Wildlife and Society: The Science of Human Dimensions

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Manfredo, J. Vaske, P. Brown, D. Duke Eds. Wildlife value orientations in rural America pp. Goreham Ed. Encyclopedia of Rural America 2nd Edition. Modeling public support for wildland fire policy. Reynolds, A. Thomson, M. Kohl, M. Shannon, D. Rennolls Eds. Normative approaches to natural resources. Vaske, B.

Bruyere, D. Brown Eds. Human dimensions of wildlife management. International Journal of Wildland Fire. In Press Glikman, J. Segmenting normative beliefs regarding wolf and bear management options in Central Italy. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15 5. In Press Jacobs, M. Public acceptance of wildlife management interventions.

De Levende Natuur. Tijdschift voor Natuurbehoud en Natuurbeheer. Living Nature. Journal for Nature Conservation and Nature Management.

An extension and further validation of the potential for conflict index. Leisure Sciences, 32 , Lessons learned from human dimensions of chronic wasting disease research. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15 3 , Predicting hunting participation in response to chronic wasting disease in four states. Human-black bear conflict in urban areas: An integrated approach to management response. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 14 3 , Importance-performance and segmentation: An application at a biosphere reserve in Vietnam.

Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 26, Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 14 1 , Structuring survey data to facilitate analysis and interpretation. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 13 5 , Society and Natural Resources, 21 3 , Analysis of multiple data sets in outdoor recreation research: Introduction to the special issue. Leisure Sciences, 30, Understanding meta-analysis: A review of the methodological literature.

Crowding as a descriptive indicator and an evaluative standard: Results from 30 years of research. Segmenting public beliefs about conflict with coyotes in an urban recreation setting.

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Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 25 4 , Journal of Leisure Research, 39 4 , Perceived crowding among hunters and anglers: A meta-analysis. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 12 4 , Studies focused on attitudes of general public and different interest groups farmers, hunters, anglers toward wildlife species large carnivores, herbivores, nuisance species.

Wildlife and Society: The Science of Human Dimensions download

Glikman and B. Frank 50 — 40 frequency 30 20 10 0 A ia C ia ec tia en. Number of human dimensions of wildlife studies in Europe between and Downloaded by [Jenny A. In limited cases an English abstract was provided as an overview of the study. Different languages and alphabets represented the main constraints in trying to characterize HDW in Europe. Numerous studies did not result in peer-reviewed arti- cles, which constrained the ability of the authors to create a complete picture of HDW in Europe.

This article analyzed HDW documents from Italy in an attempt to generalize lessons learned and to highlight future research priorities in Europe. Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An Italian Case Study Attitudes toward wolves were initially examined in —76 in Abruzzo as part of a dissertation in psychology Serracchiani, In the same period, Boitani and Zimen made a presentation at a conference in North Carolina United States about the role people played in wolf management.

Influenced by his North American experience and academic colleagues, Boitani understood the importance of integrating humans in wildlife management and became a HDW promoter in Italy. Despite the diversity of studies encompassing human and wildlife issues conducted in Italy, there has not been an attempt to present this research in a context to understand the progress and direction of HDW as a field. This article analyzed the HDW literature to understand how it is applied in wildlife research in Italy.

Specifically, we address the following objectives: 1. Explore HDW trends over time; 2. Investigate the main themes researched; 3. Understand the main actors and sample size of the studies.

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An overview of Italian HDW research was conducted using a bibliometric analysis to high- light past practices and to identify future research priorities. A comprehensive review of HDW studies in Italy was created based on peer-reviewed articles and gray literature found by the authors until Different combinations of keywords in English and Italian were used while searching the online databases e. All documents that had been published or distributed on wildlife were considered for bibliometric analysis. The year was not included, as this research was conducted before that year had finished, thus the number of documents obtained in would be an underestimation.

Gray literature was considered as unpublished documents, includ- ing reports and dissertations. To avoid double-counting, the first appearance in time of a document was taken into account for data analysis. Results A total of 32 studies were obtained, excluding the two documents written in the s, which were not available Table 1. No peer reviewed articles or gray literature were found from the late s to the beginning of the s. The highest number of HD studies was reached in with nine documents. Frank Table 1 Frequency of types of human dimensions of wildlife documents for Italy Document type Document Total documents year per year Report Dissertation Article 3 3 2 2 6 4 2 1 1 9 6 2 1 5 4 1 6 3 3 Total 32 19 11 2 Downloaded by [Jenny A.

Glikman] at 04 October Table 2 Frequency of themes in human dimensions of wildlife documents for Italy Theme-species Document Total documents Large year per year carnivores Herbivores Wildlife 3 2 1 2 1 1 6 5 1 1 1 9 6 1 2 5 1 3 1 6 2 3 1 Total 32 18 10 4 Most of the data used in the studies were gathered from the general public Figure 2.

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Papers that focused specifically on large carnivores drew from a more diverse audience, likely due to the controversial nature of the species. Interest groups e. In the other two categories, mixed groups, composed of the general public and some interest groups, were more commonly used Figure 2. Studies that focused on large carnivores were more likely to include data from a large sample group than those dealing with herbivores or other wildlife.

In the first group, studies generally included or more interviews, with some exceeding 1, participants. When a study focused on the attitudes of the general public, larger sample sizes were obtained. Glikman] at 04 October 0 large carnivores herbivores wildlife species Figure 2. Interest groups involved per species studied. Compared to other countries in Europe, where HDW research has been conducted since the s, the discipline in Italy began in and has continued to increase since.

Alistair Bath, an overseas professor. It is possible that a similar phenomenon is occurring in other European countries; these studies are unpublished and most of them written in their native language thus constraining the ability to gather them. In Italy, as in the rest of Europe, a comparatively large number of HDW studies focused on large carnivores.

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Several reasons may explain this. Second, large carnivores are charismatic mega fauna, and fully protected by European laws Trouwborst, Frank i. This has resulted in increased interactions between humans and large carnivores, fostering the need to integrate HDW in wildlife management across Europe. For all of these reasons, attitudes toward wolves, followed by bears, were the main themes of HDW studies carried out in Italy and Europe.

In Italy, the general public was the main actor in HDW research and sample sizes ranged between and interviews. The lack of attitudinal baseline data is probably the principal reason why studies have focused mainly on the general public. The sample size is based on the accepted statistical standard that at least individuals are needed to generalize results to a large population Vaske, It was not possible to compare Downloaded by [Jenny A.

Glikman] at 04 October these findings with the rest of Europe. It appears that in Italy, wildlife experts and managers, despite being exposed to HDW tools, do not believe in the effectiveness of this discipline, nor do they trust that HDW can improve wildlife management and conservation in Italy. They are reluctant to delegate power to the general public and unwilling to let them decide how to manage wildlife e.

Those wildlife agencies who do believe in HDW are constrained by policy and the lack of political stability; they are not able to integrate the results of the HDW investigations into their mandates. The frequent political turnover of higher power positions i. To ensure a given political position or project funding, Italians may agree to use new management tools; in reality, they will usually wait to see what is best to do to survive the next political change.

Apparently, the Italian way is to embrace changes in policy and society without actu- ally modifying anything—and, therefore, nothing will change. HDW has been carried out in accordance with the current European conservation mandates e. This approach to HDW does not reflect the whole of Europe; every country is culturally different and has embraced this discipline in its own way.

Conclusions Similar to the impediments highlighted by Decker, Brown and Mattfeld , HDW in Italy and in Europe is struggling due to a lack of biological studies that incorporate humans, recognition as a field, and acceptance by managers of social science studies. While advances have been made, with sporadic inclusion of humans in biophysical projects, HDW is still not a recognized discipline in Europe.

Ironically, in some European countries e. After the completion of interviews in a report or in a disserta- tion there is generally no follow up, and research therefore remains a one-shot case study e. The lack of implementation of HDW findings frustrates participants who have been consulted about wildlife issues and yet are unable to influence the decision-making process.

It is encouraging that HDW has reached Europe. Since HDW is still a young field, there are plenty of research possibilities and capacity for the discipline to take root in Europe if properly planned. The establishment of HDW in academia can provide a unique opportunity to integrate social science in wildlife management and to open up these possibilities to research. Glikman] at 04 October The Italian case study highlighted the difficulties in conducting bibliometric analy- sis for the whole of Europe. Constraints encountered included gray literature, a lack of common HDW terminology, and studies written in a variety of languages.

A European review could be possible only with the collaboration of HDW authors across the continent. Reference Andersson T. Attitudes to the wolf in Sweden— An interview study. Statens Naturvardsverk, Stockholm, Sweden, 28 pp. Arbeiderblad, N. Namdal Arbeider- blad, , 5 in Norwegian. Bath, A. Human dimensions in wolf management in Croatia: Understanding attitudes and beliefs of residents in Gorski Kotar, Lika and Dalmatia toward wolves and wolf management.

Retrieved from www. Acta Zoologica Fennica, , — Bjerke, T. En samfunnsfaglig kunnskapsoversikt. The hunter. A review of social scientific research. Holdninger i tre Hedmarkskommuner til ulven.


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Long-distance dispersal of a rescued wolf from the northern Apennines to the western Alps. Journal of Wildlife Management, 73 8 , — Dahle, L. Attitudes towards bears, wolverines and wolves in Norway. Haldningar til og betalningsvillighet for bjorn, jerv og ulv i Noreg. Fauna Oslo , 43, — in Norwigean. Davey, G.

Self-reported fears to common indigenous animals in an adult UK population: The role of disgust sensitivity. British Journal of Psychology, 85, — Society and Animals, 2, 17— Glikman] at 04 October Decker, D. Integrating social science into wildlife man- agement: barriers and limitations. Miller, R. Brown Eds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Decker, D. Human dimensions of wildlife management in North America. From client to stakeholders: A philosophical shift for fish and wildlife management. Human Dimension of Wildlife, 1, 10— Enserink, M. The carnivore comeback. Science, , — Ericsson, G.