Social Media Retrieval (Computer Communications and Networks)
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ACM, [ 18 ] , we will look at how small-world phenomenon is unwittingly being exhibited in the real world. The study focused on several algorithms. The degree distribution, path length distribution, component size, clustering coefficient, degeneracy, friend of friends, degree assortativity, login correlation, and the effects of age, gender and country of origin on friendships.
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Peer-To-Peer P2P networks are distributed systems that lack any hierarchical organization or centralized control. Peers form self-organizing networks that are overlayed on the Internet Protocol IP networks, offering a mix of various features such as robust wide-area routing architecture, efficient search of data items, selection of nearby peers, redundant storage, permanence, hierarchical naming, trust and authentication, anonymity, massive scalability and fault tolerance.
These systems go beyond services offered by client-server systems by having symmetry in roles where a client may also be a server. It allows access to its resources by other systems and supports resource-sharing, which requires fault-tolerance, self-organization and massive scalability properties. Unlike Grid systems, P2P networks do not arise from the collaboration between established and connected groups of systems and without a more reliable set of resources to share.
The core operation in a P2P network is the efficient location of data items. In this chapter, we will look at two widely-known P2P networks, Chord and Freenet. Chord [ 3 ] is a distributed lookup protocol that addresses the problem of efficiently locating the node that stores a particular data item in a structured P2P application.
Given a key, it maps the key onto a node. Chord is designed to adapt efficiently as nodes join and leave the network dynamically. It operates as a network of identical nodes that collectively pool their storage space to store data files and cooperate to route requests to the most likely physical location of data.
The files are referred to in a location-independent manner, and are dynamically replicated in locations near requestors and deleted from locations where there is no interest. It is infeasible to discover the true origin or destination of a file passing through the network, and difficult for a node operator to be held responsible for the actual physical contents of her node.
This chapter is concerned with the study of networks where the edges denote a certain relationship between the end nodes. When the end nodes represent users, the edge attribute is called a user evaluation. We will look at the theories of structural balance and status, the conflict between these two. We will learn how trust and distrust propagate through the network. By looking into product reviews in Amazon. This perception involves the role played by status and similarity. Finally, using these insights, we will learn how to predict the sign of the links.
Cascades are described as periods during which individuals in a population exhibit herd-like behaviour because they are making decisions based on the actions of other individuals rather than relying on their own information about the problem. We will look at the two models of cascade: decision based models and probabilistic models.
We will learn what the optimal strategies are when there is a playoff between two incompatible competing systems, and also when bilinguality is allowed. We will also see some studies which observes cascading in real-world networks. While decision models looks at situations where cascade propagates due to the adoption of behaviour, probabilistic models do not require the consent of an individual and instead looks at the susceptibility of the individual to be part of the cascade. This model mainly looks at the spread of diseases.
Here, we will look at various concepts related to outbreak transmission. Finally, the chapter looks at hashtag cascades in Twitter, cascading of recommendations and the popularity of blogs in the Blogspace. Influence maximization is a NP-hard problem which involves finding k seed nodes among all the nodes in a directed network, such that activating them leads to the maximum expected number of activated nodes. Studies of these ideas on EachMovie and Epinions will also be covered. Outbreak detection is the task of detecting outbreaks in networks, where given a network and a dynamic process spreading over this network, we have to select a set of nodes to detect this process as effectively as possible.
Detecting contaminants in water networks, malicious software in computer networks, infected hosts in social networks, popular and controversial posts on online sites, are all instances of outbreak detection. This competition required the submission of algorithms that can find the points where a set number of sensors can be placed so as to detect outbreaks in the most efficient manner possible. In this chapter we will look at ways to determine whether or not a certain set of values follow a power law.
We will learn graph models that can exhibit power-law, mainly focusing on the preferential attachment model that has power-law degree distribution. We will then look at the rich-get-richer phenomenon and how this is prevalent in citation networks and population growth of cities. Finally, we will cover densification power laws and shrinking diameters which are properties observed from temporal social networks, which have given rise to the forest fire model. The graphs models we have discussed upto this point cater to specific network properties. In this chapter, we will discuss Kronecker graphs which are capable of generating a wide-array of properties.
Kronecker graphs are generated by successively multiplying an initiator graph. This chapter looks at the properties of these Kronecker graphs. Several techniques used to generate these SKGs will also be covered. However, SKGs are unable to generate the required power-law or lognormal distribution. We will then look at distance-dependent Kronecker graphs that enable searchability and several algorithms that can generate these Kronecker graphs. In this chapter we will look mainly at search engines. A search engine is an application which takes as input a search query and returns a list of relevant Webpages.
The analysis showed that people who reported using the most platforms 7 to 11 had more than three times the risk of depression and anxiety than people who used the fewest 0 to 2. The more the participants are addicted to social media, the less satisfied they are with life. According to a study released in by researchers from the University of Pittsburgh , the link between sleep disturbance and the use of social media was clear. It concluded that blue light had a part to play—and how often they logged on, rather than time spent on social media sites, was a higher predictor of disturbed sleep, suggesting "an obsessive 'checking'".
In a recent study, we have learned that people in the highest quartile for social media use per week report the most amount of sleep disturbance. The median number of minutes of social media use per day is 61 minutes. Lastly, we have learned that females are more inclined to experience high levels of sleep disturbance than males. Many teenagers suffer from sleep deprivation as they spend long hours at night on their phones, and this, in turn, could affect grades as they will be tired and unfocused in school.
Social media has generated a phenomenon known as " Facebook depression", which is a type of depression that affects adolescents who spend too much of their free time engaging with social media sites. In this study, almost 6, adolescent students were examined using the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale. Furthermore, this same 4. UK researchers used a data set of more than million Twitter messages to evaluate how collective mood changes over the course of 24 hours and across the seasons. The research team collected million anonymous Tweets from 33, time points over four years, to examine anger and sadness and compare them with fatigue.
The "research revealed strong circadian patterns for both positive and negative moods. Social media has allowed for mass cultural exchange and intercultural communication. As different cultures have different value systems, [ vague ] cultural themes, grammar, and world views, they also communicate differently. Social media has affected the way youth communicate, by introducing new forms of language.
Abbreviations have been introduced to cut down on the time it takes to respond online. The commonly known " LOL " has become globally recognized as the abbreviation for "laugh out loud" thanks to social media. Another trend that influences the way youth communicates is through the use of hashtags. With the introduction of social media platforms such as Twitter , Facebook and Instagram , the hashtag was created to easily organize and search for information. Hashtags can be used when people want to advocate for a movement, store content or tweets from a movement for future use, and allow other social media users to contribute to a discussion about a certain movement by using existing hashtags.
Using hashtags as a way to advocate for something online makes it easier and more accessible for more people to acknowledge it around the world. Because of these changes in linguistics and communication etiquette, researchers of media semiotics [ who? Social media has offered a new platform for peer pressure with both positive and negative communication. From Facebook comments to likes on Instagram, how the youth communicate and what is socially acceptable is now heavily based on social media.
The American Academy of Pediatrics has also shown that bullying, the making of non-inclusive friend groups, and sexual experimentation have increased situations related to cyberbullying, issues with privacy, and the act of sending sexual images or messages to someone's mobile device. On the other hand, social media also benefits the youth and how they communicate.
Criticisms of social media range from criticisms of the ease of use of specific platforms and their capabilities, disparity of information available, issues with trustworthiness and reliability of information presented,  the impact of social media use on an individual's concentration,  ownership of media content, and the meaning of interactions created by social media. Although some social media platforms offer users the opportunity to cross-post simultaneously, some social network platforms have been criticized for poor interoperability between platforms, which leads to the creation of information silos, viz.
There has been a dramatic decrease in face-to-face interactions as more and more social media platforms have been introduced with the threat of cyber-bullying and online sexual predators being more prevalent. Twitter is increasingly a target of heavy activity of marketers. Their actions, focused on gaining massive numbers of followers, include use of advanced scripts and manipulation techniques that distort the prime idea of social media by abusing human trustfulness.
Under these rules, the only way to intellectually prevail is by infinite filibustering. For example, the phenomenon " Human flesh search engine " in Asia raised the discussion of "private-law" brought by social network platform. She critically describes six social media platforms. One of her findings is the way Facebook had been successful in framing the term 'sharing' in such a way that third party use of user data is neglected in favor of intra-user connectedness.
Essena O'Neill attracted international coverage when she explicitly left social media. There has been speculation [ by whom? This trust can be exploited by marketers, who can utilize consumer-created content about brands and products to influence public perceptions. Evgeny Morozov , a — Yahoo fellow at Georgetown University , contended that information uploaded to Twitter may have little relevance to the masses of people who do not use Twitter. All other biases are present as well: in a country like Iran it's mostly pro-Western, technology-friendly and iPod-carrying young people who are the natural and most frequent users of Twitter.
They are a tiny and, most important, extremely untypical segment of the Iranian population the number of Twitter users in Iran — a country of more than seventy million people — was estimated at less than twenty thousand before the protests. In contrast, in the United States where Twitter originated , the social network had million accounts as of [update].
Professor Matthew Auer of Bates College casts doubt on the conventional wisdom that social media are open and participatory. He also speculates on the emergence of "anti-social media" used as "instruments of pure control. On April 10, , in a hearing held in response to revelations of data harvesting by Cambridge Analytica , Mark Zuckerberg, the Facebook chief executive, faced questions from senators on a variety of issues, from privacy to the company's business model and the company's mishandling of data.
This was Mr. Lawmakers grilled the year-old executive on the proliferation of so-called fake news on Facebook, Russian interference during the presidential election and censorship of conservative media. For Malcolm Gladwell , the role of social media, such as Twitter and Facebook, in revolutions and protests is overstated. On the other hand, it is harder for that expression to have an impact.
Activism and especially high-risk activism involves strong-tie relationships, hierarchies, coordination, motivation, exposing oneself to high risks, making sacrifices. Disputing Gladwell's theory, in the study "Perceptions of Social Media for Politics: Testing the Slacktivism Hypothesis," Kwak and colleagues conducted a survey which found that people who are politically expressive on social media are also more likely to participate in offline political activity. Social media content is generated through social media interactions done by the users through the site.
There has always been a huge debate on the ownership of the content on social media platforms because it is generated by the users and hosted by the company. Added to this is the danger to security of information, which can be leaked to third parties with economic interests in the platform, or parasites who comb the data for their own databases.
Privacy rights advocates warn users on social media about the collection of their personal data. Some information is captured without the user's knowledge or consent through electronic tracking and third party applications. Data may also be collected for law enforcement and governmental purposes,  by social media intelligence using data mining techniques. When information is shared on social media, that information is no longer private.
There have been many cases in which young persons especially, share personal information, which can attract predators. It is very important to monitor what you share, and to be aware of who you could potentially be sharing that information with. Teens especially share significantly more information on the internet now than they have in the past. Teens are much more likely to share their personal information, such as email address, phone number, and school names.
There are arguments that "privacy is dead" and that with social media growing more and more, some heavy social media users appear to have become quite unconcerned with privacy. Others argue, however, that people are still very concerned about their privacy, but are being ignored by the companies running these social networks, who can sometimes make a profit off of sharing someone's personal information. There is also a disconnect between social media user's words and their actions.
Studies suggest that surveys show that people want to keep their lives private, but their actions on social media suggest otherwise.
List of social networking websites
Another factor is ignorance of how accessible social media posts are. Some social media users who have been criticized for inappropriate comments stated that they did not realize that anyone outside their circle of friends would read their post; in fact, on some social media sites, unless a user selects higher privacy settings, their content is shared with a wide audience.
According to a article diving into the topic of sharing privately and the effect social media has on expectations of privacy, "1. Much of the privacy concerns individuals face stem from their own posts on a form of social network. Users have the choice to share voluntarily, and has been ingrained into society as routine and normative. Social media is a snapshot of our lives; a community we have created on the behaviors of sharing, posting, liking, and communicating. Sharing has become a phenomenon which social media and networks have uprooted and introduced to the world.
People desire privacy in some shape or form, yet also contribute to social media, which makes it difficult to maintain privacy. According to the wall street journal published on February 17, According to the UK law, Facebook did not protect certain aspects of the user data. The commercial development of social media has been criticized as the actions of consumers in these settings has become increasingly value-creating, for example when consumers contribute to the marketing and branding of specific products by posting positive reviews.
As such, value-creating activities also increase the value of a specific product, which could, according to the marketing professors Bernad Cova and Daniele Dalli, lead to what they refer to as "double exploitation". As social media usage has become increasingly widespread, social media has to a large extent come to be subjected to commercialization by marketing companies and advertising agencies.
As one of the biggest preoccupations among adolescents is social media usage, researchers have begun using the term "F. The disorder, although not classified in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 or by the World Health Organization, has been the subject of several studies focusing on the negative effects on the psyche.
One German study, published in , investigated a correlation between extensive use of the social networking site and narcissism; the results were published in the journal PLoS One. According to the findings: "FAD was significantly positively related to the personality trait narcissism and to negative mental health variables depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms.
Turning off notifications temporary or long-term is one solution that is deemed beneficial in attempts to lessen social media addiction by resolving issues of distraction, for those who struggle with the habit of constantly refreshing social media platforms and checking for new notifications. Having social media in the classroom was a controversial topic in the s. Many parents and educators have been fearful of the repercussions of having social media in the classroom.
As result, cell phones have been banned from some classrooms, and some schools have blocked many popular social media websites. Many schools have realized that they need to loosen restrictions, teach digital citizenship skills, and even incorporate these tools into classrooms. Some schools permit students to use smartphones or tablet computers in class, as long as the students are using these devices for academic purposes, such as doing research. Using Facebook in class allows for integration of multimodal content such as student-created photographs and video and URLs to other texts, in a platform that many students are already familiar with.
Twitter can be used to enhance communication building and critical thinking and it provides students with an informal " back channel " , and extend discussion outside of class time. Social media often features in political struggles to control public perception and online activity. In some countries, Internet police or secret police monitor or control citizens' use of social media. For example, in some social media was banned in Turkey after the Taksim Gezi Park protests.
Both Twitter and YouTube were temporarily suspended in the country by a court's decision. The TİB was also given the authority to block access to specific websites without the need for a court order. In July of that same year, in response to WikiLeaks ' release of a secret suppression order made by the Victorian Supreme Court , media lawyers were quoted in the Australian media to the effect that "anyone who tweets a link to the Wikileaks report, posts it on Facebook, or shares it in any way online could also face charges". Deplatforming is a form of Internet censorship in which controversial speakers or speech are suspended, banned, or otherwise shut down by social media platforms and other service providers that normally provide a venue for free expression.
If you rely on someone else's platform to express unpopular ideas, especially ideas on the right, you're now at risk.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Internet services for sharing personal information and ideas. Main article: Software patent. Main article: Social media use by businesses. Main article: Social media mining. See also: Social impact of YouTube , Use of social media in the Wisconsin protests , and Social media and political communication in the United States. Main article: Social media use in politics. This article reads like a press release or a news article or is largely based on routine coverage or sensationalism.
Please expand this article with properly sourced content to meet Wikipedia's quality standards , event notability guideline , or encyclopedic content policy. June Main article: Social media use in hiring. Main article: Social media marketing. Main article: Social media as a news source. Main articles: Use of social media in education and Social media in education.
Main article: Internet censorship.
Social Media Retrieval by Naeem Ramzan (ebook)
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