The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift, D.D. - Volume 07 Historical and Political Tracts-Irish

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Swift is probably the foremost prose satirist in the English language, and is less well known for his poetry. Swift originally published all of his works under pseudonyms He is also known for being a master of two styles of satire: the Horatian and Juvenalian styles. It is in men as in soils, where sometimes there is a vein of gold which the owner knows not of. Whoever makes the fewest people uneasy is the best bred in the room. Invention is the talent of youth, and judgment of age.

If you flatter all the company, you please none; If you flatter only one or two, you offend the rest. His father was Irish born and his mother was the sister of the vicar of Frisby-on-the-Wreake, England. Swift arrived seven months after his father's untimely death. Most of the facts of Swift's early life are obscure, confused and sometimes contradictory.

It is widely believed that his mother returned to England when Jonathan was still very young, then leaving him to be raised by his father's family. His uncle Godwin took primary responsibility for the young Jonathan, sending him with one of his cousins to Kilkenny College also attended by the philosopher George Berkeley.

Swift was studying for his Master's degree when political troubles in Ireland surrounding the Glorious Revolution forced him to leave for England in , where his mother helped him get a position as secretary and personal assistant of Sir William Temple at Moor Park, Farnham. Temple was an English diplomat who, having arranged the Triple Alliance of , retired from public service to his country estate to tend his gardens and write his memoirs.

Gaining the confidence of his employer, Swift "was often trusted with matters of great importance.


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When Swift took up his residence at Moor Park, he met Esther Johnson, then 8 years old, the fatherless daughter of one of the household servants. Swift acted as her tutor and mentor, giving her the nickname "Stella", and the two maintained a close but ambiguous relationship for the rest of Esther's life. Swift left Temple in for Ireland because of his health, but returned to Moor Park the following year. The illness, fits of vertigo or giddiness During this second stay with Temple, Swift received his M. Then, apparently despairing of gaining a better position through Temple's patronage, Swift left Moor Park to become an ordained priest in the Established Church of Ireland and in he was appointed to the prebend of Kilroot in the Diocese of Connor, with his parish located at Kilroot, near Carrickfergus in County Antrim.

Swift appears to have been miserable in his new position, being isolated in a small, remote community far from the centres of power and influence. While at Kilroot, however, Swift may well have become romantically involved with Jane Waring. A letter from him survives, offering to remain if she would marry him and promising to leave and never return to Ireland if she refused. She presumably refused, because Swift left his post and returned to England and Temple's service at Moor Park in , and he remained there until Temple's death.

There he was employed in helping to prepare Temple's memoirs and correspondence for publication. Battle was however not published until On January 27, Temple died. Swift stayed on briefly in England to complete the editing of Temple's memoirs, and perhaps in the hope that recognition of his work might earn him a suitable position in England.

However, Swift's work made enemies of some of Temple's family and friends who objected to indiscretions included in the memoirs. His next move was to approach King William directly, based on his imagined connection through Temple and a belief that he had been promised a position. This failed so miserably that he accepted the lesser post of secretary and chaplain to the Earl of Berkeley, one of the Lords Justices of Ireland.


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However, when he reached Ireland he found that the secretaryship had already been given to another. But he soon obtained the living of Laracor, Agher, and Rathbeggan, and the prebend of Dunlavin in St. As chaplain to Lord Berkeley, he spent much of his time in Dublin and traveled to London frequently over the next ten years.

That spring he traveled to England and returned to Ireland in October, accompanied by Esther Johnson There is a great mystery and controversy over Swift's relationship with Esther Johnson nicknamed "Stella". Many hold that they were secretly married in During his visits to England in these years Swift published A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books and began to gain a reputation as a writer. Swift became increasingly active politically in these years.

He found the opposition Tory leadership more sympathetic to his cause and Swift was recruited to support their cause as editor of the Examiner when they came to power in In , Swift published the political pamphlet "The Conduct of the Allies," attacking the Whig government for its inability to end the prolonged war with France. The incoming Tory government conducted secret and illegal negotiations with France, resulting in the Treaty of Utrecht ending the War of the Spanish Succession. Swift was part of the inner circle of the Tory government, and often acted as mediator between Henry St.

John Viscount Bolingbroke the secretary of state for foreign affairs —15 and Robert Harley Earl of Oxford lord treasurer and prime minister — Swift recorded his experiences and thoughts during this difficult time in a long series of letters to Esther Johnson, later collected and published as The Journal to Stella. The animosity between the two Tory leaders eventually led to the dismissal of Harley in With the death of Queen Anne and accession of George I that year, the Whigs returned to power and the Tory leaders were tried for treason for conducting secret negotiations with France.

Also during these years in London, Swift became acquainted with the Vanhomrigh family and became involved with one of the daughters, Esther, yet another fatherless young woman and another ambiguous relationship to confuse Swift's biographers. Swift furnished Esther with the nickname "Vanessa" and she features as one of the main characters in his poem Cadenus and Vanessa. The poem and their correspondence suggests that Esther was infatuated with Swift, and that he may have reciprocated her affections, only to regret this and then try to break off the relationship.

Esther followed Swift to Ireland in , where there appears to have been a confrontation, possibly involving Esther Johnson. Esther Vanhomrigh died in at the age of Another lady with whom he had a close but less intense relationship was Anne Long, a toast of the Kit-Cat Club. Maturity Before the fall of the Tory government, Swift hoped that his services would be rewarded with a church appointment in England.

However, Queen Anne appeared to have taken a dislike to Swift and thwarted these efforts. The best position his friends could secure for him was the Deanery of St. Patrick's, Dublin. With the return of the Whigs, Swift's best move was to leave England and he returned to Ireland in disappointment, a virtual exile, to live "like a rat in a hole". Once in Ireland, however, Swift began to turn his pamphleteering skills in support of Irish causes, producing some of his most memorable works: Proposal for Universal Use of Irish Manufacture , Drapier's Letters , and A Modest Proposal , earning him the status of an Irish patriot.

Also during these years, he began writing his masterpiece, Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts, by Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon, and then a captain of several ships , better known as Gulliver's Travels. Much of the material reflects his political experiences of the preceding decade. For instance, the episode in which the giant Gulliver puts out the Lilliputian palace fire by urinating on it can be seen as a metaphor for the Tories' illegal peace treaty; having done a good thing in an unfortunate manner. Anderson , Benedict. Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism.

London and New York : Verso , London : Verso , Atkinson , Colin B. Backus , Margot Gayle. The gothic family romance: heterosexuality, child sacrifice, and the Anglo-Irish colonial order. Bakhtin , Mikhail. The dialogic imagination: four essays. Michael Holquist. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Baldick , Chris and Robert Mighall. Bannet , Eve Tavor. Wright , eds, Transatlantic literary exchanges, — gender, race, and nation.

Farnham : Ashgate , , pp. Barnard , Toby. Batchelor , Jennie. Manchester : Manchester University Press , Belanger , Jacqueline. The Irish novel in the nineteenth century: facts and fictions. Dublin : Four Courts Press , Bennett , Hazel. Blakey , Dorothy.

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The Minerva Press — Blanco , Alda. Oxford : Clarendon Press , , pp. Burgess , Miranda. Butler , Marilyn. Marilyn Butler. London : Penguin , , pp. Cahalan , James. Great hatred, little room: the Irish historical novel. Dublin : Gill and Macmillan , Campbell , Mary. Lady Morgan: the life and times of Sydney Owenson.

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Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , Chard , Chloe. Pleasure and guilt on the Grand Tour: travel writing and imaginative geography, — Class , Monika and Terry F. Newcastle upon Tyne : Cambridge Scholars Publishing , , pp. Clery , E. London : Oxford University Press , , pp. Cambridge , Cambridge University Press , Cole , Richard Cargill. Irish booksellers and English writers, — London : Mansell Publishing , Connolly , Claire.

Connolly , Sean. Copeland , Edward. Women writing about money: women's fiction in England, — Cox , Jeffrey. Seven gothic dramas, — Ohio : Ohio University Press , Davies , Ann. London and New York : Bloomsbury Academic , , pp. Day , William Patrick. In the circles of fear and desire. Chicago : University of Chicago Press , Di Placidi , Jenny. Donovan , Julie. Sydney Owenson, Lady Morgan and the politics of style. Donovan , Kellie A. Doody , Margaret Anne. Douglas , Aileen. Irish fiction, —, special issue of Irish university review , Duff , David. Romanticism and the uses of genre.

Brian Boru and the Battle of Clontarf. Duncan , Ian. Modern romance and transformations of the novel: the gothic, Scott, Dickens. Eagleton , Terry. Heathcliff and the Great Hunger: studies in Irish culture. Edwards , Elizabeth. Fay , Elizabeth. Romantic medievalism: history and the Romantic literary ideal. Ferris , Ina. The achievement of literary authority: gender, history, and the Waverley Novels. Fitzer , Anna M. Flanagan , Thomas. The Irish novelists, — New York : Columbia University Press , Fogarty , Anne.

Foster , John Wilson , ed. The Cambridge companion to the Irish novel. Foster , Roy. Paddy and Mr Punch: connections in Irish and English history. London : Penguin , Frye , Northrop. The secular scripture: a study of the structure of romance. Gamer , Michael. Romanticism and the gothic: genre, reception, and canon formation.

Garside , Peter. British fiction, — a database of production, circulation and reception. Designer, Anthony Mandal. The Oxford history of the novel in English; volume 2: English and British fiction, — Gillespie , Niall. Gordon , Scott Paul. Haidt , Rebecca. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , , pp. Hale , Terry. Avril Horner. Hamblyn , Richard. Hammond , Brean and Shaun Regan. Making the novel: fiction and society in Britain, — Hand , Derek. A history of the Irish novel. Haslam , Richard. London : Routledge , , pp. Hester , Nathalie C. Hoeveler , Diane Long. Gothic riffs: secularizing the uncanny in the European imaginary, — Hogle , Jerrold E.

The Cambridge companion to gothic fiction. Homestead , Melissa J. Horner , Avril and Sue Zlosnik. Johns , Adrian. Kalter , Barrett. Kauffman , Linda S. Discourses of desire: gender, genre, and epistolary fictions. Kelleher , Margaret and James M. Murphy , eds. Gender perspectives in nineteenth-century Ireland: public and private spheres.

Gulliver's travels as a satire

Dublin : Irish Academic Press , The Cambridge history of Irish literature: volume 1, to Kelly , Gary , ed. Varieties of female gothic.

Jonathan Swift (1667–1745)

Kelly , James. Charles Maturin: authorship, authenticity and the nation. Ireland and Romanticism: publics, nations and scenes of cultural production. Cork : Cork University Press , , pp. Killeen , Jarlath. The emergence of Irish gothic fiction: history, origins, theories. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press , Kowaleski-Wallace , Elizabeth.

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Kramer , Dale. Charles Robert Maturin. New York : Twayne , Lamb , Jonathan. Elices Agudo eds , Glocal Ireland: current perspectives on literature and the visual arts. Newcastle-upon-Tyne : Cambridge Scholars Publishing , , pp. Leerssen , Joep. Lee Six , Abigail. Gothic terrors: incarceration, duplication, and bloodlust in Spanish narrative. Levy , Michelle. Labbe ed.

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