the clean-up. Well, that's a difficult question. About 30 Million people are living in that area. Ogoniland, which is only a part of the delta, is 1. And there is still a lot of ongoing pollution in the Niger-Delta. So, the experiences of the clean-up in Ogoni will show us, what will possibly happen to other parts of the Niger-Delta.

The UNEP report estimates tell that it should take about 25 years to clean the water and about 5 years to clean the land. That is 30 years of clean-up in total, and that's a long time. And that's why people can not wait to see the cleaning project to start. Is it correct that the Ogoni-Project is meant as a compensation from the government and from the oil companies for the genocide that was committed on the Ogoni people in ?

That's a difficult question. Let's put it that way: the clean-up is a response to the undeniable fact of evidence-based output of the research carried out by UNEP in the region, showing that the environment is absolutely polluted and the drilling caused that horrific situation. Do you feel supported by the government, either federal or regional, in that situation? Well, it's a difficult situation now. The clean-up is organised by the government, and the state governments look at the people on the ground to make sure that it actually happens.

So I think everybody is on the same plate with regard to the prospect having Ogoni and the Niger-Delta cleaned up. The only complaint is that things should happen more quickly. One Earth One Ocean is an NGO that provides assistance to the clean-up, they don't ask for payment or contracts from the government, rather they're providing training for the local people, and technology that is good for the environment, i. I've seen a demonstration of it in one of our community training programmes. And everyone believes that, with many organisations like that, that can bring assistance to the communities and to the people of Nigeria, they should be most welcome.

Is the Nigerian government happy with NGOs coming from abroad to be part of the project? Or would they prefer to have domestic companies doing the job, since there's so much money involved in a project that could last 30 years or more? I can't speak for the government. I'm not a business man, so I can't talk about this issue.

But I'm sure nobody will have to pay any bribes to be part of the Ogoni clean-up. Because all the people want the clean-up to be done profoundly. The clean-up is paid completely by the companies that caused the pollution, and they set up structures to organise and to monitor the process.

There's no room for paying bribes. He lives in Kiel, Germany. Many parts of the Niger Delta are severely polluted, str. Oil has been produced there since the early 20th century, the entire Niger Delta is very rich in oil. Today, there are mainly the major foreign oil companies represented there: Shell, Chevron, Agip. Shell has got a special status in the meantime, because Shell does not drill for oil itself anymore, but manages its infrastructure, ie the pipeline network.

And the pipelines are still a major concern. They are frequently damaged, and this is due to the systems getting older and also being inadequately maintained. The damage to the pipes thus often occurs as a result of age or material fatigue. In , there were more than reportable oil spills at Agip alone. It can be assumed that the numbers look similar at the other companies. In addition, there are regularly attempts to tap the pipelines by Nigerian gangs living there in the jungle.

They try to refine the oil themselves, thereby causing massive environmental damage. Everywhere oil is offered on the streets, even distilled to gasoline or diesel in illegal backyard distilleries. Local people have to buy their drinking water in plastic bottles because all natural drinking water sources are contaminated.

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After all, it's not just oil that gets into the groundwater, but also some refined oil, like diesel. Those sources of drinking water can not be used anymore.


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And if the Niger does not carry much water, for instance outside the rainy season, and new pollutions occur, the water quality of the river also drops rapidly. As far as the flora is concerned, there is no more growth in those places where there has been massive contamination. Around, in the less contaminated areas, jungles grow.

The big problem are the mangroves. In the rainy season, large volumes of water run in waves down the Niger. Much pollution is washed out then, but also a lot of oil is floated into the mangroves. But the mangroves can not stand oil, they die. However, the mangrove forests with their root system along the river are extremely important for the strength of the soil. The result is that the loss of mangroves causes unprecedented land erosion along the river, with soils being washed out.

As far as the fauna is concerned, there used to be elephant herds that migrated through the delta, and all kinds of wildlife, very rich in biodiversity. There is not much left of that today. I can hardly say anything about the fish; except that I wouldn't dare to eat it. But the locals do, probably due to lack of alternatives. Nigeria is trying to establish an English-style administrative system. As part of that, the chiefs in the local communities will be included in the monitoring and alarm system for oil spills. That's a good idea.

However, not all Chiefs only have the common good in mind. And the Chiefs know, the more devastating the oil spill, the more money corporations have to pay to compensate. Therefore delays in reporting the damage are quite common. When we tried to test our oil absorption material, PURE, on-site, there were also chiefs who wanted to get paid several thousand dollars from us for cleaning a lake in their area. We rejected that. Instead, we held press events and met with district governors and environmental organizations.

You work with, among others, Nnimmo Bassey, winner of the Right Livelyhood Award, and his organization "Friends of the Earth" www. Yes, working with Nnimmo Bassey is very important to us. He knows the local conditions, so he is kind of a door opener for us. And since we work with him, we were hardly in situations where we were asked to pay bribes.

What is it all about? There was a genocide in the nineties, or more precisely in , of the Ogoni, the indigenous people of the Niger Delta. Due to the massive pollution people had lost their very basis of life, their farms, their fishing grounds. Members of the Ogoni, who called for resistance, were even executed by the then ruling military regime. Nnimmo Bassey's commitment then led the later government to recognize this genocide. The Ogoni project, which was later announced, is seen as a government reparation to the Ogoni. The estuarine delta is to be cleaned and the polluted areas converted to farmland or fishing grounds again.

Officially, the project should have started in , but that did not happen because a new militant group came on the scene. They shot ten policemen and attempted to blackmail the government by threatening to launch further attacks. Since the government does not have the means and the ability to counter it with military strength, it has probably arranged some sort of agreement. However, the cleaning project has not started yet, even now, as the situation seems to have calmed down a bit. Many organizations have been on standby since; they have built or rented huge warehouses to store their equipment and wait for the project to start.

We have been promised by the government that when the cleanings begin, we will be informed. And we will be ready to go. You will then have a material at hand that is said to be very promising in cleaning oil spills. What is it? It's called PURE and it's a kind of wax-based cotton that can absorb up to 8 times its own weight in oil and pollutants.

The big advantage of PURE is that it is recyclable as long as its fibre structure is not compressed too much. The fabric looks a bit like cotton candy, with a large inner surface. It absorbs all substances except for water, i. It does not involve a chemical reaction, it is a purely physical absorption. Then you can wring it out or spin it out with a light centrifuge. PURE floats on the water, making it ideal for absorbing oil films on the water surface. This is important because an oil film prevents the oxygen permeability of the water surface.

You can pack the fabric in bags, in barriers or hoses, attach them behind or next to one another, and thus erect real barriers on the water to absorb the oil. At the moment nobody can say exactly when it will start. But we will certainly start on a small scale, maybe with a lake or a branch of the river.

Later, we will hopefully be able to work on larger areas, and then we will certainly need several tons of the PURE substance. Our strategy, unlike many others involved, is that we do not want to make money from the purges, but that we involve the local communities in the work. We want to pay the communities to do the cleanings themselves.

During a demonstration on site, the responsible chief of one of the villages was totally enthusiastic about the PURE fabric. However, most of the communities do not have the financial means to carry out such cleansing themselves. Therefore, they depend on financial support from outside. Internationally, Nigeria is infamous for a form of bank fraud dubbed , a type of advance fee fraud named after Section of the Nigerian Penal Code along with the " Nigerian scam ", a form of confidence trick practised by individuals and criminal syndicates.

The victim is talked into exchanging bank account information on the premise that the money will be transferred to them, and that they will get to keep a cut. There is some major piracy in Nigeria , with attacks directed at all types of vessels. Consistent with the rise of Nigeria as an increasingly dangerous hot spot, 28 of the 30 seafarers kidnapped globally between January—June were in Nigeria.

Nigeria has been pervaded by political corruption. Nigeria was ranked out of countries in Transparency International 's Corruption Perceptions Index ; however, it improved to th position in Jonathan, however, dismissed the claim and replaced Sanusi for alleged mismanagement of the central bank's budget. A Senate committee also found Sanusi's account to be lacking substance. Tourism in Nigeria centers largely on events, due to the country's ample amount of ethnic groups, but also includes rain forests , savannah , waterfalls , and other natural attractions.

Abuja is home to several parks and green areas with the largest one being Millennium Park. Another open area park is located in Lifecamp Gwarimpa; near the residence of the Minister of the Federal Capital Territory. The park is located on a slightly raised hilltop which contains sport facilities like Basketball and Badminton courts another park is the city park, it is located in wuse 2 and is home to numerous outdoor and indoor attractions such as a 4D cinema, astro-turf, lawn tennis court, paintball arena and a variety of restaurants.

Lagos , subsequent to the re-modernization project achieved by the previous administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, is gradually becoming a major tourist destination, being one of the largest cities in Africa and in the world. Lagos is currently taking steps to become a global city. The Eyo carnival a yearly festival originated from Iperu Remo , Ogun State , which took place on 25 April, was a step toward world city status. Currently, Lagos is primarily known as a business-oriented and a fast-paced community.

Lagos has become an important location for African and " black " cultural identity. Established in , the event takes place over a 3—5 day period at selected high quality outdoor venues. The music is as varied as the audience itself and features a diverse mix of musical genres from rhythm and blues to soul, Afrobeat , hip hop, bebop, and traditional jazz.

The festivals provide entertainment of dance and song to add excitement to travelers during a stay in Lagos. Lagos also has a number of private beach resorts including Inagbe Grand Beach Resort and several others in the outskirts. Lagos has a variety of hotels ranging from three star to five star hotels, with a mixture of local hotels such as Eko Hotels and Suites , Federal Palace Hotel and franchises of multinational chains such as Intercontinental Hotel, Sheraton and Four Points by Hilton.

Nigerian citizens have authored many influential works of post-colonial literature in the English language. Nigeria has the second largest newspaper market in Africa after Egypt with an estimated circulation of several million copies daily in Nigeria has had a huge role in the development of various genres of African music , including West African highlife , Afrobeat , and palm-wine music , which fuses native rhythms with techniques that have been linked to the Congo , Brazil , Cuba , Jamaica and worldwide.

Many late 20th-century musicians such as Fela Kuti have famously fused cultural elements of various indigenous music with American jazz and soul to form Afrobeat which has in turn influenced hip hop music. Fuji music , a Yoruba percussion style, was created and popularised by Mr.

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Fuji, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. Afan Music was invented and popularised by the Ewu -born poet and musician Umuobuarie Igberaese. There is a budding hip-hop movement in Nigeria. Kennis Music , the self-proclaimed number-one record label in Africa, and one of Nigeria's biggest record labels, has a roster almost entirely dominated by hip-hop artists.


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In November , Nigeria's music scene and that of Africa received international attention when MTV hosted the continent's first African music awards show in Abuja. The Nigerian film industry is known as Nollywood a blend of Nigeria and Hollywood [] and is now the 2nd-largest producer of movies in the world. Nigerian film studios are based in Lagos , Kano and Enugu , forming a major portion of the local economy of these cities.

Nigerian cinema is Africa's largest movie industry in terms of both value and the number of movies produced per year. Although Nigerian films have been produced since the s, the country's film industry has been aided by the rise of affordable digital filming and editing technologies. The thriller film The Figurine is generally considered the game changer, which heightened the media attention towards New Nigerian Cinema revolution. The film was a critical and commercial success in Nigeria, and it was also screened in international film festivals.

It contributed about 1. Joshua 's Emmanuel TV , originating from Nigeria, is one of the most viewed television stations across Africa. There are many festivals in Nigeria , some of which date to the period before the arrival of the major religions in this ethnically and culturally diverse society. The main Muslim and Christian festivals are often celebrated in ways that are unique to Nigeria or unique to the people of a locality.

Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Many different spices, herbs and flavourings are used in conjunction with palm oil or groundnut oil to create deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chili peppers. Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied. Football is largely considered Nigeria's national sport and the country has its own Premier League of football.

Nigeria's national football team , known as the "Super Eagles", has made the World Cup on Six occasions , , , , , and most recently in They won the gold medal for football in the Summer Olympics in which they beat Argentina becoming the first African football team to win gold in Olympic Football.

Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball, cricket and track and field. Nigeria's national basketball team made the headlines internationally when it qualified for the Summer Olympics as it beat heavily favoured world elite teams such as Greece and Lithuania. In the early s, Scrabble was made an official sport in Nigeria.

Eco-Crimes: Shell and the Niger Delta

By the end of , there were around 4, players in more than clubs in the country. Despite its vast government revenue from the mining of petroleum, Nigeria faces a number of societal issues, owing primarily to a history of inefficiency in its governance.

Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states, offences such as alcohol consumption, homosexuality , [] infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences, including amputation, lashing, stoning and long prison terms. Under a law signed in early , [] same-sex couples who marry face up to 14 years each in prison.

Witnesses or anyone who helps gay couples marry will be sentenced to 10 years behind bars. The bill also punishes the "public show of same-sex amorous relationships directly or indirectly" with ten years in prison. Another portion of the bill mandates 10 years in prison for those found guilty of organising, operating or supporting gay clubs, organizations and meetings. In the Nigerian state of Akwa Ibom , about 15, children were branded as witches ; most of them ended up abandoned and abused on the streets. Because of its multitude of diverse, sometimes competing ethno-linguistic groups, Nigeria prior to independence was faced with sectarian tensions and violence, particularly in the oil-producing Niger Delta region, where both state and civilian forces employ varying methods of coercion in attempts gain control over regional petroleum resources.

Some of the ethnic groups like the Ogoni , have experienced severe environmental degradation due to petroleum extraction. Since the end of the civil war in , some ethnic violence has persisted. There has subsequently been a period of relative harmony [ when? Muslim rioters in Kaduna killed an estimated men, women, and children with a further injured taken to hospital.

Since , the country has seen sectarian violence by Boko Haram , an Islamist movement that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish Sharia law in the country. Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan in May claimed that Boko Haram attacks have left at least 12, people dead and 8, people crippled. In April , over people in ten villages in predominantly Christian areas in Agatu were murdered by Fulani herdsmen. A visiting Nigerian Senator reported that all the primary and post-primary schools, health centres, worship centres as well as the police station in the area were destroyed.

Forced marriages are common. Child marriage remains common in Northern Nigeria. There is polygamy in Nigeria. Women have less land rights. In , there was a federal ban. In Nigeria, at least half a million suffer from vaginal fistula , largely as a result of lack of medical care. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Nigeria disambiguation. Not to be confused with the neighbouring Francophone country Niger. Federal republic in West Africa. Coat of arms.

Hausa Igbo Yoruba. Main articles: History of Nigeria and Timeline of Nigerian history. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: History of Nigeria before Further information: History of Nigeria — Main article: Nigerian Civil War.

Main article: Nigerian military juntas of — and — Main article: Politics of Nigeria. Main article: Law of Nigeria. Main article: Foreign relations of Nigeria. Main article: Nigerian Armed Forces. Main articles: Geography of Nigeria and Geology of Nigeria. Main article: Administrative divisions of Nigeria. A clickable map of Nigeria showing its 36 states and the federal capital territory. Main article: Economy of Nigeria. Further information: Agriculture in Nigeria. Further information: Petroleum industry in Nigeria and List of countries by oil exports.

Main article: Nigeria Air. Further information: Mining industry of Nigeria. Main article: Demographics of Nigeria. Main article: Languages of Nigeria. Main article: Religion in Nigeria. Christianity Traditional African religions 0. Further information: Health in Nigeria. Main article: Education in Nigeria. Main article: Crime in Nigeria. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. April Main article: Tourism in Nigeria. Main article: Culture of Nigeria. Main article: Nigerian literature. Main article: Media in Nigeria.

Main article: Cuisine of Nigeria. Main article: Human rights in Nigeria. Main article: Women in Nigeria. Nigeria portal. Retrieved 12 September International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 October World Bank. Retrieved 2 March United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 September Nigeria Law. Retrieved 17 July The New York Times. Retrieved 17 April Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. Retrieved 28 December United States Embassy in Nigeria. Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 9 May Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 15 September Retrieved 5 April Retrieved 20 April Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 28 November Archived from the original on 3 December West Africa Gateway.

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Retrieved 28 August Nigerian Tribune. Archived from the original on 17 March Greenwood Publishing Group. University of Michigan Press. Asim K. Dasgupta examines the many kinds of natural phenomena and environmental Dasgupta examines the many kinds of natural phenomena and environmental disaster that impact the Earth, drawing upon his first -hand experience and years of research gathered while working and travelling as a medical doctor with Finding Thoreau: The Meaning of Nature in the.

In his eulogy for Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson reflected that his friend dedicated his genius with such entire love to the fields, hills, and waters of his native town, that he made them known and interesting to If you enjoy nature, animals talking to people, animals and human relationships, or mysteries then If you enjoy nature, animals talking to people, animals and human relationships, or mysteries then this book will keep your attention. It is a story about working together, cooperation, friendship and making right decisions in solving problems.

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