Belleville-Barcelona (German Edition)
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Therefore the reserve, resilience, and protective factors professional interest area, established under the auspices of the Alzheimer's Association, established a whitepaper workgroup to develop consensus definitions for cognitive reserve, brain reserve, and brain maintenance. The workgroup also evaluated measures that have been used to implement these concepts in research settings and developed guidelines for research that explores or utilizes these concepts.
The workgroup hopes that this whitepaper will form a reference point for researchers in this area and facilitate research by supplying a common language. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. After the fall of Saigon at the close of the Vietnam War , the ethnic Chinese boat people from Vietnam were resettled in France and Germany in the late s and s and began settling extensively in Paris's Chinatown, immensely revitalising the area during that time.
Paris's Chinatown currently has a vibrant Southeast Asian ethnic Chinese character, while its newer counterpart in Belleville largely consists of fairly recent Mainland Chinese.
Chinatowns in Europe
Although Mainland China was carved into several Western spheres of influence , the country as a whole was not a colony of a foreign maritime power. Nevertheless, many mainland Chinese, legal and undocumented immigrants, have especially contributed to the development of Chinese communities in Europe, including the currently nascent Chinatown in the Esquilino district of Rome, Italy.
There has been new immigration from the Fujian and Zhejiang provinces of China, many of whom are illegal immigrants who work in the unskilled service industries—especially in restaurants and garment sweatshops—of Europe. The only "official" Chinatown recognized by the Belgian government as Chinatown on the tourist guide maps and books of Belgium is Van Wesenbekestraat in Antwerp , Flanders. It consists of many shops, supermarkets, restaurants, and a bakery as well as a little Chinese temple.
The Chinese community in France was estimated to count , persons in and , persons in Paris has several Asian neighborhoods French : quartiers asiatiques , the largest being located in the 13th arrondissement 13th district. The area was originally an ethnic Vietnamese district , when Vietnamese refugees arrived in the area in the s following the Vietnam War.
Later waves of immigrants included ethnic Chinese from Indochina, Laotians and Cambodians, who also fled their countries following their communist takeovers.
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Roughly 50, people live in the district, with a majority being Chinese, and significant Vietnamese and Laotian populations. Since the s, luxury goods shops and restaurants settled as well in the La Madeleine-Opera district, where the Japanese quarter of Paris is now located around rue Sainte-Anne, and in the Quartier Latin near place Maubert, where some Vietnamese restaurants can still be found. Another Chinatown area has settled in Belleville , Paris, which was recently named one of the most unique neighborhoods in the world as a result of the heavy Asian influence in the district.
The important Chinese community of Lille is disseminated in the city, but some Asiatic shops are gathered on rue Jules Guesde, in the cosmopolitan district of Wazemmes. A small Chinatown is as well located in the Belfort district in Toulouse, mainly around rue Denfert Rochereau. Berlin , the capital of Germany , has no established Chinatowns, but many chinese restaurants can be found in the area around Kantstrasse of Charlottenburg in the West dubbed Kantonstrasse.
Hamburg , Germany's second largest city and its major port, has very close ties to China and Asia in general. Until the s, it had the Chinesenviertel Chinatown within its St. Pauli district, that is being re-established since the s. The city hosts the biennial high-level conference Hamburg Summit: China meets Europe and also has a major Chinese consulate at Elbchaussee in Othmarschen since Shanghai is a sister city of Hamburg.
Thessaloniki , Greece's second largest city, has seen an influx of Chinese primarily from the Yunnan province since Most of the residents speak Mandarin and are primarily involved in the city's wholesale trade of goods. The country has had a very small Chinese population since World War II , but most of the current population has arrived since the s.
Over , Chinese are thought to be living in Italy according to statistics. During the Second World War the silk products were replaced by leather belts more useful for the soldiers involved in the war. In the s the community diversified its activities opening market stores, food stores and other shops.
The Italian term for Chinatown is quartiere cinese but Chinatown is also used. The term "Chinatown" or "Chinese buurt" is used in the Dutch language. The first Chinese people settled in the Katendrecht district around A decade later the Chinese community at Katendrecht consisted of around people, which made it the largest Chinese community in the Netherlands. After a large decline of people of Chinese origin in the Katendrecht area, more and more Chinese people moved to the West-Kruiskade area near the city center.
Since the '80s this became the primary Chinatown of Rotterdam and started to attract Chinese people from smaller Dutch cities, like Eindhoven and Deventer. The 2nd largest Chinatown is located near the famed De Wallen red light district of Amsterdam. This Chinatown, located on the Zeedijk and the Geldersekade, was formed in the early 20th century and revitalised in the s.
The street signs in this neighbourhood are in Dutch and Chinese. Amsterdam's Chinatown also has the first and biggest Chinese-style Buddhist temple in the Netherlands. The 3rd largest Chinatown is in the city of The Hague. It bounced back from the crisis, when it was declining, the early community was said to have stores and ethnic Chinese inhabitants at its peak.
Portugal 's other Chinatowns are located in Lisbon , around Martim Moniz, mostly in the form of shopping centres and Porto Alto also has a Chinatown.
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Some early Chinese immigrants to Portugal came from the former Portuguese territory of Macau , when it was returned to Mainland Chinese control in , while others came from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Many Chinese also came from Brazil to Portugal. While there has been Chinese immigration to Spain , it has not been as much as in other European countries, such as France, Germany, and the United Kingdom.
There are about , Chinese in Spain. Most Chinese-Spanish residents are people whose ancestors were coolies from mainland China.
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In Spain, Chinese immigrants tend not to form separate neighborhoods the quintessential image of a Chinatown but live in areas mixed with other immigrants. However, in some places, Chinese immigration is enough to give a Chinese color to some streets. The residents have been poor Spaniards and the area is marked by its prostitution , to the extent that any prostitution district of any Spanish city may be known as barrio chino , regardless of any Chinese presence, though the term does not imply a population of Chinese residents.
The term came from an article whose author compared the state of the area with the popular image of foreign Chinatowns. Barcelona has another Chinese area around Calle Trafalgar and the surrounding streets. After the Spanish Miracle , Spain started receiving more Chinese immigrants, some of whom may have settled in the cheap Barrio Chino. As a result of the gentrification policy exemplified by the Summer Olympics , the area is being rebuilt as a chic neighborhood, and the more neutral name of El Raval is preferred. Barrios Chinos are also pan-Asian areas. Chinese people in the UK are relatively dispersed, and do not form ethnic enclaves as in many other countries, although most are to be found in large cities, several of which have Chinatowns, and the South-East.
The largest Chinatown is in central London in the Soho area, established in the s and s. Soho is the main Chinatown currently but not the original Chinatown, which was located near the docks along the Thames as the Chinese arrived from Canton , which was the major international port of China in the early 18th century. Opium could not be legally traded in China proper initially and opium was inspected and traded in London by the Keswicks and the Taipans.
Silk and porcelain , as well as tea were loaded here, where a Chinese community thrived near Canton Street in the Docklands. London's current Chinatown in Soho is mainly commercially planned in the s with many Chinese restaurants and businesses to detract from the sex trade in Soho.
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There are plans to re-enact London's original Chinese district in Canary Wharf and the Docklands in Limehouse as part of the wider regeneration of East London to attract Chinese tourists. This area was bombed out, as with much of London, during the Blitz in the Second World War causing a relocation of the few ethnic Chinese who had lived there to other areas.
The Hakkas could not afford the rents from the Cantonese landlords, and moved out to Croydon where rents were very much cheaper to start businesses. As a result, other Chinese-run businesses can be found far away from central London, such as suburban Croydon. Many rich Chinese in London in the professional services industry live in Canary Wharf. The Beijingers live near the Chinese Embassy at Marylebone , and Fitzrovia has been revitalized to cash in on their condo purchasing power. The Government of Singapore owns the entire stretch of hotels around Cromwell Road , and most of the tenants in the Imperial College area in South Kensington are from Singapore.
In the s to s, the humbler Chinese from ex-colonies lived near Portobello Road which has now been gentrified into a hipster market, and exclusive enclave. Very few Singaporeans settle in the United Kingdom as they are not used to the cold weather, as Singapore has a tropical climate.